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MINDANAO AND SULU

HOUSES
Forts and Royal Residences

The early Filipinos constructed a fortified
settlement or kota designed to send off
Spanish and American assult. It is bordered by
a palisade. It may include a well-protected
residential compound.
Forts and Royal Residences
Raja Sulaymans fort in Manila
made from palm tree logs dominating a narrow
knoll and the wide gaps of walls allow ten to
twelve mid-sized artillery pieces to project
through.
Sultan Kudarats Kota in Ilihan Heights
Had trenches planned by the Dutch
Maguindanao and Bayan kota

Forts and Royal Residences
The most important feature of a kota are the houses
of the chiefs
Characteristics of the houses of chiefs:
built on trees and thick arigues
many rooms and comfort
well constructed of timber and planks
Strong and large
Furnished and supplied with all that is necessary
Much finer and more substantial than others



Yakan
- Dayak origins they are believed to be descendants of
the Orang Dyaks or Tagihamas of eastern Indonesia.
- live in the mountainous interior of Basilan Island.
- The Yakans chief means of livelihood is farming, and
they usually cultivate upland rice.



Yakan Traditional House: Lumah
is a rectangular, ridge-roofed,
single room, pile structure of
varying size and elevation
from the ground.
It has a floor area ranging
from fifty to hundred square
meters.
A typical early Yakan house
has no toilet.
The lifespan of a Yakan house
of the Lumah is between ten
to fifteen years, afterwhich, a
new house will be built.


Three Parts of Lumah
The Kokan or tindakan (main house)
It separates the Kokan (sleeping area) from the
Tindakan (multi-purpose living room), which
serves as a place for entertaining intimate
guests, weaving, dining as well as for the holding
of the magtimbang(ritual)
The Tindakan is also the setting for weddings,
wakes, death anniversaries and other
commemorations.
Three Parts of Lumah
The Kosina (kitchen)
The Kosina could be accessed by a
pantan or bridge because the
materials used to built these houses
are made of light and combustible
materials.
Three Parts of Lumah
Pantan or Simpey (Porch)
Pantan or porch where clothes are hung
and dried, long bamboo containers are
stored and where most visitors are
welcomed.
Parts of the Lumah
Sapiaw or the steep pitch roof is concave and is
thatched with either cogon or nipa.
Tandiwan or window,which is located at the front
side of the house.
The Pugaan or bamboo floor slates are set slightly
apart, similar to the bottom of a basket for better
ventilation.
The walls are made of either horizontally positioned
wooden planks or the air-inpenetrable sawali
(plaited bamboo or reeds).

Access to the Main House
The access to the main house is through the harren
(a retractable bamboo/timber ladder), then through
the simpey/ pantan( the porch where clothes are
hung and dried, long bamboo containers are stored
and where most visitors are welcomed) and finally,
through the gawang, a sliding main door.

Access to the Main House
The access to the main house is through the harren
(a retractable bamboo/timber ladder), then through
the simpey/ pantan( the porch where clothes are
hung and dried, long bamboo containers are stored
and where most visitors are welcomed) and finally,
through the gawang, a sliding main door.

Samal
The Samals are dispersed all over the Southern Island of
Mindanao, Southern Palawan, Basilan, Davao,
Zamboanga, the Sulu Archipelago and as far the Northern
Boromeo.
A Samal Kinship group of 100 to 500 members lives in
the cluster of houses which usually stands on wooden
piles on the foreshore areas or over tidal mud flat or
reefs.
The Samal were also known in the manufacture of the
boras, large rattan mats distinctive for their multihued
painted decorations.
The traditional sources of livelihood
of the Samal include :
Fishing
Farming
Logging
Hunting
Boat-building
Pearl diving
Mat-weaving
Pottery
Traditional Samal House
Built on stilts on the fringes of the
seashore so that the ground under the
house is flooded and washed clean
during the high tides.
Linked to the shore and to one another
by a maze of catwalk and bridges
It may be as large as 24x12 meters, with
the roof ridge 9 meters above the floor.
Some of which may have two stories
with balconies.
Interior of the house is unwalled and
depending on the economic status of
the owner .
Pantan
- Open porch or terrace
- Prominent house feature
- Faces east
- Childrens playground
- Gathering area for families
- Place for conducting rituals
Construction Materials
Roof and Walls: nipa or sawali
Stairs and flooring: bamboo
Posts and bracing: coconut wood,
mangrove or other tree trunks
Structural Method
- Structural members are held through
lashing.
- The gable roof is of simple construction,
the ridgepole being supported by the
kingpost
- Rather than trusses, horizontal beams
supporting the weight of the roof is
positioned outside since the roof is low.
Traditional Samal House

Traditional Samal House

Badjao
- Means fisherfolk
- Part of a bigger group which is Sama
- Generally boat dwellers or sea gypsies
- Called Luwaan (outsiders) and Palau( floating
people)

Dwellings
1. Luma
- Standing on the seashore
- Sturdier material than stilt houses
- Mirror reflects the number of children in the
family
2. Stilt houses
- Built along shores and of lighter material
- Materials are free or cost very little
- Labor is free
Dwellings
3. Palaw
- Pidlas or lepa which is speedy because it has
no outtriggers, used for short fishing trips
- Djenging has outriggers unlike lepa.

Floating Sulu barong-barong used for dwelling and
varied upon the owners economic status.
Traditional Badjao House







Stilt house








Traditional Badjao House

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