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Grups cement

Pend.kimia A

Cement comes from word Caementum
which means a substance which has the
function as an adhesive between two or
more ingredients become a part of a
cohesive or adhesive material between
the rocks of building construction
lime stone (CaO) as the main source,
sometimes polluted by SiO
, Al
, and
Clay-containing compounds SiO
, Al
and Fe

Quartz / silica stone, is added if the clay
containing small SiO
Iron ore, is added if the clay containing
small Fe

Portland cement
Pozzolan cement
High alumina cement
Silicate cement
Sulfur cement
Polymer concrete
Sorel cement
Portland cement is hydraulic cement that`s
produced from grinding clinker with additive
Portland cement is applied in all kinds of
informing against like foundation,palm, and,wall
retainer, road
main material of cement portland, are:
CaCO3 : 60 % - 65
SiO : 20 % - 25 %
Fe2O3 and Al2O3 : 7 % - 12 %

Type 1 (ordinary portland cement)
Ordinary portland cement is used for all kind of construction
and contain 5% MgO and 2.5-3 % SO3.
Type 2 (moderate heat of hardening)
Moderate heat portland cement is used for construction that
requires the use of resistance to sulfate and medium calor
Moderate heat portland cement contain 20% SiO2, 6% Al2O3, 6
% Fe2O3, 6% MgO , 8% C3A
Type 3 (high early strength)
high early strength cement contain 3.5-4.5% Al2O3, 6% MgO ,
15% C3A, 35% C3S, 40% C2S.
High Early Strength Cement is commonly specified where higher
than normal early strengths are required

Type 4 (Low Heat Cement)
It is manufactured from the ingredients of specially
selected cement clinker and ground granulated blast
furnace slag, that result in significantly lower heat
generation during the process of hydration than the
comparable Portland Cement.
It is manufactured from the ingredients of specially
selected cement clinker and ground granulated blast
furnace slag, combining the benefits of significantly lower
heat evolution, greater sulphate, chloride and salt water
Sulphate Resisting Cement may be used in marine
applications, in mass concrete where reduced heat
liberation is important or in aggressive sulphate-rich
environments where increased resistance to salt attack is
Character of cement Portland :
1. Hydration of cement :
a. Hydration of Alite (C2S,C3S)
b. Hydration of C3A
c. Hydration of C4AF
2. Setting and hardening
3.Temperature of hydration
4.Decrease :
- Drying shringkage
- Hydration shringkage
- Carbonation of shringkage
5.Dampness :
- Loss on ignation (loses dawn)
-Specific of gravity
- False set

1. Cement hydration
A reaction between cement components and water.
To know more about hydration cement, it must
recognize hydrasion of compounds contained in
cement (C2S, C3S, C3A, C4AF)

a. Hiydration Calcium Silicate (C2S, C3S)
Calcium Silicate in water into Ca (OH) 2 and
calcium silicate hydrate (3CaO.2SiO2.3H2O) at 30C

b. Hydration C3A
Hidration C3A with excessive water at 30C
will produce hydrate alumina
calcium.which its the crystal is cubic in
cement because of the gypsum so that the
result of hydration C3A is quite differs.
c. Hydration C4AF (H2O 30 C)
4CaO. Al2O3. Fe2O3 + 2Ca (OH) 2 +10 H2O
4CaO.Al2O3.6H2O + 3CaO.Fe2O3.6H2O
Carachterization of cement materials
2. Setting and Hardening
Setting and Hardening of cement is cordage and
terrace of cement. Cement if mixed with water
will produce pasta which plastis and workable
until some times characteristic from pasta
doesnt change and this period often is called as
Dorman period or sleep period.

f. Heat Hiderasi
Hiderasi heat is the heat released during cement
experienced hiderasi process. Amount of heat
that terajdi hiderasi dependent, type of cement,
fineness of cement, and a comparison between
the water with cement.
Cement of high initial hardness and heat are
likely hiderasi terajadi cracks in concrete, it is
caused by the phosphorus is removed so that the
resulting difficulty terajdi expansion in the
cooling process.
g. Shrinkage
There are three kinds of shrinkage that occurs in the
cement, among others:
Shringkage drying (drying shrinkage karean)
Hideration Shringkage (penyuautan because hiderasi)
Carbonation Shringkage (penyuautan because
The most influence on the concrete surface is
Shringkage Drying, shrinkage occurs due to evaporation
during the process of setting and hardening. Bial
amount of moisture can be maintained, then the
concrete cracks can be avoided. Depreciation is also
dioengaruhi C3A content is too high.
h. Humidity
Humidity arises because the cement absorbs water and
CO2 uap and considerable amounts of clotting sehigga
happen. Lumpy semen quality will decline because of
increasing Loss On Ignition (LOI) and reduced specific
gravity so that the strength of cement decreased, setting
time and hardening the longer, and the occurrence of
false set.

Loss On Ignation (Lost Dawn)
Loss On Ignation required to prevent the presence of
minerals, which decompose at the time mneral
pemijaran, where this process is causing damage to the
stone after a few years later.
i. Specific Gravity
Specific gravity of cement is very important
information in the design of concrete. Quality control
within the Specific gravity is used to determine how
far the perfection of clinker burning, and also find out
whether the clinker is mixed with impuritis.
j. False Set
The process that occurs when the dough to harden
overnight. False Set can be avoided by protecting the
cement from the influence of outside air, so that the
alkali carbonate is not formed within the cement.
Initial and final setting time in cement in practice
very important, because early binding time will
determine the length of time in which the cement
mixture is still plastic. The minimum initial binding
time of 45 minutes while the maximum 8-hour final
Hardening reaction
C2S C2S + 5H2O. 5H2O
C3S + 5H2O C2S6. 5H2O + 13 Ca (OH) 2
C3A C3A + 3Cs + 32H2O. 3Cs + .32 H2O
C4AF C3A.6 7H2O + H2O + CF. H2O
MgO + H2O Mg (OH) 2

Cement can be made by two ways
Wet Process
Dry Process
The difference only lies in the process
milling and homogenization.
1. Quarry (MINING)
Mining materials such as
limestone, silica stone, clay,
and other materials containing
silicon, aluminum, and iron
oxide which diekstarksi
using drilling and blasting.

Peeling (stripping)
Discard the top layer of soil
Make a hole with a drill to place
Blasting (explosives)
With electrical engineering detonation.

Silica mining does not require blasting for
silica rock grains which are disjoint and
not tied to one another.
Mining is done by pushing the rock silica
using a dozer to the edge of a cliff and fell in loading
Clay mining
Done by dredging in the layer
soil surface with an excavator
begins with the construction of roads with
sewer system of alternating intervals.

Solving materials, the
results of
mining becomes more
using a small crusher.
Limestone from the size
of <1 m <50 m
Silica stone of size <40 cm
<200 mm

Raw material
transported from
mining area to
manufacturing site for
further processing
conveyor belt.

Wet Process

In the raw mill grinding done by
adding a slurry of water and then
produced with 34-38% moisture
content. Water plus materials is fed
into the raw mill. Because of the
rotation, the material will move from
one room to the nexr room. At the first
room take solving process. At rooms 2-
3 occurred friction so that the mixture
of raw materials into slurry.

Dry Process

Occurred in Mill consisting
of Drying Chamber, Compt first
and second Compt. Materials are
entered along with hot gas from
cooling towers and suspension
preheater. In the room there is a filter
dryer which serves to transport and
scattering material so that the hot gas
and contaminated material evenly so
that the efficiency can be achieved. The
separation of coarse and fine material
in the separator.

Wet Process
Slurry is mixed in the mixing
basin. then the slurry is entered
into the tube correction; process
of correcting.
Dry Process
Occurs in the blending silos
with funnel-flow system.

Occurs in the kiln. Kiln is
a tube-shaped device in
which there were bursts
of fire. Kiln in design to
maximize the efficiency
of heat transfer from
combustion of fuel.

Fuel Preparation

The process that occurs in the kiln:
Drying Slurry
Home Heating
Clinker Storage

Occurs at one third length from the inlet of the kiln
at a temperature of 100-500 C, resulting in the
release of free water and bound water to get the dry
soil solids.

Home Heating
Occurs at one third the length of the kiln from the inlet.
During the heating was not changing the weight of the
material but only the increase in temperature to about
600 C using a preheater.

Degradation of calcium carbonate into the constituent
compounds at a temperature of 600 0 C.
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
MgCO3 MgO + CO2

Clinker cooling occurred suddenly with the air flow so that
the size Clinker 1150-1250 g / liter.
Clinker Cooler temperature coming out of 150-250 C.


Will fall into the coarse clinker mill to grind. Then with a
drag chain, which has been crushed clinker is transported to
the clinker silo or directly to the cement mill for further
processing into cement.

The reaction between oxides contained in the material
that forms compounds that hydrolysis C4AF, C3A, C2S at
a temperature of 1450 C to form Clinker.

An end milling process
where take place clinkers
with 5% natural or
synthetic gypsum.
In general, divided into
three processes:
Grinding of clinker

decreasing soil water availability
Increasing the number of CO
Spreading the ash into the air and it cause
respiratory diseases
noise pollution
reduced diversity of flora

a. Applying the pattern of blended cement
production could reduce half the CO2

b. Changing some of the material in cement
production with more environmentally
friendly materials

The end