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• Variables

• A variable is any entity that can take on


different values
• Variables aren't always 'quantitative' or
numerical. The variable 'gender' consists of
two text values: 'male' and 'female‘
• Types of variables
1.Qualitative Vs. Quantitative Variables
2.Discrete Vs. Continuous Variables
3.Dichotomous Vs. Polychotomous Variables
4.Independent Vs. Dependent Vs. Intervening Vs.
Extraneous Variable
5.Stimulus Vs. Response Variable
6.Active Vs. Attribute Variable
• Role of Variable in Research
i. Helps to find out the solutions
ii.Helps to find out the relationships
iii.Helps to initiate new theories
iv.Helps to modify the theories
v. Helps to give a direction for the research
• Validity
• It is an extent to which a test measures what it
is supposed to measure.
• Two ways of checking the validity
• Empirical validation
• Theoretical validation
• Empirical validation
• Validity is checked against empirical evidence.
• Two types:
• Concurrent validity
 Validity assumed if the findings are supported
by already existing empirical evidence

• Predictive validity
• Validity checked by the results of this measure are
supported by findings that appear later.
• Theoretical validation
• Employed when empirical conformation of validity
is difficult or not possible.
• A measure has theoretical validity if its findings
comply with the theoretical principles of the
discipline.
• Several types:
• Content validity
• A measure is supposed to have content validity if it
covers all possible aspects of the research topic.
• Construct validity
• Not only involves validation but also drawing
inferences and measuring the constructs under
measurement.
• Face validity
• Appears to have validity on its face.
• Reliability
• Ability of an instrument to produce consistent
results, consistency.
• A method is reliable if it produces the same
results whenever it is repeated, even by other
researchers.
• It is also characterized by precision and
objectivity.
• Internal reliability-consistency of result within
the site
• External reliability- consistency and replicability
of data across the site
• Three types of reliability
1.Stability reliability: relating to reliability across
time
2.Representative reliability: relates to reliability
• Methods for testing reliability
I. Test-retest method: The same subjects are
tested and retested with the same
instrument.
II.Split-half method: responses to the items of an
instrument are divided into two groups(e.g.
odd/even questions) and the scores
correlated
III.Inter-item test and item-scale test: in this test
inter-item correlations or item-scale
correlations indicate the degree of reliability.
IV.Alternate-form reliability: reliability is tested by
administering two similar instruments in one
session, and is assessed by the degree of
correlation between the scores of the two
• Interview
• In this method, the data are collected by
presenting stimuli to the respondents in the
form of questions for eliciting appropriate
responses from them.
• Questions may be presented in a face to face
situation and the researcher or personnel
(interviewers or enumerators)trained for the
purpose note down their response.
• Set of questions is known as interview
schedule.
• Answers to some systematically organised
questions relavent to the objectives of the
study are sought
• Questions should be accurate & clearly
• Advantages
• More likelihood of getting responses
• Responses are more accurate
• Can get responses even from illiterates
• Can get some spontaneous responses also
• Can overcome resistance of the respondents
• Can observe the respondents and get their
reactions.
• Limitations
• More costly and time consuming
• Possible bias associated with interviewer
• More inconvenient
• Less anonymity
• Less effective when sensitive issues are
• Observation
• One of the oldest method of data
collection.
• Today one of the fundamental techniques
of social research.
• It means a method of data collection that
employs vision as its main means.
• It may be used singly or with other
techniques.
• Indirect method of data collection
• Types of observation
• Naïve and scientific observation
• Participant and non-participant
observation
• Structured and unstructured observation
• Natural observations and laboratory
observations
• Open and hidden observation
• Active and passive observation
• Direct and indirect observation
• Tips in observation
• Selection of the sample
• Time, place, type of event, subjects.
• The arrangements
• The observer
• Observer skills, observer training
• Collection of data
• Initiation, collection and recording
• Ethical issues
• Advantages
• Provides information when other methods
are not effective
• Less complicated and less time-
consuming procedure
• Offers data when respondents are unable
or unwilling to cooperate
• Studies events as they evolve
• Offers first hand information
• Collection of a wide range of information
• Relatively inexpensive
• Limitations
• Cannot be employed when large groups are
studied
• Cannot provide information about past, future
or unpredictable events
• Cannot offer data related to frequency of
behavior
• Cannot study opinions or attitudes directly
• Inadequate for studying certain phenomena
• Laborious and time consuming
• Exposed to observer’s bias, selective perception
and selective memory
• Participant observation-observer part of the
situation
• No control measures regarding bias, attitudes
and opinions of the observer
• Thank you.