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Introduction to Embedded

What is an Embedded System?
Electronic devices that incorporate a
microprocessor or microcontroller within
their implementation.
Microprocessor of embedded system is
hidden from user.
No Mouse, Kbd, monitor, etc.

Embedded Systems Applications
Aerospace Navigation systems, automatic
landing systems, flight attitude
controls, engine controls, space
exploration (e.g.. The mars
Automotive Fuel injection control, passenger
environmental controls, anti-locking
braking systems, air bag controls,
GPS mapping, cruise control
Children's toys Video games, MindStone system
Communications Satellites, network routers, switches,
Embedded Systems Applications
Computer Peripherals Printers, scanners, keyboards,
displays, modems, hard disk
drives, CD-ROM drives, USB
Home Dishwashers, microwave ovens,
VCRs, DVD, televisions,
stereos, fire/security alarm
systems, lawn sprinkler controls,
thermostats, digital cameras,
clock radios, cell phones
Industrial Elevator controls, surveillance
systems, robots
Instrumentation Data collection, oscilloscopes,
signal generators, signal
analyzers, power supplies
Embedded Systems Applications
Medical CT, One touch glucose
meter, almost all medical
Office Automation FAX machines, copiers,
Personal PDAs, pagers, cell phones,
video games, Ipod, MP3
Embedded Market

Embedded:desktop = 100:1

Average #embedded processors in the resident home
estimated about 50
Embedded System
Embedded System
CPU and Software
Memory Storage: ROM, RAM, PROM, EPROM
Input: knobs, buttons, probes, sensors, A/D
communications signals, panels
Output: LCD display, microwave radiation, A/D
communication signals
Outputs = functions (inputs, elapsed time, )

Microprocessors in Embedded Systems
Processor Bus
Largest External
Zilog Z8 family 8 64KB on others 2 timers 1
Intel 8051 family 8 64 KB program
+ 64 KB data
3 timers + 1
serial port
Intel 80188 8 1 MB 3 timers + 2
DMA channels
Intel 80386
16 64 MB 3 timers + 2
DMA channels
+ various others
Motorola 68000
32 4 GB Varying 10
Motorola Power
PC family
32 64 MB Many 75
Common Design Criterion
Production cost constraints
Processing power(limited)
Memory constraints(limited)
Development cost(low)
Number of units
Expected life time( may not be long)

Design Criterion
Processor 4 or 8-bit 16-bit 32 or 64-bit
< 16KB
64 KB~1 MB
> 1 MB
< $100,000 $100,000 ~
> $1,000,000
< $10 $10 ~ $1,000 > $1,000
# Units < 100 100 10,000
> 10,000
< years years decades
Reliability low Medium High
C for embedded software
The most popular language for embedded systems ( over
A high level language
Compact, efficient code for almost all processors
Both high-level and low-level features
Direct hardware control, without losing the benefits of a
high-level language
Appropriate for 8-bit to 64-bit processors
For systems with bytes, KB, MB of memory
Typical Hardware
Microprocessor: execute code
Memory: ROM, RAM, PROM, EPROM, Flash
Embedded systems do not have the following
- a keyboard
- a screen
- a disk drive
- CD, speakers, microphones, diskettes, modems
Embedded systems have: serial port, network interface,
sensors, AD/DA

Design Goal of Embedded
Mission critical and life-threatening
24/7/365 and cant reboot at all
No human intervention
Multitasking and scheduling
Optimized I/O by Assembly Language
Limits, Inaccuracies of Fixed Precision
Consumer market: Minimize Manufacturing Cost
Fast time to market required
No chance for future modification

Design Goal of Embedded
Handle a lot of volume of data in a short period of time
React to external events quickly
Setting up equipment to test embedded software
Without a screen or keyboard, finding out what the
software is doing wrong
Must be able to handle any situation without human
Memory is limited on embedded systems, and you must
make the software and the data fit into whatever memory
Design Goal of Embedded
You will need special tools to get your software into
embedded systems (burner)
Portable systems must run on battery power, and the
software in these systems must conserve power
Embedded systems have a microprocessor and a memory.
Some have a serial port or a network connection. They
usually do not have keyboards, screens, or disk drives.