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# Mathematics

Session
Applications of Derivatives - 1
Session Objectives
 Rate of Change of Quantities

 Slope and Equation of Tangent

 Slope and Equation of Normal

 Angle Between Two Curves
Increasing and Decreasing Functions
Use of Derivative
Rate of Change of Quantities
represents the rate

of change of y with respect to x at x = x
0

( )
0
0
x=x
dy
or f' x
dx
| |
|
\ .
Let ( )
y =ƒ x be a function of x.
δx small change in x ¬
δy corresponding small change in y ¬
δx 0
δy dy
lim = =
δx dx ÷
Rate of change of y with respect to x
Rate of Change of
Quantities
Similarly, rate of change of velocity with respect to time t,

represents acceleration.
dv
dt
Hence, velocity of a point body is defined as the rate of
change of displacement with respect to time t.
Velocity at a time t = t
0
can be written as at t = t
0

ds
dt
Rate of Change of Quantities
If both x and y are functions of t, then
( )
dy dy dx dx
= × =ƒ x
dt dx dt dt
'
¬ Rate of change of y with respect to t
dy
=
dx
| |
|
\ .
x rate of change of x with respect to t
Example - 1
An edge of a variable cube is increasing at the
rate of 5 cm/s. How fast is the volume of the
cube increasing when the edge is 6 cm long.
Solution
2
dV
=15x
dt
¬
2
dV
=3x 5
dt
¬ ×
( )
2
3
x=6
dV
=15 6 =540 cm /s
dt
| |
¬
|
\ .
Let x be the edge of the variable cube and
V be the volume at any time t.
2
dV dx
=3x
dt dt
×
3
dx
V=x and =5cm/s [Given]
dt
Example - 2
The radius of a spherical soap bubble is
increasing at the rate of 0.2 cm/sec. Find
the rate of increase of its surface area,
when the radius is 7 cm.
Solution
Let r be the radius of a spherical soap bubble
and S be the surface area at any time t.
2
dr
Then, S=4 r and =0.2cm/s
dt
t
dA dr
=8 r
dt dt
t
( )
dA
=8 r 0.2
dt
¬ t
x=7
dS 22
=1.6× ×7
dt 7
| |
¬
|
\ .
= 1.6 x 22 = 35.2 cm
2
/sec
Tangent
( )
y =ƒ x Let be a continuous curve and let (x
0
,

y
0
)
be a point on the curve.
The slope of the tangent to curve f(x) at (x
0
, y
0
) is
( )
( )
0 0
0
x , y
dy
ƒ x or
dx
| |
'
|
\ .
The equation of the tangent to the curve at (x
0
, y
0
) is
( )
( )
0 0
0 0
x , y
dy
y- y = x- x
dx
| |
|
\ .
Normal
Equation of normal to the curve at (x
0
, y
0
) is
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0 0
x , y
1
y- y =- x- x
dy
dx
| |
|
\ .
As normal is perpendicular to tangent at the point of contact
( )
0 0
x , y
1 1
Slope of normal =- i.e.-
dy Slope of tangent
dx

| |
|
\ .
Example-3
Find the equation of the tangent and normal to the curve
y = x
4
– 6x
3
+ 13x
2
– 10x + 5 at (0,5).
Solution :
4 3 2
y =x -6x +13x -10x+5
3 2
dy
=4x -18x +26x-10
dx
¬
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
0, 5
dy
=4 0 -18 0 +26 0 -10=-10
dx
| |
|
\ .
Solution Cont.
Equation of tangent at (0, 5) is y – 5 = -10 (x – 0)
y-5=-10x 10x+y-5=0 ¬ ¬
Slope of the normal at (0, 5)
( )
1 1
=- =
-10 10
Equation of normal at (0, 5) is
( )
1
y-5= x- 0 10y=x+50
10
¬
Example-4
If the tangent to the curve at (1, -6) is parallel to
the line x – y + 5 = 0, find the values of a and b.
3
y =x +ax+b
3
Solution: Givencurve is y =x +ax+b
2
dy
=3x +a
dx

( )
( )
( )
2
1, -6
dy
The slope of the tangent at 1,- 6 = =3 1 +a
dx
=a+3
| |

|
\ .
Con.
The tangent is parallel to x y 5 0 y x 5 ÷ + = ¬ = +
a+3=1 a=-2 ¬
Therefore, the curve becomes ( )
3
y =x - 2x+b ... i
(1, –6) lies on (i)
6 1 2 b b 5 ÷ = ÷ + ¬ = ÷
a 2, b 5 = ÷ = ÷
Angle Between Two Curves
1 2
θ=θ - θ
( )
1 2
tanθ=tan θ -θ
P (x, y)
0 0
y = g(x)
y = f(x)
u
2
u
1
y
x
O
u
Angle Between Two
Curves
1 2
1 2
tanθ - tanθ
=
1+tanθ tanθ
( ) ( )
1 0 1 2 0 2
Where tanθ =f' x =m and tanθ =g' x =m
The other angle is 180
0
- u
(1) Orthogonal curves: m
1
m
2
= - 1

(2) Curves touch each other: m
1
= m
2

Example-5
Show that the curves x
2
= 4y and 4y + x
2
= 8
intersect orthogonally at (2, 1).
Solution
We have x
2
= 4y and 4y + x
2
= 8
dy
dx
dy
2x =4 and 4 +2x =0
dx
¬
x dy x
dy
and = -
dx
2 dx 2
= ¬
( ) ( )
dy 2 2 dy
m = = =1 and m = =- =-1
1 2
dx 2 2 dx
2,1 2,1
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
¬
Hence, the curves intersect orthogonally at (2, 1).
m
1
m
2
= 1 x (-1) = -1
Increasing Function
Increasing
function
a
x
1
b x
2
X
Y
f(x
1
)
f(x
2
)
O
Increasing Function
A function is said to be a strictly
increasing function of x on (a, b).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2
If x <x in a, b ƒ x <ƒ x for all x , x a, b ¬ e
‘Strictly increasing’ is also referred to as
‘Monotonically increasing’.
Decreasing Function
Decreasing
function
a x
1 b
x
2
X
Y
f(x
1
)
f(x
2
)
O
Decreasing Function
A function ƒ(x) is said to be a strictly
decreasing function of x on (a, b).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2
If x <x in a, b ƒ x >ƒ x for all x , x a, b ¬ e
‘Strictly decreasing’ is also referred to
as ‘Monotonically decreasing’.
Use of Derivative
Let f(x) be a differentiable real function
defined on an open interval (a, b).
( )
(i) If ƒ x >0 for all x (a, b) f(x) is increasing on(a,b). ' e ·
( )
(ii) If ƒ x <0 for all x (a, b) f(x) is decresing on(a,b). ' e ·
Use of Derivative (Con.)
Y = f(x)
T
X
Y
O
T'
a
b
Figure 1
P
u
Slope of tangent at any point in (a, b) > 0
| |
As tanθ>0 for 0<θ<90°
( )
dy
ƒ x 0
dx
' ¬ = > for all x in (a, b).
Use of Derivative (Con.)
u
Figure 2
T'
X
Y
T
a
b P
O
Slope of tangent at any point in (a, b) < 0
| |
As tanθ<0 for 90°<θ<180°
( )
dy
ƒ x 0
dx
' ¬ = < for all x in (a, b).
Example-1
For the function f(x) = 2x
3
– 8x
2
+ 10x + 5,
find the intervals where

(a)f(x) is increasing
(b) f(x) is decreasing
Solution
We have
3 2
ƒ(x)=2x - 8x +10x +5
2
ƒ (x)=6x - 16x +10 '
2
=2(3x - 8x +5)
=2(3x - 5)(x -1)
ƒ(x)=0 2(3x- 5)(x-1)=0 ' ¬
5
x= ,1
3

Solution Cont.
5
For 1<x< , ƒ (x) is negative
3
'
5
For x> ,ƒ (x) is positive
3
'
For x < 1, is positive. ƒ(x)=3(3x- 5)(x-1) '
ƒ(x) is increasing for x < 1 and
5
x>
3
and it decreases for
5
1<x<
3
Example-2
Find the intervals in which the function
in increases or decreases.
ƒ(x)=x +cosx
[0, 2 ] t
Solution: We have ƒ(x)=x +cosx
ƒ (x)=1- sinx
'
| |
As sinx is 1 for all x 0, 2 s e t
And sinx =1 for x =
2
t
( )
ƒ x >0 for all x except x =
2
t
'
( )
ƒ x is increasing for all x except x =
2
.
t
'
¬
Session
Applications of Derivatives - 2
Session Objectives
 Rolle’s Theorem

 Geometrical Meaning

 Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem

 Geometrical Meaning

 Approximation of Differentials

 Class Exercise
Maximum and Minimum
Extreme and Critical points
Greatest and Least Values
Maximum and Minimum
Maximum and Minimum
The point a is called the point of maximum of the function f(x).
In the figure, y = f(x) has maximum values at Q and S.
( ) ( )
ƒ a >ƒ a+δ
If and
( ) ( )
ƒ a >ƒ a- δ
for all small values of δ.
The point b is called the point of minimum of the function f(x).
In the figure, y = f(x) has minimum values at R and T.
( ) ( )
ƒ b <ƒ b+δ
If and
( ) ( )
ƒ b <ƒ b- δ
for all small values of
δ.
Let
( )
y =ƒ x
be a function
Extreme Points
The points of maximum or minimum of
a function are called extreme points.
At these points,
( ) ( )
ƒ x =0, if ƒ x exists. ' '
X
Y
O
(i)
P
f

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
f

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
X
Y
O
(ii)
Q
f

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
f

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
( )
At P and Q ƒ x does not exit. '
Critical Points
The points at which or at which

does not exist are called critical points.
( )
ƒ x =0 '
( )
ƒ x '
A point of extremum must be one of the
critical points, however, there may exist
a critical point, which is not a point of
extremum.
Theorem - 1
Let the function be continuous in some
interval containing x
0
.

( )
y =ƒ x
( )
ƒ x >0 '
( )
ƒ x <0 '
(i) If when x < x
0
and
When x > x
0
then f(x) has maximum
value at x = x
0

( )
ƒ x <0 '
( )
ƒ x >0 '
(ii) If when x < x
0
and
When x > x
0
,then f(x) has minimum
value at x = x
0

Theorem - 2
If x
0
be a point in the interval in which y
= f(x) is

defined and if
( ) ( )
0 0
ƒ x =0 and ƒ x 0 ' '' =
( ) ( ) ( )
if
0 0
i ƒ x is amaximum ƒ x <0 ''
( ) ( ) ( )
if
0 0
ii ƒ x is aminimum ƒ x >0 ''
Greatest and Least Values
The greatest or least value of a continuous
function f(x) in an interval [a, b] is
attained either at the critical points or at
the end points of the interval.
So, obtain the values of f(x) at these
points and compare them to determine
the greatest and the least value in the
interval [a, b].
Example-3
Find all the points of maxima and
minima and the corresponding
maximum and minimum values of
the function:
( )
4 3 2
3 45
f x =- x - 8x - x +105
4 2
(CBSE 1993)
Solution
( )
4 3 2
3 45
f x =- x - 8x - x +105
4 2
( )
3 2
f' x =-3x - 24x - 45x
We have
( )
( )
2
f' x =-3x x +8x+15 ¬
For maximum or minimum
f’(x) = 0
( )
2
-3x x +8x+15 =0
( ) ( )
-3x x+3 x+5 =0 ¬
x =0, - 3, - 5 ¬
Solution Cont.
( )
2
f'' x =-9x - 48x - 45
At x = 0,
( )
f'' 0 =-45 <0
f(x) is maximum at x = 0
The maximum value at x = 0 is f(0) = 105
f(x) is minimum at x = -3
The minimum value at x = -3 is
( ) ( ) ( )
2
f'' -3 =-9 -3 - 48 -3 - 45=18>0
At x = -3,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 3 2
3 45 231
f -3 =- -3 - 8 -3 - -3 +105 =
4 2 4
Solution Cont.
The maximum value at x = -5 is
( ) ( ) ( )
2
f'' -5 =-9 -5 - 48 -5 - 45=-30<0
f(x) is maximum at x = -5
At x = -5,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 3 2
3 45 295
f -5 =- -5 - 8 -5 - -5 +105 =
4 2 4
Example-4
Show that the total surface area of a cuboid with a square
base and given volume is minimum, when it is a cube.
Solution: Let the cuboid has a square base of edge x and
height y.
2
The volume of cuboid, V =x y
( )
The surface area of cuboid, S=2 x×x+x×y+x×y
2
=2x +4xy
2
2
V
=2x +4x.
x
Con.
2
2V
S=2 x +
x
(

(
¸ ¸
dS
For minimum surface area, =0
dx
2
2V
2 2x - =0
x
(
¬
(
¸ ¸
3 3
x - V =0 x = V ¬ ¬
2
2 3
d S 4V
=2 2 +
dx x
(
(
¸ ¸
Con.
3
2V
=4 1+
x
(
(
¸ ¸
3
x = V
2
2
d S 2V
=4 1+ =4×3=12
V
dx
| |
(
|
(
|
¸ ¸
\ .
2
3
2
d V
As >0 at x = V
dx
3
x= V, surface area is minimum. At
Con.
3 3
x = V V =x ¬
2 3
x y =x y =x ¬ ¬
Cuboid is a cube. ¬
Rolle’s Theorem
Let f(x) be a real function defined in the closed
interval [a, b] such that

(i) f(x) is continuous in the closed interval [a, b]

(ii) f(x) is differentiable in the open interval (a, b).

(iii) f(a) = f(b)
Then, there is a point c in the open interval

(a, b), such that
( )
ƒ c =0 '
Geometrical Meaning
There will be at least one point with in [a, b] where
tangent of the curve will be parallel to x-axis.
( )
ƒ c =0
'
f(a) = f(b)
Y
X
x = a x = b
f(a)
A
f(b)
B
Figure (1)
O
f(a) = f(b)
f(a)
Y
O
X
x = a x = b
I
II
III
IV
f(b)
B
Figure (2)
Example - 1
Verify Rolle’s theorem for the function
f(x) = x
2
– 8x + 12 on the interval [2, 6].
Solution :
(1) Given function f(x) is polynomial function.
f(x) is continuous on [2, 6]
(2) f'(x) = 2x – 8 exists in (2, 6)
f(x) is differentiable in (2, 6)
We have f(x) = x
2
– 8x + 12
Solution
(3) f(2) = 2
2
– 8 x 2 + 12 = 0 and f(6) = 6
2
– 8 x 6 + 12 = 0
f(2) = f(6)
Three exists some such that f'(c) = 0
( )
c 2, 6 e
( )
2c-8=0 c =4 2, 6 ¬ ¬ e
Hence, Rolle’s theorem is verified.
All the conditions of Rolle’s theorem is satisfied.
Example - 2
Using Rolle’s theorem, find the points on the curve

where the tangent is parallel to x-axis.
y=x(x - 4), x [0, 4], e
Solution: (1) Being a polynomial function, the given function is
continuous on [0, 4].
( ) ( )
2 y =2(x - 2) exits in 0, 4 .
'
Function is differentiable in (0, 4).

( )
( ) ( )
x=0 x=4
3 y =0 and y =0
Con.
All conditions of Rolle’s theorem are satisfied.

( )
So, x 0, 4 such that - e
ƒ (x)=0 2(x -2)=0 x=2
'
¬ ¬
y=2(2- 4) y=- 4 ¬
Required point is (2, –4)
Lagrange’s Mean Value
Theorem
Let f(x) be a function defined on [a, b] such that

(i) it is continuous on [a, b].

(ii) it is differentiable on (a, b).
Then,there exists a real number c (a, b) e
such that
( )
( ) ( )
ƒ b - ƒ a
ƒ c =
b- a
'
Geometrical Meaning
|
|
O D E
X
Y
(a, f(a))
C
B(b, f(b))
(c, f(c))
A
F
Geometrical Meaning
By Lagrange’s Mean Value theorem,
( )
( ) ( )
( )
ƒ b - ƒ a
ƒ c = tan =ƒ c
b-a
' ' ¬ |
¬ Slope of the chord AB = Slope of the tangent at
( ) ( )
c, ƒ c
From the triangle AFB,
( ) ( )
ƒ b - ƒ a
BF
tan = tan =
AF b-a
| ¬ |
Example - 3
Verify Lagranges Mean Value theorem for
the function f(x) = x
2
– 3x + 2 on [-1, 2].
Solution :
(1) The function f(x) being a polynomial
function is continuous in [-1, 2].
(2) f'(x) = 2x – 3 exists in (-1, 2)
f(x) is differentiable in (-1, 2)
Solution
( )
c -1, 2 e So, there exists at least one such that
( )
( ) ( )
( )
f 2 - f -1
f' c =
2- -1
0-6
2c - 3 =
2+1
¬
( )
1
2c - 3 =-2 c = -1, 2
2
¬ ¬ e
Hence, Lagrange's mean value theorem is verified.
Example - 4
Using Lagrange’s mean value theorem, find the point on the curve

, where tangent is parallel to the chord joining (1, –2)
and (2, 1).
3
y =x - 3x
Solution: (1) The function being a polynomial function is continuous
on [1, 2].
( ) ( )
2
2 y =3x - 3 exists in 1, 2 '
Function is differentiable in (1, 2).
( )
So, x 1, 2 - e
such that tangent is parallel to chord joining
(1, –2) and (2, 1)
Contd.
( )
2
ƒ(2) - ƒ(1) 2 - (-2)
ƒ (x)= 3 x -1 =
2 - 1 1
' ¬
2 2
4 7 7
x - 1= x = x =±
3 3 3
¬ ¬ ¬
3
2
7 7
y = - 3× ±
3 3
| |
| |

|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 7
y =+
3 3

7 2 7 7 2 7
The points are , - , - , .
3 3 3 3 3 3
| | | |

| |
| |
\ . \ .
Approximation of
Differentials
As by the definition of
dy
dx
δx 0
y dy
lim =
x dx ÷
A
A
Hence, for small increment in x, change in y will be
dy
y = × x
dx
| |
A A
|
\ .
dy
Hence, y+ y =y+ x
dx
.
| |
A A
|
\ .
Example - 5
Solution :
Using differentials, find the approximate

value of
37.
Let y= x
Taking x =36, Δx =1 x +Δx =37 ¬
Δy = x +Δx - x
Δy= 37-6 ¬
37 =6+Δy ¬
Contd.
dy
Δy= Δx
dx
dy 1 1
Δy = ×1 y = x =
dx
2 x 2 x
(
¬ ¬
(
¸ ¸
1 1
0.08
2 6 12
= = =
×
37 6 y = + A
= 6 + 0.08 = 6.08
Example - 6
Using differentials, find the approximate

value of
( )
1
3 29
3
Let y= x
Taking x =27, Δx =2 x+Δx =29 ¬
3 3
Δy= x+Δx - x
3
Δy= 29-3 ¬
3
29=3+Δy ¬
Solution :
Contd.
2
-
dy 1
3
Δy= Δx= x ×2
3 dx
1
3
2
3
dy 1
y=x =
dx
3x
(
(
¬
(
(
¸ ¸
( )
2
-
3
2
= 27
3
2 2
= = =0.074
3×9 27
3
29=3+0.074=3.074
Solution
So, there exists at least one where tangent is

parallel to chord joining (3, 0) and (5, 4).
( )
c 3, 5 e
ƒ(5) - ƒ(3)
ƒ (c)=
5- 3
'
( )
4 - 0
2(c - 3) =
2
c =4 3, 5
¬
¬ e
2
y (4 3) 1 = ÷ =
At x = 4
Required point is (4, 1)
Class Exercise - 5
Using differentials, find the approximate

value of up to 3 places of decimals.
( )
1
4 82
4
Let y= x
Taking x=81, Δx=1 x+Δx=82 ¬
4 4
Δy= x+Δx- x
4
Δy= 82-3 ¬
4
82=3+Δy ¬
Solution :
Solution
3
-
4
dy 1
Δy= Δx= x ×1
dx 4
1
dy 1
4
y=x =
3
dx
4
4x
(
(
¬
(
(
(
¸ ¸
( )
3
-
4
1
= 81
4
1
=
4×27
25 0.926
= = =0.00926
100×27 100
4
82= 3 + 0.00926 = 3.00926 3.009 ~
Thank you