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Personality &

Psychometric Testing




PERSONALITY
Traits view of personality: we are born with the
personality that we display through our behavior in
various situations e.g. shy, outgoing, tense, extroverted

The big five personality factors

Introversion extroversion
Consideration, agreeableness,
Conscientiousness, carefulness
Emotional stability, anxiety, neuroticism
Intelligence, inquiry, openness to experience


PERSONALITY TRAITS

The Prime-Five factors are:
Extraversion: Personality dimension describing
someone -sociable, gregarious and assertive
Agreeableness: Personality dimension that
describes someone who is good-natured,
cooperative and trusting




PERSONALITY TRAITS
Conscientiousness: Personality dimension that
describes someone who is responsible,
dependable, persistent, and organized
Emotional Stability: Personality dimension that
characterizes someone as calm, self-confident,
secure versus nervous, depressed, and insecure




Openness to Experience: A personality
dimension that characterizes someone in
terms of imaginativeness, artistry, sensitivity,
and intellectualism

Personality Traits


PERSONALITY TRAITS
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) : A test that
taps four characteristics and classifies people
into one of the sixteen personality types
3 Classification:
- E or I (extroverted or introverted)
- S or N (sensing or intuiting)
- T or F (thinking or feeling)
- P or J (perceiving or judging)

WHAT IS MBTI?
A personality inventory developed by Isabel
Myers and Katherine Briggs

Designed to make C.J. Jungs theory of
psychological types accessible and practical.

Internationally used (thirty-three translations).

Provides a four letter code for identifying type
dynamic patterns.

HOW MBTI HELPS?
Enhances personal understanding of interests

Clarifies personal choices & Enhances spiritual development

Focuses on positive behaviors and gifts & Identifies
communication styles

Encourages the valuing of differences

Enriches teaching and learning

Helps couples strengthen their relationship


MBTI IN ORGANIZATIONS
Team building

Leadership development

Career planning

Executive and management coaching

Organizational change efforts

MBTI IN ORGANIZATIONS
Improve communication
Better use of individuals talents
Identify process or decision making strengths
and blind spots
Improve teamwork
Facilitate change management
Assist with conflict resolution





= Extraverted thinking
with sensing
= Extraverted thinking
with intuition
= Introverted thinking
with sensing
= Introverted thinking
with intuition
= Extraverted feeling
with sensing
= Extraverted feeling
with intuition
= Introverted feeling
with sensing
= Introverted feeling
with intuition
16 Personality Types Under MBTI



= Extraverted sensing with
thinking
= Extraverted sensing with
feeling
= Introverted sensing with
thinking
= Introverted sensing with
feeling
= Extraverted intuition
with thinking
= Extraverted intuition
with feeling
= Introverted intuition
with thinking
= Introverted intuition
with feeling
16 Personality Types Under MBTI


PERSONALITY AS THE SELF

The term self has two meanings -
The self concept or self image:
Attitudes, feelings, perceptions and
evaluations of self as an object (Hall
and Lindzey, 1970)


PERSONALITY AS THE SELF

The second set of meanings relate to self
as a process - Psychological processes
which are executive functions

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES AS EXECUTIVE
FUNCTIONS
Processes by which an individual manages and
copes
Thinks, remembers, perceives and plans
Self-construct is a combination of self as an
object and self as a process



SELF CONCEPT: THE I AND ME

3 Self is the core of ones conscious
existence
3 Awareness of self is referred to as ones
Self-Concept
3 Self-concept: Persons self perception as a
physical, social and spiritual being
3 Since we have a self-concept, we recognize
ourselves as distinct human beings
SELF CONCEPT: THE I AND ME

Self concept would be impossible without the
capacity to think - cognition
Cognitions represent any knowledge, opinion
or belief about the environment, about oneself
or about ones behavior
Cognition plays a central role in social
perception and successful self-management

THE SELF CONCEPT: SELF ESTEEM


Self esteem
A belief about ones self worth based on an
overall self-evaluation

Feelings of self-esteem are shaped by our
circumstances and how others treat us


THE SELF CONCEPT: SELF EFFICACY

Self-efficacy is a persons belief about his or her
chances of successfully accomplishing a specific
task
Self-efficacy arises from the gradual
acquisition of complex cognitive, social,
linguistic and / or physical skills through
experience
THE SELF CONCEPT: SELF EFFICACY

Childhood experiences have a powerful
effect on a persons self-efficacy
The relationship between self-efficacy and
performance is a cyclical one




Efficacy refers to performance cycles
which can spiral upwards towards success
or downward toward failure
The Self Concept: Self Efficacy
THE SELF CONCEPT: SELF EFFICACY
Strong linkages found between high self
efficacy expectations and success in
Widely varied physical and mental tasks
Anxiety reduction
Addiction control
Pain tolerance
Illness recovery and
Avoidance of sea sickness in naval cadets

THE SELF CONCEPT: SELF EFFICACY

Chronically low self-efficacy is
associated with a condition called
Learned Helplessness, the severely
debilitating belief that one has no
control over ones environment


DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIALIZATION
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

The human personality is influenced by heredity,
environment, maturation, and learning
There are various physiological and
psychological stages that have contributed to
the development of human personality

DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIALIZATION
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
However, many modern psychologists are of the
opinion that personality development is a
continuous process and that the sequence
depends mainly on the learning opportunities
available


ADULT LIFE STAGES

Levinson believed that there was little
variability, say, a maximum of two to three
years in the four identifiable stable periods

ADULT LIFE STAGES

Stepping into the adult world - between the ages 22
to 28
Settling down - between the ages 33 to 40
Stepping into middle adulthood - between the ages
45 to 50
Culmination of middle adulthood - between the ages
55 to 60


HALLS MODEL ON CAREER STAGES

The first stage is the exploration stage
The new employee seeks an identity
Undergoes continuous self-examination and
role tryouts

HALLS MODEL ON CAREER STAGES

The second stage is the establishment stage
Where the employee begins to settle down and
Experience a need for intimacy



The third stage is the maintenance stage
Where the employee reaches a highly productive
plateau and
Feels the need to contribute something for the
next generation
Halls Model on Career Stages


HALLS MODEL ON CAREER STAGES

The last stage is the decline stage
Here the person experiences the need for
integrity or
The need to feel satisfied with ones career



FROM IMMATURITY TO MATURITY (ARGYRIS)

Argyris proposed that human personality
moves along a continuum from immaturity as
an infant to maturity as an adult
Subordinate position
Lack of self-awareness


FROM IMMATURITY TO MATURITY (ARGYRIS)

Immaturity characteristics
Passivity
Dependence
Few ways of behaving
Shallow interests
Short time perspective

PERSONALITY
Immaturity to Maturity (Chris Argyris )

Activity
Independence
Diverse behavior


PERSONALITY
Immaturity to Maturity (Chris Argyris)
Deep interests
Long time perspective
Super ordinate position
Self-awareness and control



PERSONALITY AND STRESS

Research based evidence infers that high and
low stressed individuals differ in terms of
their personality characteristics
That outer- directed individuals are more
adjusting and reality-oriented than inner-
directed
That personality characteristics are
associated with stress generated diseases




PERSONALITY TESTS

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire measures extroversion,
neuroticism (or emotional stability) psychoticism

The 16 PF (Catell), measures 16 personality factors :
submissiveness (mild, humble, easily led, docile,
accommodating); self-assurance (placid, serene, secure,
complacent); tender-mindedness (sensitive, clinging, over-
protected)

PERSONALITY TESTS

The Occupational Preference Questionnaire measures 30
personality dimensions: caring, emotional contro,
forward planning among others


An Extract from Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 2
nd

Edition, Gary Dessler Pg:197


Psyche = Mind
Metric = To Measure
What are psychometric tests?


What are psychometric tests?
A standardised sample of behaviour which can be
described by a numerical scale or category system
(Cronbach)

A psychological test used in the world of work
(Saville and Holdsworth)

A psychological test is any procedure on the basis
of which inferences are made, concerning a
persons capability, propensity or liability to act,
react, experience, or structure or order thought or
behaviour in particular ways (BPS)


Why do Employers use them?
Fair and objective measure of a skill/ability or
the potential to acquire it

Gives a more rounded picture of suitability
for a role
Objectively compares candidates
performance with norm levels for a similar
population
Reliable predictor of how well someone is
likely to perform in a given job/professional
exams



Advantages for Employers
Less subjective than an interview
Fairer, more objective decision making
through use of standardised tests
Online testing = greater cost efficiency
Provides evidence of skills not easily
obtained from other elements of the
recruitment process


When are Psychometric Tests
Used?
At different stages of the Recruitment
process
As part of application process
On the assessment day
Can vary between paper and online tests
Different tests can be used at different
stages


Main types of psychometric tests
Ability/Aptitude Tests
(usually verbal, numerical
and diagrammatic)

Personality Inventories
(questionnaires)

Situational Judgement Tests

Career matching software
(like Prospects Planner)



You may get a practice leaflet or online practice
questions
Exam conditions and strictly timed, standardised
instructions
Answers definitely right or wrong
Answers scored and compared with appropriate
norm group
Types of tests are usually:
Numerical
Logical Reasoning (Also known as Diagrammatic/Inductive)
Verbal Reasoning


Aptitude tests what to expect


Numerical Tests
What are they?
Require you to make decisions or inferences from numerical data,
presented in reports, graphs and tables.

Usually just require HSE level maths as uses more analytical
skills than technical maths skills.

Requires you to demonstrate your ability to plan, prioritise and
analyse data, see trends and follow numerical reasoning and logic.

These skills are relevant to a range of functions that require
working with money or finance, also general management,
finance and sales to data processing.



Numerical Tests
Example


Numerical Tests
How to prepare
Remind yourself of the basics of mathematics, such as
percentages, ratios, fractions, currency conversions etc
Read the financial section of a quality newspaper . It will help
familiarise you with financial and numerical information
Practise doing maths puzzles .
Take a practice test to help you get used to the format and time
pressure
Check if you are allowed to use a calculator or not if not practice
doing sums without one



Measure your ability to reason with and to evaluate the logic of verbal
information.

The process is similar to the skills required to summarise large reports
and extract verbal data at meetings . It's very relevant for roles that
require analysis of verbal information.

You are usually provided with a passage of information and required to
evaluate a set of statements by selecting one of the following possible
answers:
A True
B False
C Cannot Say




Verbal Reasoning Tests
What are they?



Many organisations find it beneficial to employ students over the summer.
Permanent staff often wish to take their own holidays over this period.
Furthermore, it is not uncommon for companies to experience peak workloads in
the summer and so require extra staff. Summer employment also attracts
students who may return as well qualified recruits to an organisation when they
have completed their education. Ensuring that the students learn as much as
possible about the organisation encourages interest in working on a permanent
basis. Organisations pay students on a fixed rate without the usual entitlement
to paid holidays or sick leave.

Statement 1 - It is possible that permanent staff who are on holiday can
have their work carried out by students.
A = True B = False C = Cannot Say
Verbal Reasoning Tests
Example



Many organisations find it beneficial to employ students over the summer.
Permanent staff often wish to take their own holidays over this period.
Furthermore, it is not uncommon for companies to experience peak workloads
in the summer and so require extra staff. Summer employment also attracts
students who may return as well qualified recruits to an organisation when
they have completed their education. Ensuring that the students learn as
much as possible about the organisation encourages interest in working on a
permanent basis. Organisations pay students on a fixed rate without the usual
entitlement to paid holidays or sick leave.
Statement 2 Students are subject to the organisations standard
disciplinary and grievance procedures.

A = True B = False C = Cannot Say
Verbal Reasoning Tests
Example


Read newspapers, journals, reports and
books
Have a go at solving verbal reasoning
puzzles for example crosswords or word
finding games
Practice reading passages of information
and summarising the key points

Verbal Reasoning Tests
How to prepare



Also known as Diagrammatic/Abstract or Inductive reasoning tests

Not impacted by an individuals numerical or verbal ability

This sort of reasoning is relevant for jobs which require the capacity to
learn new things and work through complex problems in a logical,
systematic and analytical manner

Measure the ability to work flexibly with unfamiliar information and find
solutions.

People who perform well on these tests tend to have a greater capacity to
think conceptually as well as analytically.


Logical Reasoning Tests
What are they?


Logical Reasoning Tests
Examples
What comes next in the sequence?


Play logical reasoning games such as
Sudoku
Think about the logical steps you take
when planning something such as a
holiday
Play strategy games such as drafts or
chess and plan your next moves
Logical Reasoning Tests
How to prepare


Aptitude Tests - tactics
Follow instructions carefully & clarify if unclear
Make sure you understand answers to example questions
Work quickly and accurately if being timed
Skip questions if you are stuck and go back and answer them
if you have time at the end
Mark your best choice but avoid wild guessing if you are not
sure
Tests not usually designed to be completed
Score = correct answers in time allowed
Make sure you have a watch/timer to hand


Assess how a candidate might typically behave in
particular work situations
Help provide a broader picture of how well you might
be suited to a particular job/culture/organisation
No right or wrong answers, only YOUR answers
Usually no time limits, but dont spend too long
give your most natural answer

Personality Inventories
What are they?


Personality Inventories
Examples
Least Most

A) I quickly reach a decision
B) I feel at ease with new people
C) I take care to follow rules
D) I have highly original ideas


Personality Inventories
Tactics
Avoid the socially desirable response be honest. Many
questionnaires check for consistency in response

Dont worry if some questions do not seem relevant

Make sure you answer as many questions as possible

Results can sometimes be discussed in interview

Results usually only part of process alongside other elements,
e.g. interview, assessment exercises



Situational Judgement Tests
What are they?
Assess how well suited people are for particular
roles and environments.
Realistic employment situations
You are given a number of scenarios and for each
you are then provided with a number of response
options to choose from. You need to select the
option which best reflects how you would behave
in that situation.




Situational Judgement Tests
Examples
You are working in a BPO for a major US telecommunications company.
You have received a call from a customer who has been waiting in for an
engineer who has failed to arrive within the scheduled time slot. The
customer is upset and is talking in a raised voice. Of the following
options indicate which would be the most effective and which the least
effective action to take first of all:

1) Apologise to the customer and say you will arrange for a re-scheduled
appointment.
2) Listen to the customers feedback and tell them that you can understand why
they are upset and that it must be very inconvenient for them.
3) Explain that the engineer has a very busy schedule and its difficult for her to
always be on time but youre sure she will arrive soon.
4) Ask the customer to hold while you contact the engineer to establish where she
is.



No particular training or knowledge required
Use Practice Tests if available
Read each scenario thoroughly
Evaluate according to information given
Do not make assumptions
Keep competencies assessed in mind however
answer honestly

Situational Judgement Tests
How to Prepare


E Tray Exercises
Timed Test involving reading and giving a response
to a series of email messages and requests.
Usually a choice of response options triggering
further emails based on the answer chosen.
E mails often include attachments.
Other data often given as a basis for the response
decisions.
Important to answer all emails received.
BEHAVIORAL INTERVIEWS
What lies behind us and what lies before us are
tiny matters compared to what lies within us.
-Oliver Wendell Holmes, American poet and novelist
A Behavioral Interview is one the most effective methods
to select the right candidate. It covers various topics such
as employee behavior, employee performance, discipline,
delegation, motivation and leadership. Also, it assists the
employer in making predictions about a potential
employee's future success. In this case, interviewers ask
very specific questions about real situations and it gives
them the chance to have details about the candidates
experiences and accomplishments in a particular event or
project.

A SAMPLE

The following example illustrates a


question that has been answered by two
different candidates shortlisted for the
position of a Marketing Manager:

Question: How much experience do you
have working with a small budget?

THE EMPLOYER MAY WANT TO TEST
Adaptability
Ambition
Analytical Thinking
Building Rapports
Business Systems Thinking
Caution
Challenge
Communication
Conflict Resolution
Customer Orientation
Decision Making
Teamwork
Toughness and Variety

The Art of Performance Management
Personal Effectiveness
Persuasion
Presentation
Pressure
Problem Solving
Project Management
Ability to do Sales
Self Assessment
Skill of Selecting and Developing People
Sensitivity
Setting Goals
Judgment
Stress Management
THE EMPLOYER MAY WANT TO TEST
EMPLOYER MAY WANT TO TEST
Delegation
Detail-Orientation
Employee Development
Evaluating Alternatives
Capability of Follow-Up & Control
Initiative
Interpersonal Skills
Innovation
Integrity
Introducing Change
Leadership
Listening
Motivating skills
Negotiating skills
Planning & Organizing