E891 – Part 3 – Design

Frames
Credit to Lee (permission to share given)
The following slides were put together by
Lee, an E891 student in 2012. He uses
South Park characters to explain some of
the key concepts.
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
In Part 3 there are six
design frames. These
are a lot more down-
to-earth than
paradigms or
theories…
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
Experimental design is
where one group is
‘treated’ and another
isn’t, and then the
results are compared..
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
Longitudinal studies
are ones that happen
over time – so the
temporal effects of
something are studied
and/or measured.
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
Case studies are where
particular ‘cases’,
situations or contexts
are looked at
holistically and in their
entirety.
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
Ethnographies are
where you focus on
how people behave
and interact on a
sociocultural level.
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
Action research tends
to be done by teachers
themselves, and
focuses on how to
improve their own
individual practice.
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
CHAT, or Activity
Theory, looks at the
relationships between
all the various people
and institutions that
interact in educational
contexts.
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
These frames aren’t
mutually exclusive or
anything. Often they
can work together…
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
So these definitions
have an element of
fuzziness and fluidity
to them.
Experimental
Design
Experimental design is a bit like classis
scientific research.
Control Group
Experimental Group
...but keep the
control group the
same…
Experimental
Design
Control Group
Experimental Group
That way, if the
experimental group
come out different,
I’ll know it’s because
of whatever I did to
them.
Experimental design is a bit like classis
scientific research.
Longitudinal
studies
But what makes it ‘longitudinal’ is that it
focuses on the temporal;
What’s the
difference
between now and
later?
Now Later
Case Studies
Okay, this is a tricky one to define
succinctly…
Teacher
Students
Case Studies
But a ‘case’ could be anything that could be
conceived of as a situation or context
Teacher
Students
The ‘case’
Case Studies
In doing a case study, a researcher would be
interested in many aspects of the situation.
Teacher
Students
How much is the
teacher getting
paid? What are
the students’
ethnic
backgrounds?
What is the
weather like? Etc…
Ethnography
Ethnography (or, perhaps more
appropriately, “ethnographic inquiry”)…
Ethnography
…focuses on the social and cultural
identities, relationships and practices of the
subjects being investigated.
Who are they? How do
they relate to one
another? How do they
get on? How do they
communicate? How do
they work together?
Action
Research
Action research is (normally) where a
teacher jumps in and adapts their own
practice in the spirit of research…
Teacher
Students
Action
Research
…and improved practice.
Teacher
Students
I’m going to start
teaching with hand-
puppets and see
what happens…
CHAT
Cultural Historical Activity Theory, CHAT, or
‘Activity Theory’ is a weird one…
CHAT
While at first glance it may resemble a
satanic mad-hatter’s tea-party, actually it’s a
lot more straightforward than all the…
CHAT
…vague references to dead Russians might
lead you to believe.
When you’re working with
design frames, you’ll use
different methods (or are
they methodologies?) to
actually get data. Part 3
gives four ways of doing
this:
• Observation
• Questionnaires
• Interviews
• Documentation
Review
I’m a non-participant
observer. These guys
are doing their thing,
and I am staying out of
it…
Observation
When you’re observing, you have to think
about how much you affect the things you
are looking at…
I, on the other hand, am a
participant observer – in that I
am getting stuck in and am a
part of the action.
Observation
When you’re observing, you have to think
about how much you affect the things you
are looking at…
Questionnaires
Questionnaires are handy for asking lots of
people the same thing
Interviews
Anyway! Interviews are cool.
How do you feel about
your mother?
Interviews
But you do have to consider the
relationship between the interviewer and
the interviewee.
My mother? Let me tell
you about my mother…
Interviews
Again, it’s possible that the researcher’s
position might cause the interviewee to
respond in a certain (pre)conditioned way.
My mother? Let me tell
you about my mother…
Design Frames
Experimental design
Longitudinal studies and surveys
Case study
Ethnography
Action research
Activity theory
They are about how
you actually do stuff,
as opposed to how you
philosophically view it.
Reviewing
documentation
(that means: Read Things)
• asking participants to write a diary/journal
• asking participants to write a biography (or to
contribute to this orally)
• asking young children to draw pictures of key
events, places or people in their lives
• giving older children and adults an audio
recorder, camera, camcorder or other device to
record situations or events that are relevant to
the research.
Reviewing
documentation
Just because things have been written
down doesn’t make them necessarily more
reliable.
• asking participants to write a diary/journal
• asking participants to write a biography (or to
contribute to this orally)
• asking young children to draw pictures of key
events, places or people in their lives
• giving older children and adults an audio
recorder, camera, camcorder or other device to
record situations or events that are relevant to
the research.
Frames Methods
• Experimental design
• Longitudinal studies and
surveys
• Case study
• Ethnography
• Action research
• Activity theory

• Observation
• Questionnaires
• Interviews
• Documentation Review

….and so…..
• Whilst Lee’s slides are a great way of
understanding the key theories, these
slides are not ‘official’ Open University
documents, so please do not use these for
direct references!!
• See other examples of Lee’s work – some
slides already posted…more to follow!!