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Er.Amit Mahajan
A switched network consists of a series of interlinked
nodes,called switches.
They are capable of creating temporary connections between
two or more devices linked to the switch but not to each other.
Three methods of switching:

Circuit switching
Packet switching
Message switching
Circuit switching
It creates a direct physical connection between
two devices such as phones or computer.
It is mostly used at the physical layer to create
real circuits between source & destination.
Real circuits were designed for real-time

End End
system system

Circuit wide area network

In this fig the network has switches that
allow traffic from sources to destinations.
A source & destination can be a
computer,router,bridge,or any other
device that connects other networks.
Packet switching
For data communication,packet switching
networks were designed; data are
packetized and sent packet by packet.
The main difference between a circuit
switched & packet switched network is
that the links are shared,channelized
between different communication paths.
A link between switch 1 & 2 may carry
several packets at the the same time,each
sent by a different source & going to
different destinations.
Packet switching uses two approaches:
1. The datagram approach
2. The virtual circuit approach

The datagram approach is mostly used in the

network layer.
The virtual circuit approach is a data link
Message switching
In this no physical copper path is established in
advance between sender & receiver.
Instead, when the sender has a block of data to
be sent,it is stored in the first switching
office(i.e,router) & then forwarded later.
Each block is received in its entirety,inspected
for errors,& then transmitted.
With message switching, there is no limit on
block size,which means router must have disks
to buffer long blocks.
The standards are divided into parts.
The 802.1 standard gives an introduction
to the set of standards & defines the
interface primitives.
The 802.2 standard describes the upper
part of the data link layer.
The parts 802.3 through 802.5 describes
the 3 lan standards,the CSMA/CD,token
bus & token ring standards respectively.
Each standard covers the physical layer &
MAC sublayer protocol.
IEEE Standard 802.3
This standard is for a 1-persistant
CSMA/CD lan.
E.g: when a station wants to transmit,it
listen to the cable.if the cable is busy,the
station waits until it goes idle;otherwise it
transmits immediately. If two or more
stations simultaneously begin transmitting
on an idle cable,they will collide. All
colliding stations then terminate their
transmission,wait a random time,& repeat
the whole process all over again.
The real beginning of 802.3 was the
ALOHA system constructed to allow radio
Later,carrier sensing was added,& Xerox
PARC built a 2.94 Mbps CSMA/CD
system to connect over 100 personal
working stations on a 1-km cable. This
system was called ETHERNET.
THE Xerox ethernet was so successful
that Xerox,DEC,& intel drew up a standard
for a 10-Mbps ethernet.

This standard formed the basis for 802.3.

The published 802.3 standards differs from
the ethernet specification in that it describes a
whole family of 1-persistant CSMA/CD
systems,running at speeds from 1 to 10 Mbps
on various media.
802.3 Cabling
Four types of cabling are used.
10Base5 cabling,popularly called thick
ethernet. It resembles a yellow garden
hose,with markings every 2.5 metres to
show where the taps go.
Connections to it are generally made using
vampire taps in which a pin is carefully
forced halfway into the coaxial’s core.
The notation 10Base5 means that it
operates at 10 Mbps.
10Base2 or thin ethernet,which,in
contrast to the garden-hose-like thick
ethernet, bends easily.
Connections to it are made using industry
standards BNC connectors to form T
junctions,rather than using vampire taps.
Thin ethernet is much cheaper & easier to
install,but it can run for only 200 metres &
can handle only 30 machines per cable
Detecting cable breaks,bad taps,or loose
connectors can be a major problem.
For this reason,a pulse of known shape is
injected into the cable. If the pulse hits an
obstacle or the end of the cable,an echo
will be generated & sent back. By carefully
timing the intervel between sending the
pulse & receiving the echo,it is possible to
localize the origin of the echo.
This technique is called time domain
The problem associated with finding cable
breaks have driven systems toward a different
kind of wiring pattern,in which all stations have
a cable running to a central hub.
Usuallly,these wires are telephony company
twisted pairs,mostly used in buildings.
This scheme is called 10Base-T.

The 10Base-F cabling for 802.3 uses fiber

This is expensive due to the cost of the
connectors & terminators,but it has
excellent noise immunity.
NAME CABLE Max. Nodes/ Advantages
segment Seg.

10Base5 Thick 500 m 100 Good for

coax backbone

10Base2 Thin coax 200 m 30 Cheapest


10Base-T Twisted 100 m 1024 Easy

pair maintenance

10Base-F Fiber 2000 m 1024 Best b/w

optics buildings
802.3 MAC Sublayer Protocol
Bytes 7 1 2 or 6 2 or 6 2 0-1500 0-46 4

preamble Destination Source data pad checks

address address um

Start of frame Length

delimiter of data
Each frame starts with a preamble of 7
bytes,each contatining the bit pattern of
The frame contains two addresses,one for
the destinatin & one for the source.
The standard allows 2-bytes & 6-bytes
The high order bit of the destination
address is a 0 for ordinary addresses & 1
for group addresses.
Group addresses allow multi stations to
listen to a single address.
When a frame is sent to a group address,
all the stations in the group receive it.
Sending to a group of stations is called
The length field tells how many bytes are
pesent in the datd field,from a min of 0 to
max of 1500.
When a transceiver detects a collision,it
truncates the current frame,which means
that stray bits & piece of frame appear on
the cable all the time.

To make it easier to distinguish valid

frames from garbage,802.3 states that
valid frames must be atleast 64 bytes
long,from destination address to
If the data portion of a frame is less than
46 bytes,the pad field is used to fill out the
frame to the minimum size.
IEEE Standard 802.4: Token Bus
In this if there are n stations & it takes T sec to
send a frame,no frame will ever have to wait
more than nT sec to be sent.
Every body liked the conceptual idea of a ring
but did not like physical implementation because
a break in the ring cable would bring the whole
network down.
Ring is a poor fit to the linear topology of most
assembly lines.
This standard,802.4 descirbes a LAN called a
token bus.
Physically,the token bus is a linear or tree
shaped cable onto which the stations are
Logically,the stations are organized into a
ring,with each station knowing the address of
the stataion to its left & right.
When the logical ring is initialized,the highest
numbered station may send the first frame.
After it is done,it passes permission to its
immediately neighbor by sending neighbor a
special control frame called token.
Token Bus
Broad band
coaxial cable
1 2
7 1 0
4 Logical

13 11 7 19
This station
Direction of token
not currently
in the logical
The token propagates around the logical
ring,with only the token holder being
permitted to transmit frames. Since only
one station at a time holds the token,
collisions do not occur.
When a station passes the token,it sends
a token frame specifically addressed to its
logical neighbor in the ring.
For the physical layer,the token bus uses
the 75-ohms broadband coaxial cable
used for cable television.
The 802.4 frame format
1 1 1 2 or 2 or 0-8182 4 1
6 6
Destination address Source data Check
address sum

Start delimiter
preambl delimiter
IEEE Standard 802.5: Token Ring
A ring consists of a collection of ring
interfaces connected by point to point lines.
Each bit arriving at an interface is copied
into a 1-bit buffer & then copied out onto the
ring again.
While in the buffer,the bit can be inspected &
possibly modified before being written out.
This copying step introduces a 1-bit delay at
each interface.
Ring stations


Ring Network

In a token ring a special bit pattern, called

the token, circulates around the ring
whenever all stations are idle.
When a station wants to transmit a frame,
it is required to seize the token & remove it
from the ring before transmitting.
Ring interface
1 bit delay

To From To from
statio station statio statio
n n n

There are two operating modes,listen & transmit.

In listen mode,the input are simply copied to
In transmit mode,which is entered only after the
token has been seized,the interface breaks the
connection between input & output,entering its
own data onto the ring.
Comparison of 802.3 ‘Ethernet’ and 802.5
‘Token Ring’
Generally they have similar technology with similar
802.3 Ethernet – Advantages
Widely used at present. People are experienced in
using this technology.
Simple Protocol. New computers can be added with
having to bring the network down.
Almost zero delay at low load, there is no need to
wait for a token, you can transmit when ready.
Comparison of 802.3 ‘Ethernet’ and 802.5
‘Token Ring’
802.3 Ethernet – Disadvantages
The electronics is more complicated for
carrier sense and collision detection.
Ethernet is non-deterministic system
(possibility of repeated collisions). This
means that Ethernet is not suitable for
network applications that require guaranted
delivery times.
Poor performance at high loads as there can
be lots of collisions reducing the number of
messages that are successfully transmitted.
Comparison of 802.3 ‘Ethernet’ and 802.5
‘Token Ring’
802.5 Token Ring – Advantages
Token Ring uses point-to-point connections between ring
interfaces so that the electronic hardware can be fully
digital and simple. There is no need for collision detection.
Can use any medium,twisted pair is cheap and easy to
install but could equally use fiber optic if available.
Throughput excellent at high loads since there is no
possibility of collisions unlike 802.3.
Comparison of 802.3 ‘Ethernet’ and 802.5
‘Token Ring’
802.5 Token Ring – Disadvantages
Computers must wait for the token to arrive, therefore at
load, a computer is delayed before sending.
Each token ring has a monitor computer, to look after the
ring (i.e. remove damaged frames, handle lost frames
and lost tokens). This introduces a critical point of failure.
If the monitor computer failed, the remaining computers
would have to wait until it is replaced before being able to
 Behrouz A. Forouzan, Data Communications and
Networking, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing
Company Limited, 2004
 Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman and Mike Speciner,
Network Security: PRIVATE Communication in a PUBLIC
World, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, 2005
 http://standards.ieee.org/
 http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/802.1.html
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.1
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.2
 http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/802.2.html
 http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/
 http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/802.3.html
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.3
 http://www.winncom.com/glossary.aspx?term=3
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.4