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# DYNAMICS

## BDA 20103 LECTURE 2

Curvilinear motion
-Cartesian (x-y) coordinate system
- Trajectory/projectile motion
Dynamics 2
Brief Review Lecture 1
Dynamics 3
Rectilinear motion
v=
ds
dt
v= s
Instantaneous velocity
Average Velocity
avg
s
v
t
A
=
A
Average acceleration
A
=
A
avg
v
a
t
Instantaneous acceleration
2
2
v
a = =
d d s
dt dt
a v = = s
Dynamics 4
Rectilinear motion
( )
0 0
v v +a = t t
( )
2 2
0 0
v v + a = 2 s s
( )
( )
2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
1
( )
2
= + + s s v t t a t t at t t
0 0
( ) +v = s s t t
Constant velocity Constant acceleration
In general practical
situation:
Initial time t
0
= 0
Also
The particle starts
from distance s
0
= 0
( ) s t = v
( )
0
t = v v +a
( )
2 2
0
2 s = v v + a
( )
2
0
1
( )
2
s v t a t = +
Erratic motion
Dynamics 5
1. Changing motion

2. Position (s), velocity (v), acceleration (a)
cannot be described by a single continuous
mathematical function

3.It is convenient to represent the motion as
a graph
s-t, v-t & a-t graph
Dynamics 6
Dynamics 7
New Topics to Discuss
Introduction Planar Curvilinear Motion

Coordinate System To Represent Curvilinear
Motion

Cartesian (x-y) Coordinate System
Trajectory Motion
Normal Tangential (n-t) Coordinate System

Dynamics 8
General curvilinear motion
P
0

O
r
0

Curved path of P
P
1

r
1

r
s
r
1
=r
0
+ r
avg
t
A
=
A
r
v
d ds
v s
dt dt
= = = =
r
v
avg
t
A
=
A
v
a
0
lim
t
d
t dt
A
A
= = = =
A
v v
a v r
Average
velocity
Instantaneous
velocity 0
lim
t
d
t dt
A
A
= = =
A
r r
v r
Magnitude of
velocity (SPEED)
Average
acceleration
Instantaneous
acceleration
Dynamics 9
Application: x-y coordinate system
P
r
x
y
yj
xi
i
j
O

Dynamics 10
Application: n-t coordinate system
P
v
e
t

e
n

Particle model
Dynamics 11
Definition x-y coordinate system
P
r
x
y
yj
xi
i
j
O

x y = + r i j
x
y

=
`
)
r
( )
2 2
r x y = = + r
cos
sin
r
r
o
o

=
`
)
r
or can be expressed
Dynamics 12
Velocity in x y coordinate system
x
y
dx
v
x
d d
dt
v
y dy dt dt
dt

= = = =
` ` `
)
)

)
r
v
x
y
v
x
v
y

= =
` `
)
)
v
Velocity in x and y axes
( )
2 2
x y
v v v = = + v
Dynamics 13
Acceleration x y coordinate system
x
x x
y y y
dv
v a
d dt
v a dv
dt
dt

= = =
` ` `
) )

)
a
x x
y y
a v
x
a v
y

= = =
` ` `
)
) )
a
Acceleration in x and y axes
( )
2 2
x y
a a a = = + a
Dynamics 14
x y coordinate system: Projectile Motion
Free-flight motion studied in terms of
rectangular components
Consider projectile launched at (S
Ax
, S
Ay
)
Path defined in the x-y plane
Air resistance neglected
a
c
= g = 9.81 m/s
2
Dynamics 15
x y coordinate system: Projectile Motion
v
A

v
Ax

v
Ay

o
s
x

s
Ax

s
Ay

s
y

v
v
x

v
y

a
y
= -g
A
Dynamics 16
Velocity in trajectory
Horizontal:
a
x
= 0 v
Ax
= v
A
cos t
A
= 0 a
y
= -g v
Ay
= v
A
sin t
A
= 0
( )
Ax A
t t =
x x
v v +a
A
cosu =
x
v v
( )
2 2
Ax x Ax
2 s s =
x x
v v + a
2 2
Ax Ax A
cosu = = =
x x
v v v v v
( )
Ay A
t t =
y y
v v +a
sin
A
gt u =
y
v v
( )
2 2
Ay y Ay
2 s s =
y y
v v + a
( )
2
2
sin 2 ( )
A y Ay
g s s u =
y
v v
Vertical:
0
0
0
0
-g
Dynamics 17
Distance in trajectory
( )
( )
2 2
1
( )
2
x Ax Ax A x A x A A
s s v t t a t t a t t t = + +
x Ax Ax
s s v t = +
( )
cos
x Ax A
s s v t u = +
Horizontal:
Vertical:
( )
( )
2 2
1
( )
2
y Ay Ay A y A y A A
s s v t t a t t a t t t = + +
2
1
2
y Ay Ay
s s v t gt = +
( )
2
1
sin
2
y Ay A
s s v t gt u = +
-g
Dynamics 18
EXAMPLE 1(Hibbeler R.C Eg.12.9)
At any instant the horizontal
position of the weather balloon
is defined by x = (9t) m, where
t is in second. If the equation
of the path is y = x
2
/30,
determine the distance of the
balloon from the station at A,
the magnitude and direction of
the both the velocity and
acceleration when t = 2 s.
Dynamics 19
Solution:
Position. When t = 2 s, x = 9(2) m = 18 m and
y = (18)
2
/30 = 10.8 m
The straight-line distance from A to B is

( ) ( ) 21 8 . 10 18
2 2
= + = r m
Velocity.

( )
( ) s m x
dt
d
y v
s m t
dt
d
x v
y
x
/ 8 . 10 30 /
/ 9 9
2
= = =
= = =

EXAMPLE 1
Dynamics 20
When t = 2 s, the magnitude of velocity is
( ) ( ) s m v / 1 . 14 8 . 10 9
2 2
= + =
The direction is tangent to the path, where

2 . 50 tan
1
= =

x
y
v
v
v
u
Acceleration.
2
/ 4 . 5
0
s m v a
v a
y y
x x
= =
= =

EXAMPLE 1
Dynamics 21
( ) ( )
2
2 2
/ 4 . 5 4 . 5 0 s m a = + =
The direction of a is

= = 90
0
4 . 5
tan
1
a
u
EXAMPLE 1
Dynamics 22
The chipping machine is designed to eject wood at
chips v
O
= 7.5 m/s. If the tube is oriented at 30
from the horizontal, determine how high, h, the
chips strike the pile if they land on the pile 6 m
from the tube.
EXAMPLE 2 - projectile
Dynamics 23
Coordinate System. Three unknown h, time of
flight, t
OA
and the vertical component of velocity
(v
B
)
y.
Taking origin at O, for initial velocity of a chip,

(v
A
)
x
= (v
O
)
x
= 6.5 m/s and a
y
= -9.81 m/s
2

| = =
= =
s m v
s m v
y O
x O
/ 75 . 3 ) 30 sin 5 . 7 ( ) (
/ 5 . 6 ) 30 cos 5 . 7 ( ) (

Dynamics 24
Horizontal Motion.
s t
t v x x
OA
OA x A
9231 . 0
) (
0 0
=
+ =
Vertical Motion.
Relating t
OA
to initial and final elevation of the chips,
( ) | +
m h
t a t v y h y
OA c OA y O A
38 . 1
2
1
) ( 1 . 2
2
0
=
+ + = =
Dynamics 25
Problem 3.1
A stone is thrown
horizontally at +17 m/s from
the top of a cliff 40 m high.
How long does the stone take
to reach the bottom of the cliff?
How far from the base of the
cliff does the stone strike the
ground?
What is the speed of the stone
just before it strikes the
ground?
Dynamics 26
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