Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

HIV AIDS

Dr. Ninad Jhala


National Evaluator - UNAIDS
Consultant & Trainer WHO & UNICEF

KNOW AIDS FOR NO AIDS

HIV - AIDS

H- HUMAN

I - IMMUNO DEFICIENCY

V - VIRUS


A - ACQUIRED

I - IMMUNO

D- DEFICIENCY

S- SYNDROME


The difference between HIV and
AIDS
HIV causes AIDS
HIV is a virus and AIDS is a disease
AIDSdeficiency in the bodys defense
mechanism or immune system
AIDS is acquired, not hereditary
HIV develops into AIDS depending on the
bodys defence mechanism

WHAT IS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM?
Immune system defends the body
WBCs are the most important part of this
system
WBCs fight and destroy bacteria, viruses and
fungi that may enter the body

How does HIV weaken the
immune system?
HIV enters the body
WBCs are attacked by HIV
The virus multiplies inside WBCs and infects
other WBCs
Infected WBCs are eventually destroyed
Reduction in total count of WBCs
Result greatly reduced immunity

Does HIV-positive mean a person
has AIDS?

No
A person infected with HIV has AIDS when:
1. Their immune system is totally destroyed.
2. They suffer from many opportunistic infections.
Transmission of HIV
HIV is transmitted by
Direct contact with infected blood
Sexual contact: oral, anal, or vaginal
Direct contact with semen or vaginal and
cervical secretions
HIV-infected mothers to infants during
pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding

Routes of HIV Transmission
BODY FLUIDS NOT CONTAINING HIV

Following body fluids do not contain HIV
if not contaminated with blood.
Saliva
Tears
Sweat
Urine
Stool
High Risk Groups
Female Sex Workers
Men Having Sex With Men (MSM)
Injecting Drug Users


Bridge Population
Clients of sex workers
Partners of IDUs
Migrant / mobile populations
Truck drivers


General Population
Married women
Babies and Children
Youth
Men

Effect of Bridge Populations on HIV
General Population
Married women
Babies and Children
Youth
Men

High-risk Populations
Sex Workers
Trafficked women
Men who have sex with men
Needle sharing drug users


Bridge Populations
Clients of sex workers
Partners of IDUs
Migrant / mobile populations
Truck drivers
Population in conflict
DIAGNOSIS
Blood Tests: Available free at Govt. Hospitals
Window Period (6 weeks 6 months)
Test is negative in initial period
PRE-REQUISITES FOR HIV TESTING
Pre-test counselling
Informed consent
Maintain confidentiality
Avoid unnecessary testing

Prevention of
HIV Transmission
Public health strategies to prevent HIV
transmission
Screen all blood and blood products
Follow universal precautions
Educate in safer sex practices
Identify and treat STIs/other infections
Provide referral for treatment of drug dependence
Apply the comprehensive PPTCT approach to
prevent vertical transmission of HIV
Factors that Put Youth at Risk
Early age at first sexual intercourse
Risk-taking behaviors as part of the transition to
adulthood
A belief of being invulnerable (it cannot happen to
me)
Boys feeling pressure to prove their manhood
Generally low levels of condom use
Tendency of sexually active youth to have multiple
sexual partners
Vulnerability to sexual coercion and abuse
Cont: Factors that Put Youth at
Risk
Use of sex to ease loneliness, boost self-esteem,
and gain respect

Lack of skill in negotiating sexual decisions

Exchange of sex for basic needs such as school
fees, clothes, food, or shelter

High prevalence of STIs, which increase the
likelihood of acquiring and transmitting HIV

Improper treatment of STIs (or no treatment at all)

Experimentation with alcohol and drugs, which are
associated with high-risk sexual behavior
Cont: Factors that Put Youth at Risk
Parents, adults - hesitant or ill-prepared to talk
to youth about sex.

Peers and media are main source of
information (friends may be equally
uninformed and the media tend to promote
sexuality without a focus on responsibility and
safety).

Thus lack the information they need to make
safe, healthy decisions.
Can HIV be cured?
NO! Drugs are available to manage the
disease, but HIV stays in the body forever!

PROBLEM: RNA viruses mutate at a very
high rate. A person with HIV under control
can evolve resistance to the drug treatments.
Some infected persons have several strains of
HIV in their bodies.
ART- Antiretroviral therapy
Development of ART has dramatically reduced
HIV associated morbidity and mortality
Very high levels of adherence are a pre-
requisite for a successful immunological
response
Low adherence increases the risk of treatment
failure and disease progression

Take Home Message
Abstinence
Monogamous Relationship
Protected Sex
Sterile needles
Use of safe blood
ONLY ONE PERSON IN
THE WORLD
CAN PROTECT YOU FROM
HIV/AIDS
THATS YOU