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HYDRAULICS

CHAPTER 2

STEADY FLOW IN PIPE

Teaching Planning

Study

Week

Course Content

Delivery

Mode

Level of

Complexity

Psbl.

Asmt.

1

Introduction

Introduction to hydraulics, importance of

studying hydraulics and its application for future.

Revision summary of fluid mechanics.

Lecture;

C4:Analysis

A3

Assignment/Quiz

2-3

Steady Flow in Pipes

Steady flow in uniform pipe conditions, Friction

factor, Colebrook-White equation, Local losses in

pipe

Lecture;

Laboratory

C4:Analysis

A3

Assignment/Test

/

Examination/Lab

4-5

Analysis of Steady Flow in Pipelines

Incompressible flow through pipe, Series Parallel

and Branched Pipelines, Pipe Network Analysis

Lecture;

Laboratory

C4:Analysis

A3

Assignment/Test

/

Examination/Lab

CHAPTER 2: CONTENT

2-1 STEADY FLOW IN UNIFORM PIPE

2-2 FRICTION FACTORS, COLEBROOK WHITE

EQUATION

{LECTURE NOTES EAT 259 (CHAPTER 2) PART 1}

2-3 LOCAL LOSSES IN PIPE (WEEK 3)

Textbook : Basic Hydraulics (Hamidon et.al)

2.1 Steady Flow in Uniform Pipe

There are many practical flow situations where the cross

section is not circular.

An example is the shell-and-tube heat exchanger shown in

Fig. 2-1, in which, for example, hot water from an industrial

process may be flowing to the right inside the inner tube.

2.1.1 Velocity Profiles

Figure 2-2 shows the general shape of the velocity profiles

for laminar and turbulent flow.

The velocity at the pipe wall is zero.

The local velocity increases rapidly over a short distance

from the wall.

2.1.2 Velocity Profiles for Laminar Flow

Because of the regularity of the velocity profile in laminar

flow, we can define an equation for the local velocity at

any point within the flow path.

If we call the local velocity U at a radius r, the maximum

radius r

o

and the average velocity v, then

Example 2.1

It was found that the Reynolds number is 708 when glycerine

at 25C flows with an average flow velocity of 3.6 m/s in a

pipe having a 150-mm inside diameter. Thus the flow is

laminar. Compute points on the velocity profile from the pipe

wall to the centerline of the pipe in increments of 15 mm.

Plot the data for the local velocity U versus the radius r. Also

show the average velocity on the plot.

Example 2.1 (Solution)

We can use Eq. (21) to compute U. First we compute the

maximum radius r

o

:

At r = 75 mm = r

o

at the pipe wall, r/r

o

= 1, and U = 0 from Eq.

(21). This is consistent with the observation that the velocity

of a fluid at a solid boundary is equal to the velocity of that

boundary.

At r = 60 mm,

Example 2.1 (Solution)

Using a similar technique, we can compute the following

values:

Notice that the local velocity at the middle of the pipe is 2.0

times the average velocity. Figure 2-3 shows the plot of U

versus r.

Example 2.1 (Solution)

Example 2.2

Compute the radius at which the local velocity U would equal

the average velocity v for laminar flow.

For the data from Example Problem 2.1, the local velocity is

equal to the average velocity 3.6 m/s at

2.1.3 Velocity Profiles for Turbulent Flow

The velocity profile for turbulent flow is far different from

the parabolic distribution for laminar flow.

As shown in Fig. 2-4, the fluid velocity near the wall of the

pipe changes rapidly from zero at the wall to a nearly

uniform velocity distribution throughout the bulk of the

cross section.

2.1.3 Velocity Profiles for Turbulent Flow

The governing equation is

An alternate form of this equation can be developed by

defining the distance from the wall of the pipe as

y = r

o

- r.

Then, the argument of the logarithm term becomes

2.1.3 Velocity Profiles for Turbulent Flow

Equation (22) is then

The maximum velocity occurs at the center of the pipe and

its value can be computed from (r = 0 or y = r

o

),

Figure 2-5 compares the velocity profiles for laminar flow

and for turbulent flow at a variety of Reynolds numbers.

2.1.3 Velocity Profiles for Turbulent Flow

Example 2-3

For the data given below, compute the expected maximum

velocity of flow, and compute several points on the velocity

profile. Plot the velocity versus the distance fro the pipe wall.

Example 2-3 (Solution)

Now, from Eq. (94), we see that the maximum velocity of

flow is

Equation (23) can be used to determine the points on the

velocity profile. We know that the velocity equals zero at the

pipe wall (y = 0). Also, the rate of change of velocity with

position is greater near the wall than near the center of the

pipe.

Example 2-3 (Solution)

Therefore, increments of 0.5 mm will be used from y = 0.5 to

y = 2.5 mm. Then, increments of 2.5 mm will be used up to y

= 10 mm. Finally, increments of 5.0 mm will provide sufficient

definition of the profile near the center of the pipe. At y = 1.0

m and r

o

= 25 mm,

Example 2-3 (Solution)

Using similar calculations, we can compute the following

values:

Figure 2-6 is the plot of y versus velocity in the form in which

the velocity profile is normally shown. Because the plot is

symmetrical, only one-half of the profile is shown.

Example 2-3 (Solution)

2.2 Energy Losses Due to Friction

As the water flows from a faucet at a very low velocity, the

flow appears to be smooth and steady. The stream has a

fairly uniform diameter and there is little or no evidence of

mixing of the various parts of the stream. This is called

laminar flow.

When the faucet is nearly fully open, the water has a

rather high velocity. The elements of fluid appear to be

mixing chaotically within the stream. This is a general

description of turbulent flow.

Figure 2-7 shows one way of visualizing laminar flow in a

circular pipe.

Concentric rings of fluid are flowing in a straight, smooth

path.

There is little or no mixing of the fluid across the

boundaries of each layer as the fluid flows along in the

pipe.

Figure 2-8 shows a transparent fluid such as water flowing

in a clear glass tube.

When a stream of a dark fluid such as a dye is injected into

the flow, the stream remains intact as long as the flow

remains laminar.

The dye stream will not mix with the bulk of the fluid.

Figure 2-9 shows that when a dye stream is introduced into

turbulent flow, it immediately dissipates throughout the

primary fluid.

Figure 2-10 shows a reservoir discharging fluid into an

open channel that eventually allows the stream to fall into

a lower pool.

2.2.1 Reynolds Number

Osborne Reynolds was the first to demonstrate that

laminar or turbulent flow can be predicted if the

magnitude of a dimensionless number, now called the

Reynolds number is known.

The following equation shows the basic definition of the

Reynolds number, N

R

:

where fluid density , fluid viscosity v, pipe diameter D,

and average velocity of flow v.

Table 2.1 lists the required units in both the SI metric unit

system and the U.S. Customary unit system.

Converting to these standard units prior to entering data

into the calculation for is recommended.

We can demonstrate that the Reynolds number is

dimensionless by substituting standard SI units into

Eq. (25):

Because all units can be cancelled, N

R

is dimensionless.

The Reynolds number is the ratio of the inertia force on an

element of fluid to the viscous force.

The inertia force is developed from Newtons second law

of motion, F = ma.

2.2.2 Critical Reynolds Number

For practical applications in pipe flow we find that if the

Reynolds number for the flow is less than 2000, the flow

will be laminar.

If the Reynolds number is greater than 4000, the flow can

be assumed to be turbulent.

In the range of Reynolds numbers between 2000 and 4000,

it is impossible to predict which type of flow exists;

therefore this range is called the critical region.

We will assume the following:

Example 2-4

Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent if

glycerine at 25C flows in a pipe with a 150-mm inside

diameter. The average velocity of flow is 3.6 m/s.

We must first evaluate the Reynolds number using Eq. (2-5):

Example 2-4 (Solution)

We must first evaluate the Reynolds number using Eq. (2-5):

Because N

R

= 708, which is less than 2000, the flow is laminar.

Notice that each term was expressed in consistent SI units

before N

R

was evaluated.

Example 2-5

Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent if water

at 70C flows in a 1-in Type K copper tube with a flow rate of

285 L/min.

For a 1-in Type K copper tube, D=0.02527 m and A=5.017 x

104 m2 (from Appendix H). Then we have

Because the Reynolds number is greater than 4000, the flow

is turbulent.

Example 2-6

Determine the range of average velocity of flow for which the

flow would be in the critical region if SAE 10 oil at 15C is

flowing in a 2-in Schedule 40 steel pipe. The oil has a specific

gravity of 0.89.

The flow would be in the critical region if 2000<N

R

<4000.

First, we use the Reynolds number and solve for velocity:

Example 2-6 (Solution)

Then we find the values for n, D, and

Substituting these values into equation above, we get

For N

R

=2000, we have

For N

R

=4000, we have

Therefore, if 4.3<v<8.56 m/s, the flow will be in the critical

region.

2.2.3 Darcys Equation

In the general energy equation

the term h

L

is defined as the energy loss from the system.

Darcys equation shows that

2.2.4 Friction Loss in Laminar Flow

Because laminar flow is so regular and orderly, we can

derive a relationship between the energy loss and the

measurable parameters of the flow system.

This relationship is known as the HagenPoiseuille

equation:

The HagenPoiseuille equation is valid only for laminar

flow (N

R

< 2000).

2.2.4 Friction Loss in Laminar Flow

If the two relationships for h

L

are set equal to each other,

we can solve for the value of the friction factor:

As ,

Since ,

2.2.4 Friction Loss in Laminar Flow

In summary, the energy loss due to friction in laminar flow

can be calculated either from the HagenPoiseuille

equation,

or from Darcys equation,

where

Example 2-7

Determine the energy loss if glycerine at 25C

flows 30 m through a 150-mm-diameter pipe with an average

velocity of 4.0 m/s.

First, we must determine whether the flow is laminar or

turbulent by evaluating the Reynolds number:

From Appendix B, we find that for glycerin at 25C

Example 2-7 (Solution)

Because N

R

< 2000, the flow is laminar. Using Darcys

equation, we get

Notice that each term in each equation is expressed in the

units of the SI unit system. Therefore, the resulting units for h

L

are m or Nm/N. This means that 13.2 Nm of energy is lost by

each newton of the glycerine as it flows along the 30 m of

pipe.

2.2.5 Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow

For turbulent flow of fluids in circular pipes it is most convenient to

use Darcys equation to calculate the energy loss due to friction.

Turbulent flow is rather chaotic and is constantly varying.

For these reasons we must rely on experimental data to determine

the value of f.

Figure 2.11 illustrates pipe wall roughness (exaggerated) as the

height of the peaks of the surface irregularities.

Because the roughness is somewhat irregular, averaging techniques

are used to measure the overall roughness value.

For commercially available pipe and tubing, the design value

of the average wall roughness has been determined as

shown in Table 2.2.

These are only average values for new, clean pipe. Some

variation should be expected. After a pipe has been in

service for a time, the roughness could change due to the

formation of deposits on the wall or due to corrosion.

2.2.5 Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow

2.2.6 Moody Diagram

One of the most widely used methods for evaluating the

friction factor employs the Moody diagram shown in Fig.

2.12.

2.2.6 Moody Diagram

Several important observations can be made from these curves:

1. For a given Reynolds number of flow, as the relative roughness is

increased, the friction factor f decreases.

2. For a given relative roughness , the friction factor f decreases with

increasing Reynolds number until the zone of complete turbulence

is reached.

3. Within the zone of complete turbulence, the Reynolds number has

no effect on the friction factor.

4. As the relative roughness increases, the value of the Reynolds

number at which the zone of complete turbulence begins also

increases.

Figure 2.13 is a simplified sketch of Moodys diagram in

which the various zones are identified.

The laminar zone at the left has already been discussed.

At the right of the dashed line downward across the

diagram is the zone of complete turbulence.

Between the smooth pipes line and the line marking the

start of the complete turbulence zone is the transition

zone.

2.2.6 Moody Diagram

Check your ability to read the Moody diagram correctly

by verifying the following values for friction factors for

the given values of Reynolds number and relative

roughness, using Fig.2.11:

2.2.7 Use of the Moody Diagram

The Moody diagram is used to help determine the value

of the friction factor f for turbulent flow.

The value of the Reynolds number and the relative

roughness must be known.

Therefore, the basic data required are the pipe inside

diameter, the pipe material, the flow velocity, and the

kind of fluid and its temperature, from which the viscosity

can be found.

Example 2.8

Determine the friction factor f if water at 70C is flowing at

9.14 m/s in an uncoated ductile iron pipe having an inside

diameter of 25 mm.

The Reynolds number must first be evaluated to determine

whether the flow is laminar or turbulent:

Here D=0.025 m and v=4.11x10

7

m

2

/s. We now have

Example 2.8 (Solution)

Thus, the flow is turbulent. Now the relative roughness must

be evaluated. From Table 8.2 we find

= 2.4 x 10

4

m. Then, the relative roughness is

The final steps in the procedure are as follows:

1. Locate the Reynolds number on the abscissa of the Moody

diagram:

Example 2.8 (Solution)

2. Project vertically until the curve for D/ = 104 is

reached. Because 104 is so close to 100, that curve

can be used.

3. Project horizontally to the left, and read f = 0.038.

Example 2.9

If the flow velocity of water in Problem 2.8 was 0.14 m/s with

all other conditions being the same, determine the friction

factor f. Write

Then, from Fig. 2.11, f = 0.044. Notice that this is on the

curved portion of the curve D/ and that there is a significant

increase in the friction factor over that in Example Problem

2.8.

Example 2.10

Determine the friction factor f if ethyl alcohol at 25C is

flowing at 5.3 m/s in a standard 1.5-in Schedule 80 steel pipe.

Evaluating the Reynolds number, we use the equation

From Appendix B, = 787 kg/m

3

and =1.00 x 10

3

Pas.

Also, for a 11.2-in Schedule 80 pipe, D = 0.0381 m. Then we

have

Example 2-10 (Solution)

From Fig. 2.11,

f = 0.0225.

You must interpolate on both N

R

and D/ to determine this

value, and you should expect some variation. However, you

should be able to read the value of the friction factor f within

0.0005 in this portion of the graph.

Example 2.11

In a chemical processing plant, benzene at 50C (S.G. = 0.86)

must be delivered to point B with a pressure of 550 kPa. A

pump is located at point A 21 m below point B, and the two

points are connected by 240 m of plastic pipe having an inside

diameter of 50 mm. If the volume flow rate is 110 L/min,

calculate the required pressure at the outlet of the pump.

Example 2-11 (Solution)

The relation is

We find that because point B is higher than point A.

z

B

- z

A

= +21 m. The evaluation of the Reynolds number is the

first step. The type of flow, laminar or turbulent, must be

determined.

Example 2-11 (Solution)

For a 50-mm pipe, D = 0.050 m and A = 1.963 x 10

-3

m

2

.

Then, we have

We find that

Thus

Example 2-11 (Solution)

For turbulent flow, Darcys equation should be used:

From Table 2.2, roughness is 3.0 x 10

-7

m. Then

Thus,

Example 2-11 (Solution)

You should have the pressure as follows:

2.2.8 Equation for the Friction Factor

In the laminar flow zone, for values below 2000, f can be

found from Eq. (85),

The following equation, which allows the direct calculation of

the value of the friction factor for turbulent flow,

To calculate the value of the friction factor f when the

Reynolds number and relative roughness are known, use Eq.

(2-8) for laminar flow and Eq. (2-9) for turbulent flow.

Example 2.12

Compute the value for the friction factor if the Reynolds

number for the flow 1 x 10

5

is and the relative roughness is

2000.

Because this is in the turbulent zone, we use Eq. (2-9),

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