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By Juan D.

Critical thinking is a way of deciding whether
a claim is true, partially true, or false.

Critical thinking should not be confused with
being critical of other people. Not criticism.
This is a misconception.

Critical thinking is a process that
incorporates passion and creativity, but
guides it with discipline, practicality and
common sense.

Some people believe that critical thinking
hinders creativity because it requires
following the rules of logic and rationality.
This is a misconception.

Critical thinking is quite compatible with
thinking "out-of-the-box. Think different.

Critical thinking is an essential part of
creativity because we need critical thinking to
evaluate and improve our creative ideas.
Why Students (and Teachers)
Dont Critically Think

Too many facts, Too little conceptualizing
(Number-numeral, weight -mass)

Too much memorizing, Too little thinking

Lecture & Rote Memorization Does not
require critical thinking

Students are not Trained to think
Encourage Students To
ASK Questions and LOOK for Answers
What questions could someone have about this?
What information answers these
APPLY What They Learn to SOLVE Problems
Based on the material, how would you ?
Now that you know ___, how do you solve ___?
LISTEN to Each Other and DEBATE Ideas
How does Johns comment relate to the text?
What can you add to his perspective?

Challenge Students to learn, Not
Memorize,Question, Examine, Create, Solve,
Interpret, Debate

Students THINK About What They Learn

Apply Material to Real Situations (e.g., Case

Students Continue to Learn Independently


I Identify the Problem
D Define the Context
E Enumerate the Choices
A Analyze the Options
L List Reasons Explicitly
S Self-Correct

Six Steps to Effective Thinking and Problem Solving

Critical Thinking Requires Evaluating the _____
of Your Thinking


In the nticipation phase, a
seed is planted in rich soil.
The success of a lesson does
not just depend on this
seed, however; it must also
draw on knowledge the
students already possess,
just as the seed must draw
on the nutrients in the soil.

The essential groundwork
laid, the teacher proceeds to
the uilding knowledge
phase; the wheat seed sprouts
roots and a plant grows.
The lesson concludes with
the onsolidation phase.
The head of wheat is
mature, and contains seeds
of many other plants; so too
the lesson can lead into
many other activities.

Questions for Clarification
Could you give me an example?
What do you mean by _____?
What is your main point?
Could you put it another way?
Questions about the Initial Question or Issue
How can we find out?
What does this question assume?
Would ____ put the question differently?
Questions that Probe Assumptions
What are you assuming?
What could we assume instead?
You seem to be assuming _____. Do I understand you correctly?
Questions that Probe Reasons and Evidence
What would be an example?
Could you explain your reasons to us?
Are those reasons adequate?

Questions that Probe Origin or Source Questions
Where did you get this idea?
Have you been influenced by anyone? The media? Your peers?
What caused you to feel this way?

Questions that Probe Implications and Consequences
What are you implying by that?
What effect would that have?
What is an alternative?
If this is the case, then what else must be true?

Questions about Viewpoints or Perspectives
How would other groups of people respond? Why?
How could you answer the objection that _____ would make?
Can anyone see this another way?
What would someone who disagrees say?

What is next?

A, B, C, D,

What is missing?

M, T, W, T, , S, S

Can you draw this without lifting your hand?


"Education is what remains after one has
forgotten everything he learned in school.

Einstein, Scientific
The greatest sign of success for a teacher is
to be able to say, The children are now
working as if I din not exist

Maria Montessori, Educator