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Jindal Thermal Power Company

Limited
Ambient Air Quality
Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Major Source
Transportation
Domestic Heating
Energy generation
Energy intensive Industrial Operations
Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Major Source
TransportationTraffic activities by land in HoChiMinh city is major air
polluting sources in urban. Pollutants quantity
generated from land traffic are large ratio in total pollutants quantity in
cities: CO is about 90%, Hydrocarbon
about 60%, NOx about 50%. Existing engine vehicles use lead petrol so
air pollutants from traffic also remain Pb,
moreover remarkable SPM from burning product and from road.

Domestic Heating
Energy generation
Energy intensive Industrial Operations
Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Major Source
Domestic Heating
Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Major Source
Energy generation
Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Major Source
Energy intensive Industrial Operations
Table 1.Major air pollutants load of some industry (T/year)
Pollutants Industry SO2 NO2 CO SPM CxHy SO3 VOC
Thermo-electricity 48,082 14,042 563 1,341 428 791
Steel laminating and refining 897 131 3,104 3,417
Acid manufacturing 420 35,7 1.4 3.25 9.1
Cement 5,589 854 23 558 23 71
Weaving and dying 1,128 172,4 4.8 71.6 0.72
Food processing 1,120 257 15 52.5 10.8 15.3
Wood processing 39,5 442 19.7
Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Impact
Concentration of all the activities in most of the cities.
Heavily pollute outdoor air quality
Topographic, Geographic and climatic condition.
Resultant secondary pollutant
Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Long-range transport of air pollution
Forest Fire
Industry
Traffic
Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Indoor Air Pollution
BIO-mass or coal for cooking.
Tobacco smoke
Household
Solvent
Cleaners
Personnel care items
Dust

Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Indoor Air Pollution Working Environment
Industry
Gases

Hospital
Cleaners
Medicinal material

Offices
Dust
Tobacco Smoke


Sources & Setting of Air Pollution Exposure
Multimedia Exposure
Some pollutants present in the air can also be present in the
air can also be present in other media thus inducing some
health effect by exposure via several routes.
Ex. Lead in Air and Water

Order to develop effective preventive actions all relevant
exposures must be identified.

Air Pollutants of Major Concern
Suspended Particulate Matter
Particulate size as PM
10
& PM
2.5
Concentration
Exposure

Air Pollutants of Major Concern
Sulfur Dioxide
Air Pollutants of Major Concern
Nitrogen Dioxides

Air Pollutants of Major Concern
Carbon Monoxide
Air Pollutants of Major Concern
Ozone


Air Pollutants of Major Concern
Lead
Air Pollutants of Major Concern
Biological Agents
Diseases with air Pollution as a risk factor
Acute Respiratory Infection
Diseases with air Pollution as a risk factor
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
Diseases with air Pollution as a risk factor
Asthma
Diseases with air Pollution as a risk factor
Upper respiration infection
Diseases with air Pollution as a risk factor
Lung Cancer
Diseases with air Pollution as a risk factor
Tuberculosis
Diseases with air Pollution as a risk factor
Ischaemic Heart Disease
Diseases with air Pollution as a risk factor
Cerebrovascular Disease
Diseases with air Pollution as a risk factor
Perinatal Effects
Health Impact of Particulate Matter
Particulate
Health Impact of Particulate Matter
Estimates of annual health incidences in India cities due to ambient air
pollution levels
Cities Premature
death
Hospital admissions
and sickness requiring
medical treatment
Incidence of
minor
sickness
Ahmedabad 2979 1,183,033 72,177,644
Bangalore 254 135,887 8,326,282
Calcutta 5726 2,022,786 179,479,908
Delhi 7491 2,990,012 241,958,219
Hydrabad 768 420,947 31,708,958
Jaipur 1145 520,947 31,708,958
Kanpur 1894 812,381 49,247,224
Madras 863 416,966 27,859,485
Mumbai 4477 2,57,210 156,452,916
Patna 725 319,242 19,561,109
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS)
* Annual Arithmetic Mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.
** 24 hourly / 8 hourly values shall be met 98 % of the time in a year. 2 % of the time, it may exceed but not on two consecutive days.

Pollutant

Time
Weighted
Average
Concentration in Ambient Air




Industrial
Area
Residential,
Rural and
Other Area
Sensitive
Area
Method of
Measurement
Sulphur
dioxide
(SO
2
)
Annual
Average*
24 hours**
80 g/m
3

120 g/m
3


60 g/m
3

80 g/m
3


15 g/m
3

30 ?g/m
3


Improved West and
Gaeke method
Ultraviolet
fluorescence
Oxides of
Nitrogen as
NO
2

Annual
Average*
24 hours**
80 g/m
3

120 g/m
3


60 g/m
3

80 g/m
3


15 g/m
3

30 g/m
3


Jacob & Hochheiser
modified (Na-Arsenic)
Method
Gas Phase
Chemiluminescence
Suspended
Particulate
(SPM)
Annual
Average*
24 hours**
360 g/m
3

500 g/m
3


140 g/m
3

200 g/m
3


70 g/m
3

100 g/m
3


High Volume
Sampling
(Average flow rate
not less than 1.1
m
3
/minute)

Respirable
Particulate Matter
(size less than 10
m) (RPM)
Annual
Average*
24 hours**
120 g/m
3

150 g/m
3


60 g/m
3

100 g/m
3


50 g/m
3

75 g/m
3


Respirable
particulate matter
sampler
Lead (Pb) Annual
Average*
24 hours**
1.0 g/m
3

1.5 g/m
3


0.75 g/m
3

1.00 g/m
3


0.50 g/m
3

0.75 g/m
3

AAS Method after
sampling using EPM
2000 or equivalent filter
paper
Carbon
Monoxide
8 hours**
1 hour
5.0 mg/m
3

10.0
mg/m
3


2.0 mg/m
3

4.0 mg/m
3


1.0 mg/m
3

2.0 mg/m
3

Non dispersive ,
infrared spectroscopy