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Object Oriented : In java everything is an

Object. Java can be easily extended since it is
based on the Object model.
Platform independent: Unlike many other
programming languages including C and C++
when Java is compiled, it is not compiled into
platform specific machine, rather into platform
independent byte code. This byte code is
distributed over the web and interpreted by
virtual Machine (JVM) on whichever platform it
is being run

Simple :Java is designed to be easy to learn. If
you understand the basic concept of OOP java
would be easy to master.
Secure : With Java.s secure feature it enables to
develop virus-free, tamper-free systems.
Authentication techniques are based on public-
key encryption.
Architectural- neutral :Java compiler generates
an architecture-neutral object file format which
makes the compiled code to be executable on
many processors, with the presence Java
runtime system.

Portable :being architectural neutral and
having no implementation dependent aspects
of the specification makes Java portable.
Compiler and Java is written in ANSI C with a
clean portability boundary which is a POSIX
Robust :Java makes an effort to eliminate error
prone situations by emphasizing mainly on
compile time error checking and runtime

High Performance: With the use of Just-In-
Time compilers Java enables high performance.
Distributed :Java is designed for the
distributed environment of the internet.
Dynamic : Java is considered to be more
dynamic than C or C++ since it is designed to
adapt to an evolving environment. Java
programs can carry extensive amount of run-
time information that can be used to verify and
resolve accesses to objects on run-time.

There are some basic concepts of object
oriented programming as follows:

1. Object
2. Class
3. Data abstraction
4. Data encapsulation
5. Inheritance
6. Polymorphism

These real-world objects all have states and
Definition: An object is a software bundle of
variables and related methods (function).

A common visual
representation of a
software object.
A class (e.g., Dog) is a kind of mold or template to create
objects (e.g., Mary and DooDoo)
mold = = mould
An object is an instance of a class. The object belongs to that
The software bicycle's current state:
its speed is 10 mph,
its pedal cadence is 90 rpm, and
its current gear is the 5th gear.

The software bicycle would also have methods to
change the pedal cadence, and
change gears.

An Abstract Data Type (ADT) is a user-defined data type
that satisfies the following two conditions: (Encapsulation +
Information Hiding)
The representation of, and operations on, objects
of the type are defined in a single syntactic unit;
also, other program units can create objects of the
The representation of objects of the type is
hidden from the program units that use these
objects, so the only operations (methods)
possible are those provided in the type's
definition which are known as interfaces.
ADT --- Data Abstraction
Hide the object's nucleus from other objects in the program.

The implementation details can change at any time without affecting
other parts of the program.
It is an ideal representation of an object, but
For implementation or efficiency reasons, an object may wish to expose
some of its variables or hide some of its methods.
The source code for an object can be written and maintained independently
of the source code for other objects.
Information hiding
An object has a public interface that other objects can use to communicate
with it.
Subclasses inherit variables and methods from superclasses.
Gear & Speed
Brake & Accelerate
Subclasses can
Add variables and methods.
Override inherited methods.
Provide specialized behaviors
Reuse the code in the superclass
Abstract classes -- define "generic" behaviors.
Polymorphism came greek words poly
meaning many morphism means forms.
Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take
on many forms. The most common use of
polymorphism in OOP occurs when a parent
class reference is used to refer to a child class

Generally, Android is a software stack for
mobile devices that includes an operating
system, middleware and key applications.
Android is based on JAVA and all its
applications are developed in JAVA
Uses Linux to provide core system services
Memory management
Process management
Power management
Hardware drivers

Application framework enabling reuse and
replacement of components
Optimized Java virtual machine: Dalvik (about
this DVM we learn in coming classes)
Optimized Graphics Processing, supporting 2D
and 3D graphics(OpenGL ES 1.0 )
Integrated open source web browser: WebKit
SQLite for structured data storage

Multimedia capability, supporting varieties of audio,
video and still image formats
GSM Telephony
Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G and Wi-Fi support
Camera, GPS, compass, accelerometer
and other sensors support
Rich development environment, including an emulator,
debugging tools, memory probe tools, log tools and
powerful eclipse plugins

Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto California,
United States in October, 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-
founder of Danger), Rich Miner and Chris White
Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005,
making Android Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of
Google Inc With same Android, Inc Team.
Google was planning to enter the mobile phone
market with this move.
In 2007 announced Open Handset Alliance with
several companies which include Broadcom
Corporation, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell
Technology Group, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm,
Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile and
Texas Instruments
Android Open Source Project(AOSP)
"The goal of the Android Open Source Project
is to create a successful real-world product that
improves the mobile experience for end users.
And one that can run any application written
by third-party developers using the Android