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Prof. In-charge: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dipl. Phys.

Matthias Wagner
Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main - University of applied sciences
Insulin Pump Simulator
Group D
Sibi Mani
Thomas George
Thorben Wittich
Vivek Kaliannan
Baskar Mohanasundaram
AGENDA
Introduction
Requirement Traceability
Design Model
Process Planning
Physiological Behaviour Simulation
Insulin dosage calculation
Safety Plan
Demo
Conclusion
Introduction
The insulin pump system is portable, automated system, which is used by the people suffering from
diabetics, to maintain their blood sugar level by administering insulin automatically and giving appropriate
warnings to the user when required. The Blood Glucose Level (hereafter mentioned as BGL) can be
categorized into three main levels,
Unsafe level
A very low BGL (less than 70 dg/ml) is dangerous and can result in Hypoglycemia, which in turn
may cause diabetic coma and eventually death.
Safe level
Between 70 and 110 dg/ml, the BGL are safe and are comparable to those in people without
diabetes. This is the ideal band.
Undesirable level
Above 110 dg/ml if insulin is undesirable but high levels are not dangerous in the short-term.
Continuous high-levels however can result in long-term side effects

Requirement Traceability
Design Model
The design model used in our project is iterative model and the different iterations used in our
Project are:

Power and insulin - display and interaction
Power depletion with respect to time, insulin depletion with respect to dosage and refilling the
power and insulin level manually.
Sensor reading
Calculated the next BGL based on the simulation of the physiological behaviour of the human
body.
I nsulin Calculation
If required, the insulin amount that has to be administered is calculated based on the current and the
previous two readings.
Timer and Error simulation
An independent timer and appropriate alerts, errors and warnings are simulated.
Auto-run and Manual mode
Mode control is simulated for controlling the auto and manual modes.

Process Planning (Unsafe and Safe)
Based on the Sensor reading, determine the status of the BGL and follow the below procedures for each
status,

Unsafe:
Do not inject any Insulin and warn the user of the status. Also a different beep sound is played for
unsafe level distinguishing it from undesirable level to warn the user of certain danger.

Safe:
In safe level, minimum and maximum threshold are introduced for better monitoring of the BGL. If
the BGL is below the minimum threshold, alert the user of the possibility of reaching unsafe status. If the
BGL is above the maximum threshold, and if it continues to increase inject a minimum dose or else alert
the user of the possibility of reaching undesirable status. Else, no alerts or warning is required.

Process Planning (Undesirable)


Undesirable:
If the BGL is increasing, calculate and administer the insulin.
If the BGL is stable, administer a minimum dosage.
If BGL is decreasing, calculate the rate of change of BGL.
If it is increasing, do not inject insulin.
Else, administer a minimum dosage.
In any case, display the appropriate warning message to the user.

Physiological Behaviour
The time dependent physiological behaviour of the human body is simulated based on the below formula,


Where,
G(t) - Blood Glucose Level
K1 - Digestion Speed
Dose - Amount of insulin injected due to previous reading
t - Current time
t0 - Latest insulin injected time
A0 - Random factor simulating human behaviour

Reference:
- Estela, Carlos (2011) "Blood Glucose Levels," Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two:
Vol.3: Iss. 2, Article 12.

Insulin Dosage Calculation
The insulin dosage amount is calculated only if the BGL is in undesirable level and if it continues to
increase. In all other cases where the insulin has to be administered, only a minimum dosage is delivered.
The insulin dosage calculation is done as follows,
Computed dosage = [Reading2 - Reading1] / 4
Where,
Reading1 - The previous BGL
Reading2 - The current BGL
If the calculated amount is less than the minimum single dose, then the minimum single dose is
injected. Similarly, if it is greater than the maximum single dose, the maximum single dose is injected. Also, the
maximum daily dose is considered while injecting the insulin.

Reference:
- Software engineering 9th edition. by Ian Sommerville.
Safety Plan
The safety of our insulin pump simulator is ensured by the implementation of the below mentioned
safety plans,
1) The system shall not deliver a single dose of insulin that is greater than a specified maximum dose for a
system user.
2) The system shall not deliver a daily cumulative dose of insulin that is greater than a specified maximum
for a system user.
3) The system shall include a hardware diagnostic facility.
4) The system shall include an exception handler for all of the exceptions that are identified.
5) The audible alarm shall be sounded when any hardware or software anomaly is discovered and a
diagnostic message as defined should be displayed.
6) In the event of an anomaly in the system, insulin delivery shall be suspended until the user has reset the
system and cleared the anomaly.

DEMO
Conclusion

Thus, the requirements of the insulin pump simulator has been successfully analyzed,
designed, implemented and tested. We also tried to simulate the behaviour of a human blood
glucose level.
Also, by the project we learned,
How to deal with a safety critical system.
To distinguish between safety and reliability.
To perform risk analysis and hazard analysis.
To successfully design and implement a Safety critical system.
The importance of correct documentation and continuous synchronisation of software.
To work in team and effective project management.
and many more...


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