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PENILAIAN RISIKO

A. Siswanto
2009
RISK MANAGEMENT
RISK ASSESSMENT
Hazard
Not everyone sees the same
hazard; People interpret hazards
diferently based on their
viewpoint, knowledge and
experience.
Those managing safety and health should
adhere to the following basic principles.
1. Management is ultimately responsible for
occupational safety and health - Thus, the
need for commitment, budgeting, and
planning for safety falls upon managements
shoulders.
Principle of
Management
2. Poor safety conditions and safety performance
by the worforce result from managements
failure to effecti!ely manage worplace safety
and health -- "ccidents and incidents result
from managements inability to manage safety
and health as they would any other company
function.
Principle of
Management
Principle of
Management
#. $orer and super!isor in!ol!ement are
critical to good worplace safety and
health. " worforce that is not in!ol!ed in
safety and health has no ownership and
thus feels no in!estment, responsibility,
or accountability for it.
Principle of
Management
Hazard identifcation and analysis are critical
functions in assuring a safe and healthy
work environent ! "f anageent and the
workforce do not tolerate the existence of
hazards and constantly ask the #uestion,
$$How could this have happened%&& they are
better able to get to the basic causes of
adverse workplace events.
Principle of
Management
Managements philosophy, actions, policies, and
procedures regarding safety and health in the
worplace put worers into situations where they
must disregard good safety and health practices to
perform their assigned tas or wor $orers in
most cases perform wor in an unsafe or
unhealthy manner when they ha!e no choice or
are forced to do so by e%isting conditions and
e%pectations.
Principle of
Management
"t is critical to obtain safe and healthy
perforance or behavior by efective
counications and otivational
procedures that are copatible with
the culture of your workforce
Principle of
Management
"f you do not understand what it is
that fulflls the needs of your
workforce, you will not be able to
counicate or otivate the
regarding safety and health outcoes
no atter how good your
anageent approach.
HAZARDS
Mechanical Hazards
Trapping hazards Impact hazards
&includes puncture'
Contact hazards
&cutting, friction or
abrasion'
Entanglement
hazards
&rotating parts'
Ejection hazards
&eg of worpiece or
part of tool'
Two mo!ing parts
or one mo!ing
part and a fi%ed
surface
(on!eyor belt
and dri!e
)ee belt and
pulley
Power press
Mangle
*uillotine
+cissors
+tapler
,sing hammer.
+omething that
may strie or
stab someone or
can be struc
against
Mo!ing !ehicle
-obot arm
+ewing machine
.rill
/ypodermic
needle
Pendulum
(rane hoo.
+omething sharp
or with a rough
surface
0nife, chisel,
saw, etc.
1lender blade
(ircular saw
blade
+anding belt
"brasi!e wheel
/o!er mower
1lade.
.rill chuc and
bit
Power tae off
shaft
Pipe threading
machine
"brasi!e wheel.
(atridge tool
Thicnessing
machine
,sing hammer
and chisel
"brasi!e wheel.
Electrical, ress!re, Stored Energ", Sta#ilit",
$%erloading
Electrical hazards ress!re hazards Stored energ"
hazards
Sta#ilit" hazards $%erload&
de'ecti%e d!e to
mechanical
'ail!re
Electricit"(
2lectricity abo!e
234)
2lectricity &234)'
2lectricity &114)'
2%tra low !olt
electricity
Ignition So!rces(
+tatic
1atteries.
(ompressed air
(ompressed gas
+team boiler
)acuum
/ydraulic
system.
+prings under
tension
+prings under
compression
/oist platform5list
cage
(on!eyor tension
weight
-aised tipper
lorry body
(ounterweight
6oad carried by
crane.
7nade8uate crane
base
9orlift truc on
slope
Machine not
bolted down
Mobile scaffold
too high
+caffold not tied.
(rane o!erload
(hain sling
2ye bolt
o!erload
+caffold
o!erload
/opper o!erfill.
Radiation, Noise, )i#ration and
Thermal Hazards
Radiation hazards Noise hazards )i#ration hazards Thermal hazards
Electricit"(
: -ays
or radiation
neutrons
Ignition So!rces(
Microwa!e
-adio fre8uency
6aser
,ltra!iolet
7nfrared.
Pneumatic drill
;peration of plant.
Pneumatic drill
;peration of plant.
/ot surface
,sing blow lamp
$elding flame5arc
-efrigerant
+team.
*ire&E+plosion Hazards
Com#!sti#le
hazards
*lamma#le
s!#stances
&including highly and
e%tremely flammable'
$+idising
s!#stances
,!st e+plosion
hazards
Timber stac
(oal store
*rease
Magnesium
+traw
Plastic foam
;%ygen enrichment.
Petrol
Propane gas
Methane
(arbon mono%ide
Methanol
Paraffin
"cetone
Toluene.
;rganic pero%ide
Potassium
permanganate
<itric acid
2%plosi!e material
9irewors
Proprietary
e%plosi!e
.etonators
+ome o%idising
agents
/ighly flammable
gas.
(oal dust
$ood dust
"luminium powder
9lour.
Hazardo!s S!#stances
Corrosi%e&
Irritating
materials
,!st
e+plosion
hazards
*!mes )apo!rs Gases
+ulphuric
acid
(austic soda
Man made
mineral fibre.
"sbestos
fibres
+ilica dust
.ust mite
faeces
Pigeon
droppings
(oal
.ust grain
dust
$ood dust.
6ead fume
-ubber fume
"sphalt
fumes
"cetone
1,1,1-tri-
chloroetahan
e
.ichloro-
methane
1en=ene
7socyanates.
(arbon
mono%ide
/ydrogen
sulphide
(arbon
disuphide
+ulphur
dio%ide.
Mists Asph"+iants Ingestion
hazards
Contact
hazards
;il mist
Printing in mist
$ater-
legionella
<itrogen
(arbon dio%ide
"rgon.
To%ic, harmful,
corrosi!e and
irritant li8uids
Poisons, eg all
harmful
aerosols,
polluted water,
contaminated
food and drin.
+warf
-ough timber
(oncrete
blocs
Molten metal
fro=en food.
Hazards Associated -ith the .or/place
Access .or/ at heights $#str!ction Stac/ing& storing
hazards
.or/ o%er&near
li0!ids, d!sts,
grain, etc1
Trips&slips(
.amaged floor
Trailing cables
;il spills
$ater on floor
.ebris
$et grass
+loping surface
,ne!en steps
(hanges in floor
le!el
Access(
6oced e%its
;bstructed
egresses
6ong e%it route
9ragile roof
2dge of roof
2dge of
me==anine floor
$or on ladder
2recting scaffold
/ole in floor.
6ow headroom
+harp
pro>ections.
/igh stacs
7nsecure stacs
7nade8uate
racing
+tacing at
heights.
*rain silo
Tan
-eser!oir
+ump
$or o!er ri!er
$or near
canal.
Hazards Associated -ith the .or/ En%ironment
2ight Temperat!re Con'ine
spaces
)entilation
*lare
Poor lighting
+troboscopic
effect
"rc welding
Molten metal.
Indoor -or/(
$or in furnace
(old room
$!t door -or/(
/ot weather
(old weather
$in chill factor
$or in rain,
snow etc..
$or in tan
(himney
Pit
1asement
,n!entilated
room
)essel
+ilo.
9umes
;dours
Tobacco
smoe.
Hazards Associated -ith .or/ Methods
Man!al Handling -epetiti!e mo!ements ost!re
6ifting
6owering
(arrying
Pushing
Pulling
/ot 5 cold loads
-ough loads
6i!e loads, ie person
or animal.
0eyboard wor
,sing screwdri!er
,sing hammer and
chisel
Plucing chicens
Production line tass.
+eated wor
$or abo!e head
height
$or at floor le!el.
Hazards Associated -ith .or/ Methods
Man!al Handling -epetiti!e mo!ements ost!re
6ifting
6owering
(arrying
Pushing
Pulling
/ot 5 cold loads
-ough loads
6i!e loads, ie person
or animal.
0eyboard wor
,sing screwdri!er
,sing hammer and
chisel
Plucing chicens
Production line tass.
+eated wor
$or abo!e head
height
$or at floor le!el.
Hazards Associated -ith .or/ $rganisation
Contractors $rganisation o' -or/ .or/ in p!#lic areas
$or abo!e
employees
,se of harmful
substances
(ontractors welding
Process fumes
+er!ices &eg
underground
electricity cables'
+tored ha=ardous
materials.
Monotonous wor
+tress
Too much wor
6ac of control >ob
$or too demanding.
Trailing cables
Traffic5plant mo!ement
;bstruction to blind
person
;bstruction to prams,
etc.
$or abo!e public.
$ther T"pes o' Hazards
Attac/ #"
animals
"ttac by people Nat!ral hazards
1ees
.og
1ull
9leas
+nae.
(riminal attac
"ngry customer
"ngry student
.runen person
.rug abuser
Mentally ill
person.
6ighting
9lash flood.
TAHAPAN
MANAJEMEN
RISI!
PERSIAPAN
PERSIAPAN
IDENTIFIKASI BAHAYA
IDENTIFIKASI BAHAYA
ANALISIS RISIKO
ANALISIS RISIKO
PENILAIAN RISIKO
PENILAIAN RISIKO
PENANGANAN RISIKO
PENANGANAN RISIKO
MONITOR
& REVIEW
AKIBAT KESEMPATAN
"f for any reason it is not possible to
integrate risk anageent across an
entire organization, it ay still be
possible to apply it successfully to
individual departents, processes or
pro'ects.
Ris" Management
Ris"
Management
is to understand
risk and to
itigate the risk
to an acceptable
level.

(isk anageent is recognized as an


integral part of good management
practice#

)o be ost efective, risk anageent


should becoe part of an
organization&s culture.
Ris" Management
Step 3 4 Ris/ Assessment

*hat ight go wrong% +Ris"


identi$cation,

*hat is the likelihood it will go wrong%


+Ris" Analysis,

*hat are the conse#uences and how


severe% -ould we know the risk% +Ris"
Eval%ation,
Ris" Management
Step & ' Ris" (omm%nication and
Revie)

*ho need to know about the (isk


.ssessent and -ontrol% +(isk
-ounication,

*ill the situations change later% +(isk


(eview,
Ris" Management
*cont+d,
Step - ' Ris" (ontrols

"s the risk acceptable% +(isk .cceptance,

"f not, what can we do to ake it


acceptable%
+(isk (eduction,
#1
apan mana.emen resi"o dila"sana"an/
Mana.emen resi"o se0ai"nya dila"%"an
pada tahap1tahap se0agai 0eri"%t'
?
Perencanaan suatu proses
?
Proses operasi sudah ber'alan, dengan
dilakukan secara teratur +ter'adual,
?
Pada saat peeliharaan +aintenance,
yang eerlukan penghentian proses
operasi +a'or shut/down,
?
Pada saat penabahan peralatan baru
+pebelian peralatan,
?
0ila terdapat keluhan dari peakai
?
0ila ter'adi kecelakaan.
"dentifkasi 0ahaya
"dentifkasi 0ahaya
.nalisis
1rekuensi
.nalisis
1rekuensi
.nalisis .kibat
.nalisis .kibat
)etapkan sisti
yang akan
dikelola
)etapkan sisti
yang akan
dikelola
Pengendalian dan Peantauan (esiko
Pengendalian dan Peantauan (esiko
2valuasi (isiko
2valuasi (isiko
(isk .ssessent 3atrix
Identi$"asi 2ahaya - Hazard
Identi$cation 4
Penetapan5penentuan dari suatu bahan,
syste,
proses dan karakteristik pabrik yang dapat
enibulkan akibat yang tidak diinginkan
akibat suatu kecelakaan.
(The pinpointing of material, system,
process, and plant characteristics that can
produce undesirable consequences through
the occurrence of an incident).
Pengelolaan Resi"o - Ris" Management
4 Penerapan secara sisteatis dari
kebi'akan/ana'een, prosedur dan
pelaksanaan tugas analisis, pengukuran dan
pengendalian resiko guna elindungi
anusia, lingkungan dan asset perusahaan.
The systematic application of management
policies, procedures, and practices to the
tasks of analyzing, assessing, and
controlling risk in order to protect the
people, the environment, and company
assets.
?
)he priary beneft of conducting a risk
assessent is to eval%ate the
hazards of a sit%ation prior to the
occ%rrence of an incident or
accident#
?
Having this knowledge, the organization
or the afected person can then ake an
infored decision on whether or not to
accept that risk.
Ris" Assessment
#@
6o outcoes
.cceptable
7nacceptable
87)-8329
accident
incident
near miss
?
. risk assessent progra is but
one of the any necessary
eleents for a successful risk
anageent progra.
?
8nce assessed, the organization
needs to be prepared to act on the
fndings and resulting
recoendations.
Ris" Assessment
)he P3AN +identifcation of safety and
health aspect, of the anageent
syste needs to be supported by the 4!
+ipleentation and operation,, the
(HE( +checking and corrective action,,
and the A(T +anageent review,.
Ris" Assessment
?
"n its siplest for, a risk assessent is
the process of aking a deterination of
how safe a situation is.
?
*illia :owrance defnes safety is ; a
'udgent of the acceptability of risk< and
risk as ; a easure of the probability and
severity of har to huan health<.
Ris" Assessment
Risi"o tida" dapat dihilang"an5
artinya risiko akan selalu ada,
sebagaiana huku aksi/reaksi. (isiko
erupakan akibat dari suatu aksi.
3isalnya, risiko yang berhubungan
dengan keatian, kehilangan, kerusakan
dll. Hanya dengan enghilangkan
aktivitas atau faktor bahaya lainnya,
risiko dapat dihindari.
34
Risi"o
31
(ombustible
ha=ards
9lammable
substances
;%idi=ing
substances
.ust
e%plosion
ha=ards
Timber
stac
(oal store
*rease
Magnesium
+traw
Plastic foam
;%ygen
enrichment.
Petrol
Propane
gas
Methane
(arbon
mono%ide
Methanol
Paraffin
"cetone
Toluene
;rganic
pero%ide
Potassium
permanganate
<itric acid
2%plosi!e
material
9irewors
Proprietary
e%plosi!e
.etonators
+ome o%idising
agents
(oal dust
$ood dust
"luminium
powder
9lour
*ire&e+plosion Hazards
32
-orrosive5
"rritating
aterials
1ues =apor >ases
9ulphuric
acid
-austic
soda
3an ade
ineral
fbr
:ead
fue
(ubber
fue
.sphalt
fues
.cetone
?,?,?/tri/
chloroetahan
e
@ichloro/
ethane
0enzene
"socyanates
-arbon
onoxide
Hydrogen
sulfde
-arbon
disulfde
9ulfur
dioxide.
Hazardo!s S!#stances
3#
(ontractor ;rgani=ation of
wor
$or in public
areas
*ork above
eployees
7se of harful
substances
-ontractors&
welding
Process fues
9ervices +e.g.
underground
electricity
cables,
9tored
hazardous
aterials.
3onotonous
work
9tress
)oo uch work
:ack of control
'ob
*ork too
deanding.
)railing cables
)raAc5plant
oveent
8bstruction to
blind person
8bstruction to
pras, etc.
*ork above
public
Hazards Associated -ith .or/ $rganization
33
"ttac by animals "ttaced by people <atural ha=ards
0ees
@og
0ull
1leas
9nake.
-riinal attack
.ngry custoer
.ngry student
@runken person
@rug abuser
3entally ill
person
:ightning
1lash Bood.
$ther T"pes o' Hazards
)he overall
process of
estiating the
agnitude of risk
and deciding
whether or not
the risk is
tolerable
is is tolerable.
-is assessment is
the 0!alitati%e or
0!antitati%e
estimation of the
lielihood of ad!erse
effects that may
result from e%posure
to specified health
ha=ards.
Ris" Assessment
?
"n using the (.3, the conse6%ence
severity is 0ased on the potential
o%tcome of the incident rather than
the act%al o%tcome i.e. what ight
have happened realistically rather than
what actually happened, and the
likelihood estiate is based on the
previous occurrence of this conse#uence
due to this type of incident.
Pengg%naan RAM *Ris" Assessment
Matri7,
(.3 dapat dipergunakan dala berbagai hal
seperti 4
-"M can be used for !arious purposes such asA
?
(isk .ssesseent sebagai bagian dari (isk
3anageent &-is assessment as part of /+2
-is Management'.
?
Penetapan Prioritas upaya reduksi risiko
&Prioriti=ing ris reduction efforts'.
?
3eperlihatkan ketekunan dala
pengendalian
risiko berdasarkan kepada tingkat risikonya
+.emonstrate due diligence in ris control
according to the degree of ris'.
.
?
Penetapan koposisi tea investigasi
kecelakaa +.etermining incident in!estigation
team composite'.
?
3engkasifkasikan laporan near iss,
inspeksi dan teuan audit &(lassifying near
miss reports, inspection and audit findings'.
Pengg%naan RAM *lan.%tan,
?
.fter assessing the severity of the
potential conse#uence, the likelihood
of the estiated conse#uences
occurring is estiated based on
historical evidence or experience that
such conse#uences have aterialized
within the industry or the copany.
?
A scale of 89: to 8;: is used to
indicate increasing probability in
likelihood axis +horizontal axis,.
Ris"
Management is
the opportunities
and adverse
culture, processes,
structures that are
directed towards
the efective
anageent of
potential efects.
Penerapan secara sistematis dari ebi>aan
mana>emen, prosedur dan ati!itas dalam
egiatan identifiasi bahaya, analisis,
penilaian, penanganan dan pemantauan
serta re!iew risio.
Mana.emen Risi"o
B2
"peleentasi ana'een risiko adalah
untuk enginvetarisasi, serta enilai 'enis
bahaya di tepat ker'a, dan hasilnya
digunakan untuk einialkan tingkat
bahaya.
?
@apat eberikan inforasi tentang
berbagai 'enis bahaya dan risiko yang ada
di tepat ker'a, serta potensinya untuk
enibulkan bahaya.
?
@apat digunakan untuk enentukan
strategi dan 'enis pengendalian yang
berhubungan dengan pengaturan
anggaran CD.
?
@apat digunakan untuk perencanaan
penyusunan progra keadaan darurat.
Manfaat Mana.emen
Risi"o
R%ang 3ing"%p'
-uang lingup menun>uan batasan di mana
/7-".( dilauan, dengan cara menentuan
area, egiatan, proses, dan watu yang
dipertimbangan selama pembuatan /7-".(.
T%gas ritis
Tugas peer>aan apa sa>a yang arena >enis
dan sifatnya atau stressor-nya dapat
menimbulan bahaya dan risio 0#6.
JOB SAFETYANALYSIS
0ertu'uan eperbaiki atau
eningkatkan utu CD
elalui pengaatan sikap
dan cara seseorang dala
elakukan peker'aan
Eob 9afety 8bservation
?
Eob 9afety observation +E98, adalah suatu
etoda pengaatan suatu peker'aan untuk
eningkatkan utu pelaksanaan
keselaatan ker'a.
?
Cegiatan ini biasanya dilakukan sewaktu/
waktu oleh para pengawas tanpa
sepengetahuan operator yang diobservasi.
Jo0 Safety !0servation
Pengamatan peer>a dalam melasanaan
peer>aan aspe 0# meliputi A

Penilaian risio bahaya

Penilaian cara er>a yang tida aman

Penilaian cara er>a yang aman,

Melauan oresi

Memberi penghargaan cara er>a yang


aman
Jo0 Safety !0servation
?
E9. is the systeatic exaination of a 'ob
intended to identify potential hazards,
assess the degree of risk, and evaluate
practical easures to control the risk.
?
"t ust be kept in ind that E9. is not a
workplace inspection or an audit procedure.
?
<or"place inspection is a systeatic
exaination of workplace conditions and
practices to deterine their confrity with
copany procedures and copliance with
prescribed health and safety regulations.
Eob 9afety .nalysis Eob 9afety .nalysis
?
. E9. should be proactive, although it ay
be used in response to a rising rate of
in'uries and illnesses.
?
Hazards should be recognized and
preventive easures ipleented at the
planning and organizing stages of the work.
?
"t should be ephasized that the focus of
E9. is to exaine the 'ob and not the
person who is doing the 'ob.
Eob 9afety .nalysis Eob 9afety .nalysis
?. 9electing the 'ob to be analyzed.
F. 0reaking the 'ob down into a se#uence
of tasks.
D. "dentifying potential hazards.
G. @eterining preventive easures to
control these haards.
H. -ounicating the inforation to
others.
Ho) to Perform a JSA
1actors to be considered in assigning
priorities include 4
?
.ccident, in'ury and illness statistics
?
.bsenteeis
?
9igns and syptos of harful exposures
?
Potential for severe in'uries and illnesses
?
3odifed 'obs
?
"nfre#uently perfored 'ob
Ho) to Perform a JSA
1actors to be considered in assigning
priorities include +continued, 4
?
Eobs with fre#uent work interruption due to
technical diAculties
?
Eobs with excessive waste generation and
production losses
?
Eobs where eployees are re#uired to work
alone in isolated workplaces
?
Eobs with the potential for violence in
workplace
Ho) to Perform a JSA
?
If all hazads eval%ations )ere perfect, then
it would not atter which hazard evaluation
techni#ue is used or who perfor the analysis.
?
0ut, unfortunately, neither the techni#ues,
teas, analysts nor studies can ever be perfect.
?
6either hazard evaluation techni#ue nor an
analyst can guarantee that all possible incident
situations involving a process have been
identifed.
?
8rganizations deal with the liitation of
copleteness in two ain ways .
?
1irst, they use interdisiplinary teams to
perfor the analysis, capitalizing the tea
ebers& cobined experince.
?
)his $any heads are better than one&
strategy is the "ey to performing high
6%ality hazard evaluations when using certain
techni#ues +e.g. H.I8P analysis, *hat
if5-hecklist analysis,.
?
Second5 organizations tend to use ore
systeatic techni#ues for those processes
that they believe pose higher risk +or, at
least, for situations in which incidents are
expected to have severe conse#uences,.
?
)hus, the greater the perceived risk of the
process, the ore iportant it is to use
hazard evaluation techni#ues that iniize
the chance of issing an iportant
incident situation.
?
(isk shoud be reduced to a level that is both
$tolerable and .s :ow .s (esonably
practicable +A3ARP,.
?
.larp can be deonstrated if alternatives
have been considered and it is concluded
that further risk reduction are ipraticable
or the costs to further reduce the risk are
grossly disproportionate to the
iproveents gained.
ondisi dan =ata% cara "er.a yang
berpotensi enyebabkan kerugian. 8H9.9
?JKK?/FKKL endefnisikan bahaya sebagai
suber, situasi, atau tindakan yang
berpotensi enyebabkan
cedera5enibulkan penyakit atau
kerusakan harta benda atau kerusakan
lingkungan atau kobinasi dari ke tiganya.
2ahaya
@C
Identi$"asi A)al 2er0agai >a"tor
2ahaya
T%.%an '
?. 3en'aga peker'a selalu waspada terhadap
bahaya dari proses produksi
F. )in'auan prosedur operasi +operating
procedures, untuk kebutuhan revisi,
D. 3engidentifkasi peralatan atau perubahan
proses yang ungkin enghasilkan
bahaya baru.
G. 3engevaluasi siste kontrol dan safety
H. )in'auan terhadap penerapan teknologi
baru untuk engetahui adanya potensi
bahaya
M. )in'auan pelaksanaan inspeksi dan
aintenance
Peluang ter>adinya suatu erugian. 0eterpa>anan
terhadap bahayaD emunginan ter>adi cedera
aibat bahaya tertentu. -isio memilii
emunginan dan eparahan onseuensi.
-isio buanlah hasil &outcome' dari e>adian.
;/+"+ 1C441A 244E mendefinisian risio
sebagai ombinasi dari emunginan ter>adinya
suatu e>adian bahaya atau eterpaparan dan
eparahan ecederaan atau penyait yang dapat
disebaban oleh e>adian atau eterpaparan
tersebut.
Risi"o
(isiko apa sa'a yang teridentifkasi yang
berdiri sendiri dan dapat dikuantifkasi dan
belu diatasi dengan penggunaaan suatu
kontrol.
Risi"o M%rni
Risi"o Sisa
-isio sisa adalah risio yang masih ada setelah
tindaan pengendalian &ontrol' diterapan.
Penilaian risiko yang dilakukan pada tahap
awal operasi dan5atau tugas bertu'uan
untuk engukur di tingkat ana kontrol
yang ada teripleentasi secara efektif dan
untuk enentukan apakah diperlukan
pengontrolan lebih lan'ut. Penilaian baseline
risk 'uga akan dilaksanakan bila terdapat
perubahan etodologi penabangan
5peker'aan, penggunaan alat baru isalnya
'enis truk, eksplosif yang baru, peakaian
bahan kiia baru, ensosialisasikan 98P
yang baru, dll.
Penilaian Risi"o A)al
.
Identi$"asi 2ahaya
Proses untuk engetahui bahwa suatu
bahaya ada di tepat ker'a dan
enentukan karakteristik dari bahaya
tersebut.
Penilaian Risi"o Informal
Penilaian risiko yang dilakukan di tepat
ker'a oleh personil atau kelopok yang
ditugaskan, bersaaan dengan inspeksi
tugas, inspeksi keliling, observasi
peker'aan, dll.
E#
Identi$"asi 2ahaya
3etode untuk engidentifkasi bahaya dari
suatu proses, peker'aan atau aktivitas yang
kritis4

3enggunakan peta=chart proses atau


kegiatan.

3enentukan 0atasan=ling"%p#

3enentukan suber energi yang tibul


dala tahapan peker'aan5proses.

3ebuat daftar .enis s%m0er energi


yang tibul dala tahapan
peker'aan5proses
E3
Identi$"asi 2ahaya
Identi$"asi 2ahaya
(edera, contoh.
pinggang5punggung
0eseleo5terilirr
?
Mengangat5membawa
beban terlalu berat
?
Teni mengangat yang
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?
Posisi mengangat5
membawa salah
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?
/ouseeeping yang buru
2rgonomiA
Penanganan
manual (manual
handling)
Memindahan
arung seberat
1B g
5ang dapat terjadi
(what could happen -
risks?)
otensi #aha"a
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hazards?)
6enis #aha"a
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hazards)
Kegiatan
(activities)
OSH S!"i#s
S $ % O F I N D O
PT SUCOFINDO - OSH Services
enilaian Risi/o
+
&signifian'
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berat tetapi sudah
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Ranking)
enilaian Risi/o
(Risk Assessment)
Risi/o
(risks)
OSH S!"i#s
S $ % O F I N D O
PT SUCOFINDO - OSH Services
engendalian Risi/o
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PT SUCOFINDO - OSH Services
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5ang dapat terjadi
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risks?)
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6enis #aha"a
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engendalian Risi/o


2aman"a&
,!rasi
(deadline)
6 (!") engendalian Risi/o
(Risk "ontrol)
Risi/o
(risks)
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND DETERMINING CONTROL (HIRADC)
Divisio : PT ASON Indonesia
D!"#$%&!%: Housekeeping
P$o'!ss ( O"!$#%io: General Office Cleaning
S'o"!: Part time cleaners-contractor, da s!ift, office areas
D#%! o) HIRADC: "#-"-$##%
D#%! o) R!vi!*: -
T!#& M!&+!$s:
-F#'i,i%#%o$: Aman
-L!#-!$: &itos
-M!&+!$s: I'an, Husin, Nurdin
No
C$i%i'#, T#s. H#/#$-s
Ris. I-!%i)i!-
(P0$! Ris.)
T1"! o) Ris.
Ris.
C#,'0,#%io
Ris.
R#.
S H ( Cons )re*
2
Cleaning floor
3
H#-,i4 ',!#i4
'5!&i'#,s
6
+ifting e*uipment
7
,orking at !eig!t
8
Operating mac!ine
9
Cleaning electrical
e*uipment
S!m#er
energi
)"P2 ("9"C8 +konsekuensi,
CesehatanN
keselaatan
Perlengkap
an N aset
Penundaan
produksi
:ingkungan
KIMIA 6ua 1aar
0erusaan paru-
paru
0eracunan
7ritasi
0ebaaran
6edaan
0orosi
Meleleh
Tida tersedia
Terlalu banya
Terlalu sediit
1ahanimia eliru
Polusi air
Polusi udara
Polusi tanah
2ISTRIK
6ua baar
+hoc
0erusaan mata
0ebaaran
0erusaan
0orslet
1ac feed
7ndusi
Tida tersedia
Terlalu banyaF
amps
Terlalu sediitF
amps
Tegangan salah
Psumber daya
Polusi
enggunaan
MEKANIS 0ontusi
1enturan
(edera tumbuan
.ampa
erusaan
0egagalan
strutur
Tida tersedia
Terlalu banya
Terlalu sediit
Mesin eliru
TEKANAN 0ontusi
(edera Tumbuan
6ua potong
Teanan
berlebih
0erusaan
0erusaan
tumbuan
Tida tersedia
Terlalu banya
Terlalu sediit
Perubahan-
perubahan
Topografis
C#%#%#: E)!.%ivi%#s Ko%$o, : ;< = 2;;<
R!)
No
Ti4.#%
Risi.o
Ko%$o, 1#4 A-#
E)!.%ivi%#s
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8 93 0ebi>aan G.ilarang 1erdiri
di "tas 0ursiH
Pelatihan bagi 0aryawan
tentang +istem 0er>a Tangga
untu 0ebersihan
9: 3; M$
3 93 $arning cones ditempatan
pada area lantai basah
Menginstrusian agar
aryawan men>auh dari lantai
basah
Petugas ebersihan
menggunaan soet listri
yang terdeat dengan area
er>a untu mengurangi risio
ter>erembab
:< 33 Sistem
9 mop
Sepat!
Sensi#l
e
; = 7mplementasi ce pra-
operasi untu mesin-mesin
pembersih.
0aryawan dilatih untu tida
memercian air deat soet
atau alat listri
>: 9
REKOMENDASI DAN RENCANA TINDAKAN
R!)
No
Ting"at
Risi"o
Sisa
(encana )indakan
+Control )abahan, 9uberdaya
yang
@ialokasikan
Penanggun
g Eawab
)angga
l 3ulai
)angga
l
9elesai
9tatus
Cea'
uan
+O,
S H (
8
3
;
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M;P sesuai >adual
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1aseF (atatan
dan "nalisis
-obi #-2-4I 2C-2-4I
3 33
-,ntu mengurangi risio
terpeleset, enalan sistem
2 mop untu membersihan
lantaimop basah diiuti
oleh mop ering.
- Petugas ebersihan
diinstrusian untu
memaai sepatu sensibel
- .ianggaran
pada 0uartal 2
244I
-1uat $; dan
+to $5/ stoc
-iso
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#-2-4I
#-2-4I
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(2) K!$0#.# A,#%
(3) I%!$0"si >s#5#
(6) Li#+i,i%#s L!4#,

DAMPAK TERHADAP
KARYAWAN
DAMPAK TERHADAP
MASYARAKAT
PENGAR>H TERHADAP KESEHATAN
KER?A
DAMPAK LEGAL
> 0sa!a Tutup J 144 MM
6ebih dari 144
fatalistas
6ebih dari
14 fatalitas
$ atau le-i! kematian dise-a-kan ole!
penakit aki-at ker1a 2PA34 (.#%#s%$o)i)
,saha .ihentian
; 3atastrofi B - 144 MM 6ebih dari 14 fatalitas
6ebih dari
1 fatalitas
" kematian dise-a-kan ole! penakit
aki-at ker1a (-is#s%!$)
1erdampa berat
terhadap usaha
: Sangat 3ritis B44,444 - B MM 6ebih dari 1 fatalitas 1 fatalitas
Cedera g -isa merenggut na'a atau cedera
cacat atau 3asus PA3 -erganda. &engalami
keguguran (S#4#% s!$i0s)
Pertimbangan legal
yang berat
8 3ritis
144,444 -
B44,444
1 fatalitas
.irawat 5masu
-umah +ait
Pengaru! kese!atan tidak -isa dipuli!kan.
PA3 ang dapat dikompensasi.
3emungkinan mengalami keguguruan
(s!$i0s)
Pertimbangan legal
@ &enenga!
2B,444 -
144,444
0asus ehilangan
hari er>a
0eluhan adanya bau
&yang ditimbulan'
&engalami pengaru! kese!atan ang
dapat dipuli!kan, PA3.
7n!estigasi 2sternal
9 &inimal 144 - 2B,444
0asus tindaan
medis atau hari er>a
terbatas
Tida ada
/iduga mengalami pengaru! kese!atan
ang dapat dipuli!kan
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dilaporan
3 Tidak 5erarti 4 - 144
0asus P#0 atau
tida mengalami
cedera
Tida ada
Tidak diketa!ui atau diduga -erdampak
ter!adap kese!atan
Tida ada
Ta0el onse"%ensi
E,$MAN MENENT?KAN E*ETI)ITAS K$NTR$2 5ANG A,A
E*EKTI)ITAS ,ESKRISI
3<<A ISTIME.A
Persyaratan yang lengap dari ontrol yang ada dipenuhi dan ditaati dan tida ada
eraguan bahwa persyaratan tersebut secara penuh diimplementasian dan berfungsi.
B<A SANGAT 7AIK
0ontrol yang ada diimplementasian dan berfungsi tetapi masih perlu ditingatan.
>:A
,IIM2EMENTASIKAN
,ENGAN 7AIK
0ontrol yang ada diimplementasian dan berfungsi. Tetapi, masih ada celah yang >elas
yang harus diperbaii. +emua detil persyaratan pada ontrol yang ada tida dipenuhi, dan
beberapa peer>aan masih harus dilauan agar memenuhi detil persyaratan.
;:A ,IIM2EMENTASIKAN
Persyaratan ontrol yang ada diimplementasian cuup bai, tetapi masih memerluan
tindaan spesifi dan terfous untu memenuhi persyaratan.
:<A
,IIM2EMENTASIKAN
SEAR?H
Persyaratan ontrol yang ada telah diimplementasian sampai taraf tertentu. "da pengertian
tentang persyaratan-persyaratan, tatapi dengan >elas memerluan tindaan-tindaan spesifi
untu direncanaan dan diimplementasian.
8<A
,IIM2EMENTASIKAN
K?RANG ,ARI :<A
$alaupun suatu tindaan dilauan untu memenuhi persyaratan suatu item, ada celah-celah
&(gas) yang >elas dan ada emunginan esalahpahaman terhadap beberapa tindaan-tindaan
spesifi yang masih perlu diambil agar bisa secara semestinya mengimplementasian ontrol
yang ada.
9:A IM2EMENTASI 2EMAH
Tida ada tindaan riil yang telah diambil untu mengimplementasian persyaratan. Kelas bahwa
hal-hal tertentu dari persyaratan tida dipahami. 7nter!ensi spesifi harus harus diambil untu
memastian bahwa ema>uan dibuat untu mengimplementasian persyaratan.
3:A A,A ENGERTIAN
"da pengertian bahwa tindaan harus diambil tetapi hingga tanggal ini tida ada sesuatu yang
telah dilauan untu mengimplementasian persyaratan ontrol yang ada.
<A
TI,AK
,IIM2EMENTASIKAN
Tida ada yang sudah dilauan sampai dengan tanggal ini untu mengimplementasian
persyaratan ontrol yang ada. Tida ada pertimbangan implementasi dalam watu deat.
Pengertian tentang persyaratan mungin ada, tetapi tida ada tindaan spesifi untu
memenuhinya.
IDENTIFIKASI BAHAYA=PENILAIAN RISIKO=DAN PENENT>AN KONTROL (HIRADC)
4ivisi4 P) .986 "ndonesia
4epartemen' Housekeeping
Proses=!perasi4 >eneral 8Ace -leaning
R%ang 3ing"%p' Part tie cleaners/contractor, day shift, oAce areas
Tanggal Pem0%atan HIRA4(4 ?K/?/
FKKP
Tanggal Revi%' /
Anggota Tim'
->asilitator4 .an
-Pimpinan' Hasan
-Anggota' 9uparno, Husin, 6urdin
No Pe"er.aan 2ahaya
Risi"o yang
4iidenti$"asi
*Risi"o M%rni,
Jenis Risi"o
al"%lasi
Risi"o
Ting"a
t
Risi"o
S H E
on
s
>re"
2 3ebersihkan lantai
:antai licin,
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ter'erebab, 'atuh
@ 6 A 32
3
3enangani bahan
kiia pebersih
0ahan/bahan kiia
)erkena bahan/bahan
kiia pebersih
@ 3 6 9
6
3engangkat barang
secara anual
Praktek
pengangkatan yang
tidak benar
9akit punggung @ 3 6 9
7 0eker'a di ketinggian
0erdiri di atas kursi
untuk elakukan
pebersihan
Eatuh dari kursi @ 6 A 32
8
3engoperasikan
esin
Pengoperasian
esin yang tidak
benar
(isiko cedera bila
esin enghanta
kaki atau ata kaki
@ 6 3 9
9
3enggunakan alat
pebersih listrik
:istrik
)ersengat atau
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listrik yang salah
@ 3 7 B
-atatan4 2fektivitas Control 4 KO / ?KKO
Ref
No
Ting"at
Risi"o
ontrol
yang
Ada
Efe"tivitas
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t
Risi"o
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s Control
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at
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S H E S H E Elimi
nasi
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#
AP4
8 93 0ebi>aan G.ilarang
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9
:
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pada area lantai basah
Menginstrusian agar
aryawan men>auh dari lantai
basah
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menggunaan soet listri
yang terdeat dengan area
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:
<
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:
R!.o&!-#si -# R!'##
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Sisa
Rencana
Tinda"an
*ontrol
Tam0ahan,
S%m0erday
a yang
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n
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Tangga
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s
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9 H 2
*re/!ensi adalah suatu uuran tingat e>adian
dari suatu peristiwa yang dinyataan sebagai
>umlah e>adian suatu peristiwa dalam watu
yang tertentu. Lang perlu dipertimbanganA

+eberapa sering situasi ter>adi

1erapa orang yang terpapar

0etrampilan dan pengalaman para peer>a

0ondisi pabri5peralatan

0ondisi lingungan
Tahap - ' Tent%"an >re"%ensi
> ; : 8 @ 9 3

KATEG$RI
*REK?ENSI
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ta!un
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per ta!un
2&ungkin4
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dalam "#
ta!un
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n untuk
ter1adi
/iiperkir
akan
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*re/!ensi !nt!/
Keselamatan Kerja
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Keadaan ,ar!rat
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ter1adi.
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setiap
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ker1a
&ungkin
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/alam
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gilir ker1a
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minggu
Agak
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Kesehatan Kerja
Ta0el >re"%ensi
8B 89 @: 9= 93 38 >
89 @; @< 98 3= 39 ;
@: @< 9: 9< 3: 3< :
9= 98 9< 3; 39 = 8
93 3= 3: 39 B ; @
38 39 3< = ; 8 9
> ; : 8 @ 9 3
Tahap &' Hit%ng Ting"at Risi"o * D >,
Tahap @' Er%t"an Ting"at Risi"o

-are A 0emunginan ter>adinya bahaya sangat


ecil & pada eadaan luar biasa '

,nliey A 1iasa tida ter>adi namun emunginan


ter>adi tetap ada.

Possible A 0emunginan ter>adi bahaya ecil atau


merupaan ebetulan

6iely A 0emunginan ter>adi bahaya pada


eadaan tertentu

"lmost certain A +angat mungin ter>adi bahaya


Kem!ng/inan terjadi C 2i/elihood & ro#a#ilit" D

<egligible A Tida memerluan tindaan husus


& diabaian '

6ow -is A Pemantauan untu memastian


tindaan pengendalian telah ber>alan dengan
bai.

ModeratetA Perlu perhatian den tambahan


prosedure 5 $7.

/igh -is A Perlu mendapat perhatian piha


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2%treme A Perlu segera dilauan tindaan


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%atast!o2)i#
44#t
%atast!o2
)i# 44#t
%atast!o
2)i#
44#t
High
Risk
D Ma1o!
)/0an
in1/!&
Ma1o! 44#t Ma1o!
44#t
Ma1o!
44#t
% M*i/0
)/0an
in1/!&
M*i/0
44#t
M*i/0
44#t
M*i/0
44#t
Medium
Risk
(ALARP)
B Mino!
)/0an
in1/!&
Mino! 44#t Mino!
44#t
.
Mino!
44#t
Low Risk
(Manage
for
continual
improvem
ent)
A No
)/0an
in1/!&
Non Non Insi3ni4i
#ant

Eangan ain tebak 'ika data


dikuantifkasi, gunakan data statistik
yang valid.

Cekurangan data dapat enyebabkan


tebakan yang tidak 'u'ur.

Eangan abil keputusan hanya


endasarkan pada skor risiko.

Perilaku anusia sangat kopleks.


3enentukan prioritas dengan
enggunakan )ingkat (isiko'
Penilaian Risi"o
?
"dentifkasi seua kontrol yang ada.
?
Periksa diana keberadaan kontrol tersebut
dan seberapa efektif. Harus dibuat
perkiraan tentang efektivitas alat kontrol
yang ada untuk pengendalian risiko yang
ada.
?
)ingkat efektivitas alat kontrol akan
eberikan petun'uk5epengaruhi
tingkat paparan risiko dan ebantu untuk
engidentifkasi persyaratan kontrol
tabahan
Penent%an ontrol Risi"o
?
)entukan persentasi ting"at
efe"tivitas alat "ontrol yang ada.
-ontoh, ti eutuskan bahwa kontrol
engineering ber'alan cukup efektif,
kontrol adinistrasi sangat efektif, dan
.P@ 'uga efektif. 9ehingga dapat
diputuskan bahwa efektivitas
keseluruhan adalah LHO.
?nt!/ menent!/an risi/o sisa, i/!ti
tahapan #eri/!t ini A
?
7ntuk enentukan risiko sisa, persentase
tersebut harus dikurangi dari ?KKO. @ala
contoh, ini berarti +?KKO Q LHO R FHO,
'adi risiko sisa adalah FHO. 1aktor risiko
sisa adalah K.FH.
?
6ilai risiko urni sekarang harus dikalikan
dengan faktor risiko sisa untuk
eberikan peringkat risiko sisa. @ala
contoh, 'ika nilai risiko urni adalah F?,
peringkat risiko sisa adalah F? x K.FH R H.
Hazard adalah suber
bahaya potensial yang dapat
enyebabkan kecelakaan
atau kerusakan harta benda.
Hazard dapat berupa 4
bahan, bagian dari esin,
bentuk energi, etode ker'a
atau situasi ker'a.
Hazard 4 potential source
of har, danger or loss
/a=ard is
anything that
could cause
harm or
damage
Hazard 4 A condition and&or practices
-ith the potential to ca!se loss1
$HSAS 3=<<3(9<<> defines ha=ard as
source, situation, or act with a potential to
harm in terms of human in>ury or ill health
or a combination of these.
?
Accepta#le Ris/ 4 -is that has been reduced
to a le!el that can be tolerated by the
organi=ation ha!ing regard to its legal obligations
and its own +/2 policies.
?
7aseline Ris/ Assessment 4 A ris/
assessment carried o!t at the initial stage of
operation and5or tas&s' to measure in what le!el
the current controls are effecti!ely implemented
and to determine if further control&s' is re8uired.
Terms I 4e$nitions
?
7aseline ris/ assessment
shall also be carried out when there is
changing of mining5tas methodology,
using new e8uipment, such as newly type
of e%plosi!e truc, introducing new
materials, such as new chemicals,
sociali=ing newly generated +;P, etc.
Terms5 4e$nitions and
A00reviations
?
(ritical Tas" J .ny work task that by the
nature of it and5or due to a stressor+s,
could produce signifcant 9H2/related
hazard+s, and risk+s,.
?
Hazard J . condition and5or practices
with the potential to cause loss. 8H9.9
?JKK?4FKKL defnes hazard as source,
situation, or act with a potential to har
in ters of huan in'ury or ill health or a
cobination of these.
Terms5 4e$nitions and
A00reviations
?
Hazard Identi'ication 4 Process of recogni=ing
that a ha=ard e%ists and defining its
characteristics.
?
In'ormal Ris/ Assessment 4 " ris
assessment that needs to de carried out on the
>ob by assigned personnel or a group of
personnel, along with their daily wal-around
inspection, planned >ob obser!ations, etc.
Terms I 4e$nitions
Hazards
.illie Hammer dalam /and 1oo of +ystem and
Product +afetyA M" ha=ard is condition with the
potential of causing in>ury to personnel, damage to
e8uipment or structures, loss of materials, or
lessening of ability to perform a prescribed function.
$hen a ha=ard is present, the possibility e%ist of
these ad!erse effect occurringM.
?
!re Ris/ 4 any 8uantifiable, identified ris
that stands alone and has not been mitigated
with any means of control.
?
Ris/ 4 " chance of loss. 2%pose to dangers.
" lielihood that harm from a particular ha=ard
may occur.
Terms5 4e$nitions and
A00reviations
The process of
identifying a ha=ard
that can lead to an
unwanted e!ent or
incident
Hazard Identi$cation
Types of Potential Hazard

Physical Hazards

-heical Hazards

2lectrical Hazards

3echanical Hazards

Physiological Hazards

0iological Hazards

2rgonoic Hazards
Apa"ah Hazard /
Hazard didefnisikan sebagai karakteristik
fsik atau kiia yang sifatnya inherent
yang epunyai potensi enibulkan
accident sehingga enyebabkan 4
death
death
in'ury
in'ury
production
loss
production
loss
damage to
environent
loss
environent
loss
property
property
plant
plant
product
product
business
business

h"sical Hazards
Meliputi penerangan, suhu udara,
elembaban, cepat rambat udara, suara,
!ibrasi meanis, radiasi, teanan udara
dan lain-lain.

Chemical Hazards
1erupa gas, uap, debu, abut, asap,
cairan dan fumes.

Mechanical Hazards
1ahaya timbul dari onstrusi, mesin
dan instalasi

Electrical Hazards
+emua potensi bahaya yang
berhubungan dengan listri &pembebanan
lebih', ebocoran isolasi dll.

1ahaya dari >a=ad reni, serangga atau


hewan lain ditempat er>a, berbagai
macam penyait yang timbul seperti
infesi, alergi dan sengatan atau gigitan
binatang yang menimbulan berbagai
macam penyait.
2iological Hazards
Ergonomic Hazards
*angguan faal tubuh
arena beban er>a yang
terlalu berat, peralatan
er>a yang tida sesuai
dan tida serasi dengan
tenaga er>a, cara
mengangat dan
mengangut yabg salah.

7aha"a A adalah s!m#er ata! /eadaan yang


berpotensi terhadap ter>adinya erugian dalam
bentu cidera atau penyait.

Risi/o( ombinasi antara emunginan suatu


e>adian dalam setiap peristiwa dengan
eparahan aibat yang dinyataan dalam
erugian.

Identi'i/asi #aha"a A adalah proses


mengenal &recogni=ing process' adanya suatu
bahaya dan menetapan arateristi dari
bahaya tersebut.
Hazards may fall into one of
the follo)ing categories
?
<atural ha=ards
?
+ystem ha=ards
?
Physical ha=ards
?
(hemical ha=ards
?
Mechanical ha=ards
?
Psychological
ha=ards
?
0iological hazards
?
9ocial hazards
?
2nvironental
hazards
?
Physiological
hazards
?
8perator hazards
?
2lectrical hazards
METH!4S
!> HAKAR4 I4ENTI>I(ATI!N
?
.ccident
investigations
?
.ccident
statistics
?
"nspections
?
@iscussions,
interviews
?
Eob safety
analysis
?
.udits
?
-hecklist
OSH S!"i#s
S $ % O F I N D O
PT SUCOFINDO - OSH Services /"N"-.
<hat is ris"/
There are two factors related to assessing
the importance or ris of an unwanted
e!ent A
1. 6ielihood &probability' --- Co!ld it
happen E
2. (onse8uences &se!erity' --- Ho- #ad
-o!ld it #e E
12
B
?
-isio buan ahir dari e>adian dan >uga
buan apa yang ter>adi.
?
+ebuah 6ubang 1esar pada lantai er>a di
processing plant adalah suatu 1ahaya. "pabila
tida ditutup atau diberi pagar pengaman aan
men>adi sebuah resio.
?
-isio buan terleta pada lubang tetapi pada
emunginan pemaparan terhadap lubang tsb.
1
Risi"o
RIS
?
(isk R How often x How bad
?
(isk R 1re#uency x -onse#uences
?
(isk R 1re#uency x 9everity
?
(isk R :ikelihood x -onse#uences
?
(isk R Probability x -onse#uences
HAFAR,
SE)ERIT5
E$2E C$ST
3 .eath or se!ere
in>ury
6ost cost J O 14,444
# 7n>ury or moderate
health impacts
6ost cost J O14,444.
2 Minor in>ury or minor
health impacts
6ost cost O 1,444 - O
14,444
1 <o in>ury or health
impacts
6ost cost P O 1,444
Hazard Severity

Peluang peer>a dapat


tertimpa barang saat
ber>alan di bawah daerah
lifting obye.

Peluang minya
melimpah dalam
s!imming it bilamana
hu>an terus turun.

Peluang tani bahan


baar meleda bilamana
peer>a melauan
peer>aan panas .
2i/elihood
Analisis Risi"o
3etode ini enganalisa dan enilai
suatu risiko dengan cara
ebandingkan dengan suatu
diskripsi5uraian dari paraeter
+peluang dan akibat, yang digunakan.
7unya digunakan etode atriks.
Analisis %alitatif
Analisis Risi"o
Analisis Semi"%antitatif
3etode ini pada prinsipnya hapir
saa dengan analisa kualitatif,
perbedaannya pada etode ini
uraian5deskripsi dari paraeter
yang ada dinyatakan dengan
nilai5score tertentu.
RIS
ERL!N!MI(S
HAKAR4
$hat are the ha=ards in these pictures Q $hat are the ha=ards in these pictures Q
?
Risi/o R Probability % 0onseuensi
?
Risi/o R frewensi % 0onseuensi
?
Risi/o R Probability%9rewensi%0onseuensi
?
ro#a#ilit" A emunginan yg berupa rasio
dari outcome terhadap total emunginan
outcome &14 A 144' atau 14 S
?
*re/!ensi A >umlah e>adian dalam urun
watu tertentu & # ali5mingguD 1 ali5tahun'
(onse6%ences
)he outcoes
of an event
such as an
in'ury or
e#uipent loss
+-.
Tolera0le Ris"
-is that has been reduced to a le!el that can be
endured by the organi=ation ha!ing regard to its
legal o#ligations and its o-n $HGS polic"1
&-isio yang telah diurangi sampai pada tingat
yang dapat ditahan oleh organisasi dalam hal
ewa>iban huum dan ebi>aan 0#-nya'.
Ris" management is about
treating hazards, p!tting controls o!er
ha=ards A
? 2limination. substitution, isolation
?
2ngineering
? "dministrati!e
? Personal protection
PERTIM2ANLAN
4A3AM PENI3AIAN
RESI!
Merupaan suatu poses
untu menentuan apaah
suatu 7AHA5A memilii
resio tinggi atau tida
4%a Pertim0angan '
A1 ro#a#ilit" &Tingat 0emunginan',
ada
# elemen penilaian A
1. 9reuensi 0e>adian &90'
2. 0etersediaan +istem Protesi &+P'
#. Maintenance &M('
71 Se%erit" &Tingat 0eparahan', ada #
elemen penilaian A
1. Tingat cidera pada aryawan5dampa
pencemaran &(0'
2. Pengaruhnya pada 0esehatan 0aryawan
&P0'
#. 0erugian 2onomis &02'
*re0!enc"&el!ang /ejadian
C
o
n
s
e
0
!
e
n
c
e
&
/
e
p
a
r
a
h
a
n
3evel of Ris" M (onse6%ences 7 >re6%ency 7 Pro0a0ility
Ris"
Com#ination o'
li/elihood
Cpro#a#ilit"D and
conse0!ences
&se!erity' of a
specified ha=ardous
e!ent occurring.

-is R f &6ielihood % (onse8uences'
Conse0!ence
CHazard Se%erit"D
ro#a#ilit"
C2i/elihood o'
$cc!rrenceD
)he outcoes of
an event related
to environental
loss
Impact
P
The chance of
a particular
conse8uence
will result from
a ha=ard
3i"elihood
P
.egree of conse8uence
6ielihood
of incident
(atastrophic +erious -
critical
Minor -
marginal
2%tremely
liely
Tuite possible
,nusual but
possible
,nliely
-emote
2%tremely
remote

,ri%ing de'ensi%el" and #eing alert could


reduce the lielihood of an accident but would
not reduce the se!erity of the in>ury. +ome
actions will reduce both the lielihood and the
se!erity. 1y dri%ing slo-er, the chances of an
accident are reduced and the se!erity of the
accident is lessened &diurangi'.
(onse6%ences
The o!tcome o' an e%ent
e%pressed 0!alitati%el" or
0!antitati%el", being an
in>ury or loss.
There may be a range of
possible outcomes
associated with an e!ent.
Pro0a0ility
The lielihood of a specific e!ent or outcome,
measured by the ratio of specific e!ents or
outcomes to the total number of possible e!ents
or outcomes.
Probability is e%pressed as a number between <
and 3, with 4 indicating an impossible e!ent or
outcome and 1 indicating an e!ent or outcome is
certain.
. systeatic use
of
available
inforation
to deterine how
often specifed
events ay occur
and the
agnitude
of conse#uences
-7+0
"<"6L+7+
"dalah per/iraan /!antitati' dengan te/ni/
matemati/ dengan menggabungan onseuensi
dan freuensi insiden.
The de!elopment of a 0!antitati%e estimate o'
ris/ #ased on mathematical techni0!es for
combining estimates of incident conse8uences
and fre8uencies.
Ris" Analysis
FRECD KEM>NGKINAN TER?ADI
C
O
N
S
E
C
>
E
N
C
E
S
SERIO>S
SEDANG
RINGAN
90A+ITATI:( 6IS3 ASS(SS&(NT &AT6I;
RISK = PROBABILITY X CONSEQUENCES
RESIKO
A
C
C
I
D
E
N
T
SERING
SERING
?ARANG
?ARANG
S>LIT
S>LIT
TINGGI
TINGGI
TINGGI
TINGGI
SEDANG
SEDANG
TINGGI
TINGGI
SEDANG
SEDANG
RENDAH
RENDAH
SEDANG
SEDANG
RENDAH
RENDAH
RENDAH
RENDAH
(riteria in classifying ha=ard and
magnitude of significance ris are based
on A

-is of potential ha=ard R occurrence


% conse8uences &1-2B'

;ccurrence &1-B'

(onse8uences of ris &1-B'


Hazard Eval%ation
!cc%rrence
(ategory ;ccurrence .escription
1 "lmost impossible Practically
impossible
2 -are (ould occur at
certain time
# Possible Might occur at
sometime
3 6iely $ill probably occur
in most
circumstances
B "lmost certain 7s e%pected to
occur in most
circumstances
(onse6%ences of Hazard
2ased on one of the follo)ing
o%tcomes
(ategory 7mpact -eco!ery
SREA,
-esult of
monitoring U
measurement
against target or
Threshold 6imit
7nside
woring
area &m'
&;+/"+ U
+M0#'
;pen area
&m'
"ir 2mission
&2M+;utdoor'
1 7nsignificant P 1 day P B - +ome of the
content
Meet U
e%ceed
2 Minor P 1 wee B F 14 "round
building
area
+e!eral of the
content
Meet
# Moderate 1 wee- 1
month
14 -1B 14 meters
inside
fence
Many of the
content
Meet
3 Ma>or 1 month F
# months
1B F 24 2B meters
outside
fence
Most of the
content
;ut of
target5limit
B (atastrophi
c
J # months J 24 J 2B
meters
outside
fence
"ll of the
content or
se!eral to%ic
gas
;ut of
target5limit
: C : DH C 3< DH C 3: DE C 9< DE C 9: DE
8 C 8 DM C = DH C 39 DH C 3; DE C 9< DE
@ C @ D2 C ; DM C B DH C 39 DE C 3: DE
9 C 9 D2 C 8 D2 C ; DM C = DH C 3< DE
3 C 3 DN C 9 D2 C @ DM C 8 DH C : DH
3 9 @ 8 :
K
E
M
?
N
G
K
I
N
A
N
KESERI?SAN C SE)ERIT5 D
SCA2E
TINGKAT BAHAYA ( RISK LEVEL )
atagori Ting"at Risi"o
1. N &<egligible'
2. 2 &6ow ris'
#. M &Moderate ris'
3. H &/igh ris'
B. E &2%treme'
Tida memerluan tindaan
husus.
Pemantauan untu memastian
tindaan pengendalian telah
ber>alan dengan bai.
Perlu mendapatan perhatian
dan tambahan prosedur atau
instrusi er>a
Perlu mendapatan perhatian
piha mana>emen dan tindaan
perbaian
Perlu segera dilauan tindaan
perbaian
?
,sing the information from the ha=ard
identification together with the ha=ard effect
and considering n!m#er o' people to be
in!ol!ed, a ris rating is established.
?
This is determined using a ris e!aluation
matri% where the ris rating e8uals the
lielihood of an occurrence times the se!erity
of the ha=ard. Two e%amples of a 8ualitati!e
ris e!aluation matri% are shown below.
N%alitative Ris" Assessment
A2ARM
A2ARM
A2ERT
/
a
=
a
r
d

+
e
!
e
r
i
t
y
Ma>or
Permanent disability
or fatality
Moderate
off-site medical
Treatment or ."9$
Minor
<o or minor in>ury
CA?TI$N
CA?TI$N
CA?TI$N
CA?TI$N
CARE
CARE CARE
+erious
More than one ."9$
- long-term absence
CARE CARE CARE
A2ERT
A2ERT
A2ARM
)ery ,nliely
6ittle or no
(hance of
;ccurrence
6ielihood of ;ccurrence
,nliely
(ould occur,
loss than B45B4
chance
Probable
More liely to
;ccur than not
Possible
B45B4
chance
("-2
(",T7;<
"62-T
"6"-M
Minor harm possible, serious harm !ery unliely to occur
Minor harm probable, ma>or harm !ery unliely to occur
Moderate harm probable, ma>or harm unliely to occur
+erious or ma>or harm will probably occur
N%alitative Ris" Matri7 A
<egligible
<egligible in>ury,
no absence
from wor
Hazard Se%erit"
+light
Minor in>ury
re8uiring first aid
treatment
/igh
7n!ol!ing a
single death
or serious in>ury
Moderate
7n>ury leading
to a lost time
accident
)ery /igh
Multiple deaths
6
i

e
l
i
h
o
o
d

o
f

;
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
e
unliely
" rare combination of factors
would be re8uired for an
7ncident to result
Minor
" frea combination of
factors would be re8uired
for an incident to result
Possible
(ould happen when
additional factors are present
but otherwise unliely to occur
6iely
<ot certain to happen but
an addition to happen but
result in an accident
)ery 6iely
"lmost ine!itable
that an incident
would result
M2.7,M
6;$
6;$
6;$
6;$
6;$
6;$
6;$ 6;$ 6;$
M2.7,M
M2.7,M
6;$ M2.7,M M2.7,M HIGH
M2.7,M
6;$
M2.7,M
HIGH
HIGH
M2.7,M HIGH HIGH HIGH
H!alitati%e Ris/ Matri+ 9
2$. RISK
ME,I?M RISK
HIGH RISK
May be acceptable, howe!er, re!iew tas to see if
ris can be reduced further.
Tas should only proceed with appropriate management
authori=ation after consultation with specialist personnel
and assessment team. $here possible, the tas should
be redefined to tae account of the ha=ards in!ol!ed or
the ris should be reduced further prior to tas
commencement
Tas must not proceed. 7t should be redefined or further
control measures put in place to reduce ris. The controls
should be reassessed for ade8uacy prior to tas
commencement
Ris" Assessment
?
So the -or/ o' ris/ assessment in!ol!es
determining A &1' how often a certain unwanted
e!ent could occur &the probability', &2' how
serious could be the conse8uences of that
unwanted e!ent & the se!erity', and then &#'
>udging the acceptability of that ris.
Ris" Assessment
The National Sa'et" Co!ncil suggests the
following benefits of using formal ris
assessments A
?
7t can unco!er ha=ards that ha!e been
o!erlooed in the original design,
mocup &maet, contoh' or setup
&susunan' of a particular process,
operation, or tas.
Ris" Assessment
?
7t can locate &menetapan5menemuan'
hazards that de!eloped after a particular
process, operation, or tas was instituted.
?
7t can determine the essential 'actors
in and re0!irements 'or specific >ob
processes, operations, and tas.
?
7t can indicate what 8ualifications are
prere8uisites to safe and producti!e
performance.
Ris" Assessment
?
7t can indicate the need 'or modi'"ing
processes, operations and tass.
?
7t can identify sit!ational hazards in facilities,
e8uipment, tools, materials, and operational
e!ents & for e%ample, unsafe conditions'.
?
7t can identify h!man 'actors responsible for
accident situations &for e%ample, de!iations
from standard procedures'.
Ris" Assessment
?
7t can identi'" e+pos!re 'actors that
contribute to in>ury and illness &such as contact
with ha=ardous substances, materials, or
physical agents'
?
7t can identify ph"sical 'actors that contribute
to accident situations &noise, !ibration,
insufficient illumination'.
?
7t can determine appropriate monitoring
methods and maintenance standards needed
for safety.
N%alitative Ris" Assessment
?
,sing the information from the ha=ard
identification together with the ha=ard effect
and considering n!m#er o' people to be
in!ol!ed, a ris rating is established.
?
This is determined using a ris e!aluation
matri% where the ris rating e8uals the
lielihood of an occurrence times the
se!erity of the ha=ard. Two e%amples of a
8ualitati!e ris e!aluation matri% are shown
below. 1EE
1EC
A2ARM
A2ARM
A2ERT
/
a
=
a
r
d

+
e
!
e
r
i
t
y
Ma>or
Permanent disability
or fatality
Moderate
off-site medical
Treatment or ."9$
Minor
<o or minor in>ury
CA?TI$N
CA?TI$N
CA?TI$N
CA?TI$N
CARE
CARE CARE
+erious
More than one ."9$
- long-term absence
CARE CARE CARE
A2ERT
A2ERT
A2ARM
)ery ,nliely
6ittle or no
(hance of
;ccurrence
6ielihood of ;ccurrence
,nliely
(ould occur,
loss than B45B4
chance
Probable
More liely to
;ccur than not
Possible
B45B4
chance
("-2
(",T7;<
"62-T
"6"-M
Minor harm possible, serious harm !ery unliely to occur
Minor harm probable, ma>or harm !ery unliely to occur
Moderate harm probable, ma>or harm unliely to occur
+erious or ma>or harm will probably occur
H!alitati%e Ris/ Matri+ 3
1EI
<egligible
<egligible in>ury,
no absence
from wor
Hazard Se%erit"
+light
Minor in>ury
re8uiring first aid
treatment
/igh
7n!ol!ing a
single death
or serious in>ury
Moderate
7n>ury leading
to a lost time
accident
)ery /igh
Multiple deaths
6
i

e
l
i
h
o
o
d

o
f

;
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
e
unliely
" rare combination of factors
would be re8uired for an
7ncident to result
Minor
" frea combination of
factors would be re8uired
for an incident to result
Possible
(ould happen when
additional factors are present
but otherwise unliely to occur
6iely
<ot certain to happen but
an addition to happen but
result in an accident
)ery 6iely
"lmost ine!itable
that an incident
would result
ME,I?M
2$.
2$.
2$.
2$.
2$.
2$.
2$. 2$. 2$.
ME,I?M
ME,I?M
2$. ME,I?M ME,I?M HIGH
ME,I?M
2$.
ME,I?M
HIGH
HIGH
ME,I?M HIGH HIGH HIGH
H!alitati%e Ris/ Matri+ 9
1C4
2$. RISK
ME,I?M RISK
HIGH RISK
May be acceptable, howe!er, re!iew tas to see if
ris can be reduced further.
Tas should only proceed with appropriate management
authori=ation after consultation with specialist personnel
and assessment team. $here possible, the tas should
be redefined to tae account of the ha=ards in!ol!ed or
the ris should be reduced further prior to tas
commencement
Tas must not proceed. 7t should be redefined or further
control measures put in place to reduce ris.
The controls should be reassessed for ade8uacy prior
to tas commencement
Contin!ed """"##
1y redefining the ha=ard se!erity. ris e!aluation
can be used to assess health, production and
en!ironmental ris as well as the ris of accident
and in>ury. "n e%ample of these definitions may
be A
N%alitative Ris" Assessment

<egligible in>ury or health implications,


no absence from wor, negligible loss
of function5production with no damage
to e0!ipment or the en%ironment1
Negligi0le

Minor in>ury re8uiring first-aid treatment


or headache, nausea, di==iness, mild
rashes,

.amage to e8uipment re8uiring minor


remedial repair, loss of production or
impact to the en!ironment
S3ILHT
?
2!ent leading to a lost time incident or
persistent dermatitis, acne or asthmaD
locali=ed damage to e8uipment re8uiring
e%tensi!e repair, significant loss of
function5production or moderate pollution
incurring some restitution costs.
Moderate
?
7n!ol!ing a single death or se%ere inj!r",
poisoning, sensiti=ation or dangerous infection.
?
.amage to e8uipment resulting in production
shutdown and significant production loss.
?
+e!ere pollution with short-term locali=ed
implications incurring significant restitution costs.
High
M!ltiple deaths, lung diseases, permanent
debility or fatality. Ma>or pollution with long-
term implication and !ery high restitution
costs.
Gery High

"lthough this approach uses numerical !alues to


assess ris, the results are still largely of a
8ualitati!e nature and are similar to the pre!ious
e%amples. +ome people find this approach easier
to use than the wholly 8ualitati!e approach. Two
e%amples of a semi-8uantitati!e matri% are
shown.

These numerical !alues are 8uite often correlated


to the low, medium and high categories as
detailed pre!iously.
Semi1N%antitative
9< 3:
39
=
B
#
7n>ury leading
to a lost time
accident
8
1
<egligible in>ury,
no absence
from wor
/a=ard +e!erity
2
Minor in>ury
re8uiring first aid
Treatment
3
7n!ol!ing a
single death
or serious in>ury
B
Multiple
deaths
@
;
8
6
i

e
l
i
h
o
o
d

o
f

;
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
e
2
" rare combination of factors
$ould be re8uired for an
7ncident to result
1
" free combination of
9actors would be re8uired
9or an incident to result
#
(ould happen when
additional factors are present
but otherwise unliely to occur
3
<ot certain to happen but
an addition to happen but
result in an accident
B
"lmost ine!itable
that an incident
$ould result
3<
;
8
@
9
3 9
39
=
3;
:
3<
3:
9<
:
9:
SemiIH!antitati%e Ris/ Matri+ 3
May be acceptableA howe!er, re!iew tas to see if ris
can be reduced further.
A 1 B
O 1 A@
3: I 9:
Tas should only proceed with appropriate management
authorisation after consultation with specialist personnel
and assessment team. $here possible, the tas should
be redefined to tae account of the ha=ards in!ol!ed or
the ris should be reduced further prior to tas
commencement.
Tas must not proceed. 7t should be redefined or further
control measures put in place to reduced ris. The
controls should be re-assessed for ade8uacy prior
to tas commencement.
S
e
%
e
r
i
t
"

C
C
o
n
s
e
0
!
e
n
c
e
s
'
6ow &2'
(oncei!able
but would re8uire
multiple failures of
systems and controls
Medium &#'
6ess then a!erage
ie easy to postulate
a scenario for
accident but
considered unliely
P 6ow &1'
<ot cradible
ie the team ha!e
ne!er heard of
e!ent ;ccurring
in industry

2i/elihood
J Medium &3'
More than a!erage
ie the team do not
ha!e direct nowledge
but suspect that e!ent
may ha!e occurred
and respresents
a credible scenario
/igh &B'
6iely to occur
and the team ha!e
nowledge of a
similar e!ent
6ow &2'
;nly a minor in>ury
is credible
P 6ow &1'
7n>ury is not credible
Medium &#'
" single serious in>ury
is credible
J Medium &3'
9atality or multiple
serious in>ury is credible
/igh &B'
Multiple fatality is credible
9< 3:
39
=
B
8
@
;
8
3<
;
8
@
9
3 9
39
=
3;
:
3<
3:
9<
:
9:
SemiIH!antitati%e Ris/ Matri+ 9
A more formal techni6%e of
setting
priorities for action are '
a. Tri%ialD <o action re8uired.
b1 Tolera#le D maintain e%isting controlD
impro!e if easy5cheap.
c. ModerateD reduce ris furtherD action within
months.
d. Impro%e s!#stantiall"D action within wees.

e. E+tremeD stop immediately.
1y redefining the ha=ard se!erity, ris
e!aluation matrices can be used to
assess health, production and
en!ironmental ris as well as the ris
of accident and in>ury.
Semi1N%antitative
"n e%ample of these definitions may be A
1. Negligi#le in>ury or health implications, no
absence from wor. <egligible loss of
function5production with no damage to
e8uipment or the en!ironment.
2. Minor in>ury re8uiring first-aid treatment or
headache, nausea, di==iness, mild rashes.
.amage to e8uipment re8uiring minor remedial
repair loss of production or impact to the
en!ironment.
Semi1N%antitative
.
#. E%ent leading to a lost time incident or
persistent dermatitis, acne or asthma.
6ocali=ed damage to e8uipment re8uiring
e%tensi!e repair, significant loss of
function5production or moderate pollution
incurring some restitution costs.
Semi1N%antitative
.
3. 7n!ol!ing a single death or se%ere inj!r",
poisoning, sensitization or dangero!s
in'ection. .amage to e8uipment resulting in
production shutdown and significant production
loss. +e!ere pollution with short-term locali=ed
implications incurring significant restitution
costs.
B. M!ltiple deaths, l!ng diseases, permanent
de#ilit" or fatality. Ma>or pollution with long-
term implication and !ery high restitution costs.
Semi1N%antitative

Ris/ acceptance A an informed decision


to accept the conse8uences and the
lielihood of a particular ris.

Ris/ a%oidance A an informed decision


not to become in!ol!ed in a ris situation.

Ris/ engineering A the application of


engineering principles and methods to
ris management.
Ris/ e%al!ation A the process used to
determine ris management priorities by
comparing the le!el of ris against
predetermined standards, target ris le!els or
other criteria.
Ris/ control A that part of ris management
which in!ol!es the implementation of policies,
standards, procedures, and physical changes
to eliminate or minimi=e ad!erse riss.
Ris/ trans'er A shifting &memindahan' the ris
possibility or burden for loss to another party
through legislation, contract, insurance or other
means.
Ris/ trans'er can also refer to shifting a
physical ris or part thereof &bagian
daripadanya' elsewhere &di tempat lain'.
Ris/ management process A the systematic
application of management policies, procedures
and practices to the tass of establishing the
conte%t, identifying, analy=ing, e!aluating,
treating, monitoring and communicating ris.
Ris/ treatment A selection and implementation
of appropriate options for dealing with ris.
31 Elimination
.ose the tas need to be done Q

,se of mechanical de!ice instead of manual handling


2. S!#stit!tion
(an something else be used to reduced the ris Q
,se of water-based paints instead of sol!ent-based substance in
pallet5li8uid from instead of powder

-eduction in si=e5weight of item


@1 Engineering Controls
(an e8uipment be used to reduce the ris Q

local e%haust !entilation

*uarding

7solations

6ighting

2nclosure
81 Segregation
(an distance, .barriers5guards be used to pre!ent personnel e%posure
to ha=ard Q
"ccess controls
.istance

Time
2ngineering controls
:1 Red!ction in ersonnel&Time E+pos!re
6imit the number of personnel e%posed to the ris and control the time
they are e%posed.
/a=ardous wor carried out at low acti!ity periods eg nights5weeends
$orplace designD Kob rotationD +hift rotationD

@. Personal Protecti!e 28uipment &PP2'
+uitable and sufficient PP2, appropriate for the tas Q

+afety harness5inertia reel

-espiratory protecti!e e8uipme

(hemical suit5gaunletD face masD


l
E. P-;(2.,-2+
(an procedures be used to specify the safe system
of wor to follow to reduce rissQ

Permit

(heclists

$orpacs

Process maps
(ontrol
Measures
-is
(onsideration
method
(ontrol e%amples
Note (
$hen identifiying
control measures.
"lways start at the
first step
?
Elimination - .esign5 redesign or modification to
the process method or material to eliminate the
ha=ard completely. &144S'
?
S!#stit!tion - replace the material, substance or
process with a less ha=ardous one. &EBS'
?
Separation - 7solating the ha=ard from persons
by safeguarding, or by space or time separation.
&B4S'
?
Administration - "d>usting the time or conditions
of ris e%posures &#4S'
Ris/ Control Hierarch"
Ris/ Control Hierarch"
?
Training - 7mpro!ing sills therefore maing
tass less ha=ardous to persons in!ol!ed. &24S'
?
ersonal protecti%e e0!ipment - using as the
last resort, appropriately designed and properly
fitted e8uipment where other controls are not
practicable. &BS'
Remem#er the ris/ hierarch" is onl" a g!ide
to the t"pe o' actions re0!ired1
Ris/ Control Hierarch"
Ris/ Control Hierarch"
RISK ASSESSMENT PRO%ED$RE
?
-is "ssessment is the care'!l e+amination
o' -hat co!ld create !n-anted e%ents or
incidents, then ris assessment incorporates
the identification of controls and ha=ards.
?
The aim is to apply controls &precautions' to
minimi=e or eliminate the occurrence of
unwanted e!ents or incidents.
Ris" Assessment
?
Accepta#le ris/ can change -ith time
&e.g. deaths in mining was acceptable
144 years ago, now it is not', depending
on conse8uence &e.g. financial ris
maybe greater and acceptable
compared with safety ris'.
Accepta0le Ris"
24
B
?
"cti!ity A any tas or process
?
"spect A any acti!ity with en!ironmental
conse8uences
?
Hazard A potential source of harm, danger or
loss
?
Ris/ A a measure of the importance of the
potential loss. -is has two elements ----- the
lielihood of something happening and the
conse8uences or impacts if it does.
4e$nitions
?
-is assessment A is a methodical process to
e!aluate and calculate the ris associated with
acti!ities or aspects.
?
(urrent ris A the ris that e%ists after considering
current controls .
?
-esidual ris A the ris that remains after
implementing additional controls.
?
(ontrols A are precautions design to minimi=e or
eliminate the impact or lielihood caused from
ha=ards.
4e$nitions
?
(onse8uences A the outcome of an e!ent &such
as an in>ury or e8uipment loss'.
?
7mpact A the outcome of an e!ent related to
en!ironmental loss.
?
6ielihood A the chance that a particular
conse8uence will result from a ha=ard.
?
"cceptable ris D the le!el of ris deemed
&dianggap' acceptable gi!en current nowledge
and circumstances &sesuai dengan
pengetahuan dan eadaan yang ada pada saat
ini'.
4e$nitions
?
Hazard identi'ication A the process of
identifying a ha=ard that can lead to an
!n-anted e%ent or incident1
?
Hazard A anything that could cause harm
or damage
4e$nitions
a. Identi'" and record -hat is to #e assessed
on the general purpose ris assessment form.
Most liely it will be e0!ipment, -or/place,
en%ironment, #!siness process or a tas/.
The 8uality of the outcome from the ris
assessment will depend on accurately defining
the scope. The scope should reflect regulations
and the company policy and standards.
Step A ' 4etermine the application and
scope
b. Record the title of the ris assessment,
names, of the team members,
.epartment, location, date and create a
uni8ue assessment &-"' number.
Step A ' 4etermine the application
and
scope *cont+d,

The ris assessment can be focus on either a


single acti%it" or aspect or a #roader
process1

To ensure 8uality in the outcomes from the ris


assessment, all the associated acti!ities or
aspects need to be identified so that there is
less chance that some riss are o!erlooed.
Step - ' Identify the speci$c
activities
?
This will ensure that the entire area, process or
#road '!nction is systematically accounted for
and di!ides the ne%t steps of identifying ha=ards
and unwanted e!ents &incidents' into
manageable pieces.
?
-ecord all the associated acti!ities &aspects' to
be assessed on the general purpose ris
assessment form.
Step - ' Identify the speci$c activities

Hazards associated -ith acti%ities


&aspects' can lead to unwanted e!ents
or incidents, so identifying ha=ards will
assist in identifying unwanted e!ents or
incidents.

"s Gwhat could cause harm &damage


or in>ury' or lossQH.
Step & ' Identify Hazards
7t is important to identify all significant of
o#%io!s, hidden and de%eloping or '!t!re
hazards in order to identifying all potentially
significant unwanted e!ents or incidents.
-ecord the ob!ious, hidden and de!eloping
ha=ards identified on the general purpose ris
assessment form.
Step & ' Identify Hazards *cont+d,

7dentify the unwanted e!ents or incidents


associated with the specific ha=ards by asing
J-hat co!ld go -rongEK1

The aim is to identify all credible unwanted


e!ents or incidents associated with each acti!ity
or aspect that can ha!e conse0!ences
CimpactsD that negati!ely affect the performance
of the business.
Step @ ' Identify The En)anted
Events

Record the unwanted e!ents or incidents


descriptions with ade8uate detail to enable
the potential conse8uences and lielihood
of occurrence to be 8uantified later in the
assessment.
Step @ ' Identify The En)anted Events
7dentify the e+isting controls Cpreca!tionsD
that are in use.
7n identifying the e%isting control meas!res
c!rrentl" #eing !sed, it is important to identify
those controls that reduce either the
conse8uence or lielihood of the unwanted
e!ent or incident occurring.
Step ; ' Identify of E7isting controls
It is not rele%ant at this stage to e%al!ate
the e''ecti%eness o' controls but it is !ital
to identify and record all current controls that
will be used for analysis of ris later in the
assessment.
-ecord the e%isting controls on the general
purpose ris assessment form.
Step ; ' Identify of E7isting controls

The current ris score is calculated by


defining the conse8uence and the
lielihood ratings and then apply the
following formula A

Conse0!ence rating &3 to :' %


2il/elihood rating &3 to :' R ris/ score
C3 to 9:D1
Step B ' (alc%late the (%rrent Ris"
a. Identi'" the ma+im!m reasona#le
conse0!ence &impact' that could result from
the identified ha=ards and unwanted e!ents or
incidents. ,tili=e the impact matri% in table to
determine a rating &1-B' based on any of the
following conse8uences A
Step B ' (alc%late the (%rrent Ris"
?
9inancial
?
/ealth and safety
?
<atural en!ironment
?
+ocial en!ironment
?
-eputation
<ote A the ris !alue used should be the highest
ris presented by the table as there can be more
than one conse8uence for any unwanted e!ent.
-ecord in the conse8uence column on the
general purpose ris assessment form.
Step B ' (alc%late the (%rrent
Ris"
1. -are
2. ,nliely
#. Moderate
3. 6iely
B. "lmost certain
-ecord the rating in the lielihood column on
the general purpose ris assessment form.
Step B ' (alc%late the (%rrent Ris"
?
To determine i' the ris/ is accepta#le,
use the Tuantitati!e -is "nalysis --- 6e!el
of -is Matri%.
?
7dentify the intersection of the conse8uence
&impact' rating with the lielihood rating and
record the ris score.
Step O ' 4etermine If the Ris" Is Accepta0le
b. Calc!late the li/elihood of such as
conse8uence &impact' occurring gi!en
the current controls. ,tili=e the lielihood
matri% in table to determine the lielihood
rating &1-B' based on any of the following
descriptors A
Step B ' (alc%late the (%rrent Ris"
*cont+d,
<ow chec the descriptor legend for the matri%.
The legend pro!ides the following categories A
1 - 3 A 2o- ris/ &managed by routine
procedure'
B - I A Moderate ris/ &management
responsibility must be specified'
14 - 1@ A High ris/ &+enior management
attention is needed'
1E - 2B A E+treme ris/ &.etailed research and
management planning are re8uired at
senior le!els'
Step O ' 4etermine If the Ris" Is Accepta0le

The acceptance of ris will be determined by


many factors.

Typically the ris will be raned first and then a


cut-off determined based on common policy,
a!ailable resources, and agreed ob>ecti!es.

*enerally no additional controls are re8uired if


the ris score is between 1 to 3 because the
ris is low gi!en the current controls.
Step C ' Identify All Additional (ontrols
?
/owe!er, i' the ris/ is a#o%e :, there may
be a re8uirement to reduce the ris.
?
This is achie!ed by impro!ing current
controls or by identifying additional
controls.
Step C ' Identify All Additional
(ontrols
? The hierarchy of controls for economic,
en!ironment, social and reputation should be as
follows A
- A%oiding the ris/ by deciding not to proceed
with the acti!ity liely to generate the ris.
- Red!ce the conse0!ence of an e!ent.
- Red!ce the li/elihood of an e!ent.
Step C ' Identify All Additional (ontrols
The hierarchy of controls for safety ris reduction
7s as follows A
?
Elimination A control the ha=ards at source
?
S!#stit!tion A replacement &e.g. replace a
chemical with a less ha=ardous one'
?
Engineering A design or engineering out the
ha=ard &e.g. installing guides on machinery'
?
Administrati%e A policy and procedure for safe
wor practices
?
E A PP2 appropriate for the type, le!el of
ha=ard
Step C ' Identify All Additional (ontrols
Note A in minimi=ing ris a com#ination o'
red!ction methods may be used balancing
the cost of implementation against the benefits
deri!ed &diperoleh' from it. -ecord the
additional controls on the general purpose ris
assessment form.
Step C ' Identify All Additional (ontrols
?
No- reassess the ris by repeating the ris
calculation taing the proposed additional
controls into account.
?
-ecord the results on the general purpose
ris assessment form.
Step F ' Reassess the Ris" *Resid%al
ris",
?
-epeat the analysis of ris to determine
if the ris is acceptable.
?
7f the ris score is still too high,
management action is re8uired.
?
The ris assessment is now complete.
Step A9 ' 4etermine if the ris" is
accepta0le
Note A any additional controls identified through
the ris assessment process must now be
implemented and a process to implement,
monitor and re!iew any impro!ed or additional
controls must be followed.
Step A9 ' 4etermine if the ris" is
accepta0le
?
There shall be a process de!eloped in all
.epartments to record and retain all
completed formal ris assessments.
?
"ll new control measures shall be monitored
and the ris assessment is re!iewed to ensure
the reduction of ris intended has been
achie!ed
?
-esults of any monitoring and re!iew of the
ris assessment shall be recorded and records
maintained for a period o' not less than 39
months1
Step AA ' Record the assessment
res%lts
8 C2D @ C2D
; CMD
3; CHD
B CMD
@
Moderate
9 C2D
3
Insigni'iI
cant
Hazard Se%erit"
9
Minor
8
Major
:
CatastroI
phic
3: CHD
39 CHD
= CMD
2
i
/
e
l
i
h
o
o
d

o
'

$
c
c
!
r
r
e
n
c
e
8
2i/el"
:
Almost certain
@
Moderate
9
?nli/el"
3
Rare
9 C2D
; CMD
9< CED
@ C2D
8 C2D
: CMD 3< CHD
39 CHD
8 C2D
= CMD
9: CED
9< CED
3: CHD
3< CMD
3 C2D
: CMD
Ris/
rating
Ris/
code
,escriptor Re0!ired actions
3>I9: E
2%treme ris .etailed research and
management planning are
re8uired at senior le!els
3<I3; H
/igh ris +enior management attention
is re8uired
:IB M
Moderate ris Management responsibility
must be specified
3I8 2
6ow ris Manage by routine procedures
?
2ang/ah 3 A menentuan penerapan dan
>angauan &apa yang ingin dicapaiQ'
?
2ang/ah 9 A mengidentifiasi ati!itas &aspe'
yang spesifi
?
2ang/ah @ A mengidentifiasi bahaya &apa yang
dapat menyebaban cidera atau erugian Q'
?
2ang/ah 8 A mengidentifiasi e>adian yang
tida diinginan atau incident &what could go
wrongQ'
Proses Penilaian
?
2ang/ah : A mengidentifiasi pengendalian yang
telah ada
?
2ang/ah ; A menghitung risio saat ini.
Menentuan onseuensi dan emunginan
ter>adi pada pengendalian yang ada searang
dengan menggunaan matris risio. Menghitung
nilai risio dan menggolongan risio tersebut.
?
2ang/ah > A apaah risio dapat diterima atau
tida Q
Proses Penilaian
?
2ang/ah = A bila tida dapat ditoleransi
------------mengidentifiasi peningatan yang
realisti atau yang dapat tercapai terhadap
pengendalian yang ada searang atau
pengendalian tambahan.
?
2ang/ah B A menilai ulang risio &risio residual'.
Menentuan onseuensi dan emunginan
ter>adi berdasaran semua pengendalian yang
ada,dan menggunaan matris risio. Menghitung
nilai risio dan menggolongan risionya.
Proses Penilaian
?
2ang/ah 3< A apaah risio masih tida
dapat diterima Q &diperluan tindaan
mana>emen sesuai dengan matris risio'.
?
2ang/ah 33 A mencatat hasil penilaian
risio.
Proses Penilaian
Matri"s em%ng"inan
P!in3'at Ds'!i2to! Kt!an3an F!'/nsi
P(/an3 t!1a*i
+ Ja!an3 Da2at t!1a*i
)an&a 2a*a
'a*aan (/a!
6iasa
T!1a*i
*a(a0
'a*aan
(/a! 6iasa
9 +0:
2 K0/n3'in
an '#i(
T!1a*i )an&a
2a*a wa't/;
wa't/ t!tnt/
T!1a*i +0
ta)/n s'a(i
+0:;20:
, K0/n3'in;
an s*an3
T!1a*i 2a*a
66!a2a
'a*aan
t!tnt/
T!1a*i ,
ta)/n s'a(i
20:;..:
- K0/n3'in
an 6sa!
K0/n3'inan
t!1a*i 2a*a
s6a3ian 6sa!
'a*aan
T!1a*i
sta)/n
s'a(i
..:;90:
Matri/s Kem!ng/inan
Pering-
kat
Deskriptor eterangan !rekuensi Peluang
ter"adi
1 Karang .apat ter>adi hanya
pada eadaan luar
biasa
Ter>adi dalam
eadaan luar
biasa
P 14S
2 0emungina
n ecil
Ter>adi hanya pada
watu-watu tertentu
Ter>adi 14 tahun
seali
14S-24S
# 0emungina
n sedang
Ter>adi pada
beberapa eadaan
tertentu
Ter>adi # tahun
seali
24S-BBS
3 0emungina
n besar
0emunginan ter>adi
pada sebagian besar
eadaan
Ter>adi setahun
seali
BBS-I4S
B /ampir pasti Ter>adi pada
sebagian besar
eadaan
.iperiraan
aan ter>adi
apan sa>a
I4S-
144S
Matri/s Konse/!ensi
P!in3'at Ds'!i2to! Ks)atan < 's(a0ata K!1a
1 Tida
penting
Tida ada cidera
2 0ecil PPP0
# +edang (idera tunggal yang menyebaban
tida mampu beer>a sampai cidera
yang menyebaban cacat permanen
3 1esar 0ematian tunggal atau cidera yang
menyebaban tida mampu beer>a
dalam >umlah banya, sampai
beberapa yang menyebaban cacat
permanen
B 1encana 1en>ana, erusaan lingungan dalam
>anga pan>ang
3i"elihood Matri7
-ating .escriptor .escription 9re8uency Probability of
occurring
1 -are The e!ent may occur
only in e%ceptional
circumstances
$ill occur in
e%ceptional
circumstances
P 14S
2 ,nliely The e!ent could
occur at some time
$ill occur
once in e!ery
14 years
14S - 24S
# Moderate The e!ent will
probably occur in
some circumstances
$ill occur
once e!ery #
years
24S -BBS
3 6iely The e!ent will occur
in most
circumstances
$ill occur
once per year
BBS - I4S
B "lmost
certain
The e!ent is
e%pected in most
circumstances
The e!ent is
e%pected to
occur at any
time
I4S - 144S
(onse6%ences Matri7
Rating ,escripI
tor
*inan
cial
C?S LD
Health
and
Sa'et"
Nat!ral
En%ironment
Social
En%ironment
Rep!tation
1 7nsignifi-
cant
P O
140
<o in>uries 1rief pollution but no
en!ironmental harm
6ow-le!el,
repairable
damage D <o
disruption
-eporting
&not front
page' in
suburban
newspapers
2 Minor O 140-
O1440
9irst-aid Minor transient
en!ironmental harm
Minor medium-
term social
impact on total
populationD
Mostly
repairableD
Minor
disruption
-eporting in
suburban
newspapers
# Moderate O 440-
O 2 M
+ingle
disabling
in>ury up to
in>ury
resulting in
permanent
disability
+ignificant release of
pollutants with mid-
term reco!ery
;ngoing social
issuesD
Permanent
damage to
items of
cultural
significant
-eporting in
local
newspapers
&not front
page' and5or
regional
in8uiry
(onse6%ences *Impact, Matri7
Rating ,escripI
tor
*inanI
cial
C?S LD
Health and
Sa'et"
Nat!ral
En%ironI
ment
Social
En%ironment
Rep!tation
: CatastroI
phic
M L 3<M Multiple
fatalities or
large scale
in>uries
(atastro
phic,
long-
term
en!iron-
mental
harm
7rreparable
damage to
highly !alued
items of great
cultural
significance or
breadown of
social orderD
Total cessation
of ser!ice for a
number of
months
-eporting in
national T)
news
headlines
and5or
go!ernmen-
tal
in!estigation
%HEMI%AL HEALTH
RISK ASSESSMENT5%HRA7
2B4
Hazardo!s S!#stances
(hemical Hazard Sym0ols
IS A (HEMI(A3 HAKAR4!ES /
.oes the
chemical
cause health
problemsQ
Is it
'lamma#le E
Is it
e+plosi%es E
5es
5es 5es
D D
D
*
Health Hazard *0l%e,
@ 4eadly
& E7treme danger
- Hazardo%s
A Slightly hazardo%s
9 Normal material
Speci$c Hazard *<hite,
A(I4 M acid
A3 M al"ali
(!R M corrosive
< M %se no )ater
!DH M o7idizer
Reactivity *Hello),
@ May detonate
& Shoc" I heat may
detonate
- Giolet chemical
change
A Ensta0le5 if heated
>ire Hazard *Red,
>lash point
@ 2elo) O&
9
>
& 2elo) A99
9
>
- A0ove A99
9
> not
e7ceeding -99
9
>
A A0ove -99
9
>
9 <ill not 0%rn
@1Severe#5 &1Serio%s#5 -14angero%s#5
A1Minor#5 91None=negligi0le
N>PA O9@ SHSTEM
3a0eling Hazardo%s (hemicals
This labeling has two main purposes A
1. To identi'" the ha=ardous chemical so that
you can loo up the M+.+ if it becomes
necessary to do so.
91 To tell "o! the types&s' of ha=ard presented
by the chemical.
N>PA Hazard <arnings

<9P" ha=ard warning symbol, which is made


up of four diamonds &8uadrants'. 2ach
diamond warns you of different type of ha=ard.

The number within a diamond tells you how


se!ere the particular ha=ard is.

These numbers range from 4 &no ha=ard' to 3


&high ha=ard'.

The bottom diamond warns of specific ha=ard.


N>PA Hazard <arnings
Health C7l!e ColorD
3 Too dangerous to enter !apor or li8uid.
# 2%tremely dangerous. ,se full
protecti!e clothing.
2 /a=ardous. ,se breathing apparatus.
1 +lightly ha=ardous.
4 6ie ordinary material.
N>PA Hazard <arnings
*lamma#le CRed ColorD
3 2%tremely flammable
# 7gnites at normal temperatures.
2 7gnites when moderately heated.
1 Must be preheated to burn.
4 $ill not burn.
N>PA Hazard <arnings
Reactive *Hello) (olor,
G 3ay detonate //// vacate area if
aterials are exposed to fre.
D 9trong shock or heat ay detonate ////
use onitor fro behind explosion
resistant barriers.
F =iolent cheical change possible ////
use hose streas fro distance.
? 7nstable if heated //// use noral
precautions.
K 6orally stable.
Adverse Health EPect
2ffect that causes changes in the
morphology, growth, de!elopment or life
span of an organism and which results in the
impairment of functional capacity or
impairment of the ability of the organism to
maintain homeostasis or do not enhance
susceptibility to the deleterious effects of
other en!ironmental factors.
2iological Monitoring
Measurement of indicators of the uptae of
to%ic
substances into the body.
These indicators could be the presence of
the s!#stance or its meta#olites in the
body or the sub-clinical biological effect
caused by the substances &the measurement
of the latter indicator is sometimes referred
to as biological effect monitoring'.

The contact of a person with a chemical
substance either by breathing it in,
getting it
onto the sin or into the eyes, by
swallowing
it, or by in>ecting it through the sin.

E7pos%re

Hazardo!s chemicals
(hemical elements and compounds,
and mi%tures thereof, whether natural
or synthetic, which are ha=ardous to
health.

Ris/
The lielihood that a chemical will cause
illness in the conditions of its use.
An" e+amination and in%estigation which
ay be necessary to detect exposure
levels and early biological efects and
responses, and includes biological
onitoring, biological efect onitoring,
edical surveillance, in#uiries about
syptos and review of records and
occupational history.
Health S%rveillance
Signi$cant Ris"
" situation whereby wor with a ha=ardous
chemical is li/el" to ad%ersel" a''ect the
health o' emplo"ees and other persons
at the place o' -or/1
Tolera0le Ris"
-is that has been reduced to a le!el that can be
endured by the organi=ation ha!ing regard to its
legal obligation and its own ;/U+ policy &risio
yang telah diurangi sampai pada tingat yang
dapat ditahan oleh organisasi dalam hal
ewa>iban huum dan ebi>aan 0# nya'.
N%alitative Ris" Assessment
The traditional 8ualitati!e ris assessment
techni8ues include the safety checlist, >ob
safety analysis, Gwhat ifH analysis, ha=ard and
operability analysis &/"N;P', failure mode
and effect analysis &9M2"', and fault tree
analysis &9T"'.
N%antitative Ris" Assessment
Tuantitati!e ris analysis techni8ues are
also a!ailable to the safety and health
practitioner, but they are !sed 'airl"
in're0!entl" and in comple+ sit!ations.
2ene$t of Assessing Ris"s
The primary benefit of conducting ris
assessment is to e%al!ate the hazards o'
a sit!ation prior to the occ!rrence o' an
incident or accident1
/a!ing this nowledge, the organi=ation or
the affected person can then mae an
informed decision on whether or not to
accept that ris.
2ene$t of Assessing Ris"s

" ris assessment program is but one


the many necessary elements for a
successful ris management program.
;nce assessed, the organi=ation
needs to be prepared to act on the
findings and resulting
recommendations.
2ene$t of Assessing Ris"s
This 2AN &identification of safety and health
aspects' part of the management system
needs to be supported by the ,$
&implementation and operation', the CHECK
&checing and correcti!e action', and the
ACT &management re!iew'.
Ris" Management
-is management is about treating ha=ards,
putting controls o!er ha=ards A

2ngineering

"dministrati!e

Personal protection

;thers such as training, isolating, substituting,


and eliminating &;/+"+ 1C441,1III'.
%HEMI%AL HEALTH
RISK ASSESSMENT5%HRA7
A chemical health ris/ assessment
CCHRAD is conducted with the purpose of
enabling decisions to be made on
appropriate control measures, induction
and training of employees, monitoring and
health sur!eillance acti!ities as may be
re8uired to protect the health of
employees who may be e%posed to
ha=ardous chemical at wor.
a1 To identi'" the hazards posed by each
chemical substance used, stored, handled
or transported within the place of wor.
#1 To e%al!ate the degree o' e+pos!re of
employees to the ha=ardous chemicals
either through inhalation, sin absorption
or ingestion.
A CHRA has the 'ollo-ing o#jecti%es (
(ontin%ed SSS..
(HRA *cont+d,
c. To e!aluate the ade8uacy of e%isting
control measures.
d. To conclude on the significance of the
health ris posed by the ha=ardous
chemicals, and
e. To recommend further appropriate control
measures to pre!ent or reduce riss.
Steps In (hemical Health Ris" Assessment
1. .ecide who will do the assessment
2. 7dentify chemicals in the worplace
#. .etermine degree of ha=ard
3. .i!ide into wor units
B. 2!aluate e%posure
@. "ssess the ris
E. 2!aluate ade8uacy of control measures
C. (onclude the assessment
I. 7dentify action to be taen
14. 0eep records
11. -e!iew assessment
31 .ho -ill do the
assessment
91 Identi'" chemicals in
the -or/place
Are
re0!ired
In'o a%aila#le 'or
all chemicalsE
@1 E%al!ate hazard
$ther in'o so!rces
Is re0!ired
in'o
a%aila#leE

Ins!''icient
in'o
Steps in (HRA
5es
<o
Les
<o

Is chemical
hazardo!sE
3. .i!ide into
wor units
Ris/ not
signi'icant no-
Can
e+pos!re
#e estimatedE
7
*et additional info &may
need specialist help'
No
<o
Les
Les
Steps in CHRA
CcontNdD
7
:1 E%al!ate e+pos!re
;1 Assess the ris/
7s ris
significantQ
>1 Assess controls
ade0!ac"
Ris/ not signi'icant
Les
<o
Steps in (HRA
*cont+d,
=1 Concl!de assessment
3<1 Keep records
331 Re%ie- assessment
B1 Identi'" actions to
#e ta/en
-is significant but
ade8uately controlled
"re controls
ade8uate Q
Les
<o
Steps in (HRA
The employer of a place of wor is to appoint an
assessor -ho has the /no-ledge and #asic
s/ills in doing an assessment.
The appointed assessor must be gi!en the
authority to do the wor, and should ha!e
enough resources to gather information, consult
the appropriate people, re!iew e%isting records,
and e%amine the worplace.
4ecide <ho <ill 4o The
Assessment

The employer should be aware of the


limitations in the e%perience and
nowledge of the personnel conducting an
assessment and should be willing to
engage specialist assistance, if necessary.
4ecide <ho <ill 4o The
Assessment
The would-be assessor should ha!e the abilities to A
a. 7nterpret the information in M+.+ and labelsD
b. ;bser!e the conditions of wor and foresee
potential problemsD
c. (ommunicate effecti!ely with employees,
contract worers, managers, specialists and
othersD
d. .raw all the information together in a systematic
way to form !alid conclusions about e%posure and
rissD and
e. -eport the findings accurately to all parties
concerned.
4ecide <ho <ill 4o The
Assessment
7n certain cases, an assessor may not be able
to conclude the assessment due to lac/ o'
e+pertise or in'ormation1
The assessor is not e%pected to conduct
employee e%posure monitoring, biological
monitoring or health sur!eillance unless he or
she is competent to do so. The assistance of a
specialist may b re8uired.
4ecide <ho <ill 4o The
Assessment
The common specialist who may be consulted
upon may include, but is not limited to the following A
a. "n ind!strial h"gienist F e+pertise on the
e!aluation and control of e%posure.
b. "n occ!pational health ph"sician F e%pertise
on health sur!eillance programs.
4ecide <ho <ill 4o The Assessment
Contin!ed VVVV..
c. Competent persons in !arious fields, e.g.
competent person on the inspection and testing
of local e%haust !entilation system, competent
person on the sampling of airborne
contaminant.
d. To+icologist F e%pertise on the to%icity of
chemicals.
4ecide <ho <ill 4o The Assessment
?
The purpose of this step is to identify all chemicals
found in the worplace.
?
The in%entor" o' chemicals in the worplace will
pro!ide information on the trade and common
names, chemical compositions, 8uantities used or
stored and locations where chemicals are used or
stored. The in%entor" sho!ld also indicate the
a%aila#ilit" o' MS,S1
?
$here a M+.+ is not a!ailable, the supplier should
be contacted and a re8uest made for the M+.+.
Identi$cation of (hemicals
/a=ard information can be obtained from the
suppliers M+.+. " complete M+.+ pro!ides
useful information such as the ha=ard
description, the to%icity data, and the acute and
chronic health effects.
The to%icity and ha=ard of each chemical is to be
assessed and designated a ha=ard rating &/-'.
$here the re8uired information is not a!ailable
or suspected to be inaccurate, other information
sources should be consulted.
4etermine 4egree of Hazard
7e'ore a -or/place assessment is
cond!cted, the following information must
be made a!ailable A
a. Plant layout
b. Process flowchart
c. 2mployee demographyD and
d. 6ist of chemicals and their location of
use or storage
4ivide Into <or" Enits
9amiliari=ation with the companys organi=ation
and chemical safety management system is
necessary to ensure the smooth running of the
assessment process.
7t is important to identify, persons responsible for
eeping !arious related records such as
monitoring results, health sur!eillance report,
and local e%haust system inspection and testing
records.
4ivide Into <or" Enits

A process 'amiliarization #rie'ing and to!r is


necessary before wor units for assessment
can be identified. The purpose is to identify
where ha=ardous chemicals are used or
handledD the group of worers e%posed to the
same ha=ardous chemicals and whose
e%posure are similar.

A -or/ !nit is essentially a group of worers


doing similar tass in one wor area or co!ering
se!eral wor areas and are e%posed to the
same ha=ardous chemicals.
4ivide Into <or" Enits

The p!rpose is to assess the e+pos!re


and ris of the wor unit to each of the
ha=ardous chemicals used5handled by or
e%posed to the wor unitD and the ade8uacy
of the e%isting control measures.
Eval%ate E7pos%re
?
The 'irst step is to identi'" the tas/s in which
ha=ardous chemicals are being used or where
there is liely e%posure to ha=ardous
chemicals, such as from spills, leas, etc.
?
This can be done by going through their wor
procedures, obser!ation of the !arious tass
performed and inter!iewing the members of the
wor unit.
?
The ne%t step is to identify the chemical
ha=ards of all the chemicals used or formed in
the process carried out by the wor unit.
Eval%ate E7pos%re

2%posure are e!aluated by assessing the


lielihood of contact of the wor unit with the
ha=ardous chemicalD how the chemicals are
released into the wor en!ironmentD the method
of handling the chemicalD the way the chemical
enters the bodyD the duration of contactD and the
degree of magnitude of each e%posure.

"part from assessing e%posures during normal


operation, the possibility of e%posures due to
spillage, leas or accidental entry into the body
such as through in>ection is to be considered.
Eval%ate E7pos%re
The assessment needs to 0e
revie)ed 4
a. E%er" 'i%e "earsO
b. I' the ris/ sit!ation changesD such as due to A
- changes in the chemicals used or handledD
- a significant change in the 8uantity of
ha=ardous chemicals usedD
- change in methods or rate of worD
- deterioration in the efficiency of control
e8uipmentD or
- plant failure or system failure.

Ris/ is the lielihood that a substance will
cause illness in the conditions of its use.
Mesch and 0ugele &1II2' ha!e suggested
a ris e8uation as follows A
Ris/ P Ho- + Ho- #ad + Ho- m!ch,
which purposes that health ris is a function
of three things i.e. A
(HRA (oncepts
a. The lielihood of e%posure or contact
with the chemical CHo-D1
b. The potential of the chemical to cause
harm or its ha=ard or to%icity CHo- #adD1
c. The degree of e%posure to the chemical
CHo- m!chD1
(HRA (oncepts
The ris e8uation can be rewritten in the
following form A
Ris/ R W Hazard + li/elihood o' e+pos!re +
degree o' e+pos!re X. 9or the purpose of
ris assessment, this ris e8uation is
redefined as follows A
Ris" Rating
T
HR + 2 + ER
RR P
?
RR R ris rating on the scale of 1 to BD
?
HR R ha=ard rating on the scale of 1 to BD
?
2 R lielihood of e%posureD where 6 R 4 for
unliely e%posureD and 6 R 1 for liely
e%posureD and
?
ER R e%posure rating on the scale of 1 to BD
Note A the scale of 1 to B is in increasing order
of magnitudeD -is rating &--' will be =ero if
there is unliely e%posure and the s8uare root is
to ensure -- is within the scale of 1 to B.
Ris" Rating
The ha=ard of a chemical is rated on a 1 to B
scale with a rating of 1 implying least
ha=ardous and a rating of B implying most
ha=ardous.
-ating will depend on the particular chemical
has ac!te to+icological data or not1
9or chemicals with to%icological data, ha=ard
rating will be guided by table 1, while others
will be guided by table 2.
Hazard Rating
a1 Chemicals -ith ac!te to+icological data
/a=ard rating for this class of chemicals is
in accordance to the ;2(. proposal for
classification of chemicals into B classes
based on their acute to%icity criteria.
<ote that the ha=ard rating scale is in
opposite order to the ;2(. ha=ard class.
Hazard Rating
0# Chemicals -itho!t ac!te to+icological
data. 9or chemicals without acute to%icity
data. Table 77 will be used to rate the ha=ard.
" ha=ard rating of 1 means that the chemical
is not nown at the present moment to cause
any ad!erse health effects. -atings of 2 to 3
are assigned to those chemicals with !arying
degrees of ad!erse health effects.
Hazard Rating
#1 Chemicals -itho!t ac!te to+icological
data Ccontin!edD
" rating of B is assigned to those chemicals
which are either pro!en &i.e. effects shown
in human' or possible &i.e. effects shown in
animal or suspected in human' carcinogens,
teratogens, or mutagens.
Hazard Rating
Ta#le I1 Hazard Rating *or Chemicals .ith
Ac!te To+icit" ,ata

Hazard
rating
82-@
class
:@HK oral
+g5kg
body
weight,
:@HK
deral
+g5kg
body
weight,
:-HK
"nhalation
>as5vapor @ust
+g5l,
+g5l,
H ?
U H U HK

U K,H U
K,?FH
G F
V H U HK V HK U
FKK
VK,H U F VK,?F
U K,H
D D
V HK U
FKK
V FKK U
?KKK
V F U ?K V K,H U
F,H
F G
V FKK U
FKKK
V ?KKK
UFKKK
V ?K UFK V F,H
U H
? H
V FKKK V FKKK V FK V H
Ta0le II# Hazard Rating for (hemicals <itho%t ac%te
To7icity 4ata
/a=ard
rating
.escription of effects 2%amples of
chemicals
1 <o nown ad!erse health effects -
2 6ocal A slight and re!ersible
damage to the sin, eyes or
mucous membranes
+ystemic A changes readily,
re!ersible once e%posure ceases
Mild irritants
# 6ocal A moderate and re!ersible
damage to sin, eyes or mucous
membranes
+ystemic A moderate re!ersible
changes. -e!ersible changes not
se!ere enough to cause serious
physical or health impairment or
threaten life.
.ilute
acids5alalis
Ta0le II# Hazard Rating for (hemicals
<itho%t
Ac%te To7icity 4ata *contin%ed,
/a=ard
rating
.escription of effects 2%amples of
chemicals
3 6ocal A in>ury to the sin, eyes
or mucous membranes of
sufficient se!erity to threaten
life or produce permanent
impairment, disfigurement, or
irre!ersible change.
+ystemic A can produce
serious physical or health
impairment or e!en death.
(oncentrated
acids5alalis.
Potent sensiti=ers
<euroto%ic
chemicals, etc.
B 2%posure e!en to low
absorbed dose can cause
serious physical or health
impairment.
(arcinogens,
mutagens,
teratogens
E7pos%re 3i"elihood
To determine whether there is li/elihood o'
e+pos!re C2 P 3D or there is no li/elihood o'
e+pos!re C2 P <D, obser!ation and inspection
of the normal operation conditions where the
chemical is being used need to be carried out.
"t the same time the possibility of abnormal
operating conditions or situations such as
spillage, lea, fire etc. need also to be
determined.
6ielihood of e%posure &6 R 1' means a
possibility of chemicals being inhaled,
absorbed through the sin or ingested,
and these possibility depend on A
E7pos%re 3i"elihood
E7pos%re 3i"elihood
a. h"sical 'orm o' contaminant
Particulates, gas or !apor may be inhaled or
contacted with sin5eye.
b. Size and densit"
The smaller the si=e of particulates, the more
liely they are to be inhaled. .enser gas or
!apor tends to settle and is less liely to
disperse.
c. Nat!re o' handling&contact with chemical
manual or mechani=ed handling direct or
indirect source contact.
d. *re0!enc" o' contact
.aily A continuous, intermittentD weely,
monthly.
E7pos%re 3i"elihood
The purpose of determining 2- is to assess
the li/elihood o' emplo"ees e+posed to the
hazardo!s chemicals getting inj!red. The
important considerations are A
a. /ow they are e%posed
b. /ow fre8uent is e%posure
c. /ow high is each e%posure.
E7pos%re Rating
)here are two ways of deterining the
exposure rating +2(,. "f exposure data are
available fro personal or area
monitoring of the )or"place or
0iological monitoring of the afected
workers, coputation of 2( is
straightforward. "f, however, exposure
data are not available, then the
deterination of 2( will have to go
through a few stages.
E7pos%re Rating
+-ontinued,
7n either case, the degree o' e+pos!re CED to
the chemical must first be determined and this
7s gi!en as follows A

E P * + , + M VVVVVVVVVC8D
.
.here 9 R 9re8uency of e%posure per wee
. R "!erage duration of each e%posure
&hours'
M R Magnitude of e%posure in ppm or
mg5m#
$ R "!erage woring hours per wee
&taen as 34 hours5wee'
E7pos%re Rating
28uation &3' can be simplified by substituting $
with 34 hours per wee and &9 % .' with T. i.e.
total duration of e%posure per wee, then A
E P M + T, SSSSSSSS
&B'
8<
;nce the degree of e%posure &2' has been
determined, e%posure rating &2-' can be
estimated from Table 777.
Ta#le III1 E+pos!re Rating 7ased
$n Meas!red ersonal E+pos!re
@egree of
exposure
2xposure rating +2(,
W K,? P2: ?
V K,? P2: W K,H
P2:
F
V K,H P2: W ?,K
P2:
D
V ?,K P2: W F,K
P2:
G
V F,K P2: H

The magnitude of e%posure &M' in e8uation B


can be estimated either 8uantitati!ely or non-
8uantitati!ely.

H!antitati%e estimation can be made when


e%posure data are a!ailable from personal or
area monitoring or results of biological
monitoring of worers.
Magnit%de of E7pos%re
?
NonI0!antitati%e estimation is made
when e%posure data are una!ailable and
the magnitude of e%posure &M' must be
estimated through obser!ation and
inspection of the worplace.
Magnit%de of E7pos%re
Tuantitati!e determination is based on A

(urrent measurement of personal


e%posure either airborne or biological.

2stimation from pre!ious


measurement of personal e%posure
either airborne or biological.
N%antitative 4etermination

Estimation o' personal e+pos!re


from ambient or general air le!els.

2stimation of personal e%posure from


breathing instruments &such as multi-
gas infrared =one measurements by
the use of direct reading analy=ers or
respirable dust monitors'.
N%antitative 4etermination

" worer is e%posed to tol!ene once a day


for a B-day woring wee.

The a!erage duration of e%posure to toluene


is about #.B hours per day.

Measurement using direct reading e8uipment


showed that the a!erage concentration of
toluene is #B4 ppm &P26 R 244 ppm'
E7ample A
(omp%tation ' from e6%ation
*@,
2 R 1 x @ x 3
*
R H x D,H x DHK
GK
R ?HD pp or K,J P2:
4egree of E7pos%re

" worer wors with eth"lene gl"col


three times a wee.

2ach time his ma%imum e%posure to


ethylene glycol is found to be 34 ppm
&P26-(eiling R B4 ppm'

2 R M ----- since ceiling !alue

2 R 34 ppm or 4,C P26


E7ample -
6on/#uantitative deterination of the
agnitude of exposure +3, depends on
factors
such as 4

Physico/cheical properties of the


cheical including its physical for, size
and density.

)he release and reoval rate of the


cheical

)he nature of handling5contact with


cheical
Non1N%antitative 4etermination
?
AssessorNs o#ser%ation on the presence as
well as degree of contamination by the
chemical.
?
The breathing rate &physical acti!ity' or sin
absorpti!ity.
?
The fre8uency of contact
?
Physiological responses from records of medical
cases or worers health complaintsD and
?
The use of PP2.
Non1N%antitative 4etermination
2stimation of M re8uires four &3' steps in!ol!ing
Table 7) to )77 inclusi!e. The procedure is as
follows A
Step a ----- .etermine the degree of release
or emission form table 7).
Step # ----- .etermine the degree of
absorption or contact from table ).
Non1N%antitative
4etermination

Step c A

Step d A
9rom outcomes of steps a and b

determine the magnitude of
e%posure rating &M-' from table
)7.
,sing magnitude of e%posure
rating &M-' from step c determine
the corresponding magnitude of
e%posure &M' 9rom table )77.
Non1N%antitative 4etermination
Step a ( ,etermination o' chemical release
or emission
The degree of chemical release is determined
through obser!ation of the sources and the
presence of the chemical in the woring
en!ironment. These obser!ations are made for
both inhalation and dermal ris. " table for
grading the degree of release based on
worplace obser!ation is gi!en in Table 7).
Non1N%antitative 4etermination
Ta#le I) ( ,egree o' Contact or A#sorption
.egree ;bser!ation
6ow
6ow or little release into the air.
<o contamination of clothing and
no accumulation on wor
surfaces
Ta#le I) ( ,egree o' Contact or A#sorption
.egree ;bser!ation
Moderate
Moderate release such as A
a. +ol!ents with medium drying time in
unco!ered containers or e%posed to
wor en!ironment.
b. .etectable odors of chemicals with odor
thresholds e%ceeding the P26s.
2!idence of contamination of air, clothing
and accumulation on wor surfaces of sin
sensiti=ers, sin or eye irritants, or
chemicals capable of sin absorption
Ta#le I) ( ,egree o' Contact or A#sorption
.egree ;bser!ation
/igh
+ubstantial release such as A
a. +ol!ents with fast drying time in unco!ered
containersD
b. +prays or dust clouds in poorly !entilated
areasD
c, (hemicals with high rates of e!aporation
e%posed to wor en!ironmentD
d. +trong odor of chemicals with odor
thresholds e%ceeding the P26sD
*ross contamination of air, clothing and wor
surfaces with sin sensiti=ers, sin or eye
irritants, or chemicals capable of sin
absorption.
Non1N%antitative 4etermination
Step # ( ,egree o' contact or a#sorption
The degree of contact or absorption is assessed
for inhalation and dermal absorption riss.
;bser!ation of sin contact and inhalation of
chemicals as well as e%amination of or feedbac
from medical or worers health complaint records
are used to determine the degree of contact or
absorption as shown in table ).
Non1N%antitative 4etermination
Step # ( ,egree o' contact or a#sorption
Ccontin!edD
The degree of contact is determined from the
worse of the two riss, 9or e%ample, if the
degree of inhalation ris is low and the degree
for dermal ris is moderate, then the degree of
contact or absorption is taen as moderate.
Ta#le ) ( ,egree o' Contact or A#sorption
.egree 7nhalation ris .ermal ris

2o-
6ow breathing rate
&light wor', <o
complaints of ill-
effects. <o reported
cases of illness
related to the
chemical e%posure.
(ontact of chemical
other than described
under Gmoderate and
highH. +mall area of
contact F limited to
palm &intact sin'.
<o indication of any
sin conditions
Ta#le ) ( ,egree o' Contact or A#sorption
.egree 7nhalation ris .ermal ris
Moderate Moderate breathing
rate &moderate
wor'. +ource close
to breathing =one.
(omplaints of mild
ill-effects or
reported cases of
employees with
preclinical
symptoms related
to the chemical
e%posure.
(ontact with
chemicals which ha!e
GsinH notation or
capable of sin
penetration e%cept
those describer under
GhighH. Moderate area
of contact to one or
both hands. +in
dryness and
detectable sin
conditions.
Ta#le ) ( ,egree o' Contact or A#sorption
.egree 7nhalation ris .ermal ris
/igh
/igh breathing rate
&hea!y wor'.
+ource within
breathing =one.
$idespread
complaints of ill-
effects and reported
cases of disease or
illness related to the
chemical e%posure.
+in soaed or
immersed in chemical
with GsinH notation.
"rea of contact not
only confined to hands
but also other parts of
body.
+in damaged.
+e!ere drying, peeling
and cracing.
-eported cases of
dermatitis.
Non1N%antitative 4etermination
Step c ( determination o' the magnit!de
rating CMRD
The magnitude of e%posure is determined by
the combination of the degree of release and
the degree of contact or absorption.
6ow releases coupled with low absorption will
mean !ery low e%posure and a magnitude
rating of 1 is designated.
Non1N%antitative 4etermination
Step c ( determination o' the magnit!de
rating CMRD1 "t the other end, high
releases with high absorption will mean
!ery high e%posure and the designated
rating is B. The !arious combinations are
gi!en in table )7 below.
Ta0le GI ' Magnit%de Rating *MR,
.egree of
chemical
release
.egree of contact
or absorption
Magnitude rating

&M-'
3o) 6ow
Moderate
/igh
1
2
#
Moderate 6ow
Moderate
/igh
2
#
3
High 6ow
Moderate
/igh
#
3
B
Non1N%antitative 4etermination

Step d ( ,etermination o' the magnit!de


o' e+pos!re CMD
1ased on the magnitude rating &M-'
obtained from step c, the magnitude of
e%posure &M' is determined from table )77.
Ta0le GII ' Magnit%de of E7pos%re
*M,
Magnitude rating &M-' "ssigned M
1 4,4B % P26 !alue
2 4,1 % P26 !alue
# 4,B % P26 !alue
3 1,4 % P26 !alue
B 2.4 % P26 !alue
Eval%ation of Ris"
T
&/- % 6 : 2-' VVVVVVV&#'
RR R
$hen the s8uare root is not a whole
number, the ne%t highest whole number
is designated as the ris rating.
2%ample A /- R #D 2- R 3D 6 R 1D
-- R ! &# % 1 % 3' R #,3@
Thus, assigned -- R 3
Tolera0le Ris"
Ris/ that has #een red!ced to a le%el
that can be endured by the organi=ation
ha!ing regard to its legal obligations and
its own ;/U+ policy. &-isio yang telah
diurangi sampai pada tingat yang dapat
ditahan oleh organisasi dalam hal
ewa>iban huum dan ebi>aan 0#-nya'
-is is e!aluated as either Jsigni'icantK or
Jnot signi'icantK1 -is is regarded as not
signi'icant i' it is !nli/el" that the -or/
e+pos!re -ill ad%ersel" a''ect the health
o' the -or/ers1
This situation arises when either there is not
lielihood of e%posure &6 R 4' or the chemical
is least ha=ardous &/- R 1' or the e%posure
is !ery low &2- R 1'.
Signi$cance of Ris"
"nother situation is where the chemical is of
low to%icity &/- R 2' and the e%posure le!el is
below 4,B P26 & i.e. 2- R 2' is considered as
presenting a non-significant ris.
/ence, those ris situation where -- is
either <,3, or 9 is considered as not
signi'icant1
Table )777 below summari=es the decision for
the ris e!aluated.
Ta#le )III ( ,ecision on the Signi'icance o' Ris/
(isk (ating +((, @ecision
K, ?, F 6ot signifcant
D, G, H 9ignifcant
Note A ris is not significant irrespecti!e of -- if
either /- is 1 or 2- is 1 &-- can only be 4 if 6 R 4'
The presence and ade8uacy of e%isting control
measures are e%al!ated 'or each -or/ !nit.
The ade8uacy of e%isting control measures is
assessed by inspecting the e+isting control
meas!resD checing records of air sampling,
biological monitoringD and checing records on
the inspection, testing and e%amination of
control e8uipment.
Assess Ade6%acy of (ontrol Meas%res
A control meas!re is ade0!ate i' (
a. It is s!ita#le for protecting the employees
taing into consideration the physical form
and to%icity of the chemical, the nature of
wor, the routes of entry of the chemical and
the adaptability of control measures to the
capacities and capabilities of the employees.
b. It is e''ecti%e in pre%enting and minimizing
e+pos!reO and
c. It is properl" maintained1
The assessment for each wor unit
needs to be concluded as this will be
useful in determining whether actions
to control ris need to be identified.
(oncl%ding the Assessment
7e'ore concl!ding the assessment, the
assessor needs to consider the following
a. $hether there is sufficient information to
identify the degree of ha=ard and the degree
of e%posure.
b. $hether the ris is GsignificantH or Gnot
significantHD and
c. $hether the e%isting control measures are
ade8uate &see Table :7'.
(oncl%ding the Assessment
Ta0le ID# (oncl%sion of
Assessment
-is .ecision "de8uacy of
control measures
(onclusion
<ot significant -
(1
+ignificant "de8uate
<ot ade8uate
(2
(#
,ncertain -
(3
7dentify possible action to be taen including
control measures based on the conclusion of
assessment. *or ris/ decision C3 A ris/ not
signi'icant now and not liely to increase in
future, the action re8uired are A
a. 2nd current assessmentD
b. -e!iew assessment in fi!e years or if situation
changes.
Identify Action to 0e Ta"en
*or ris/ decision C9 A ris/ signi'icant #!t
alread" ade0!atel" controlled, co!ld increase
in '!t!re, but the actions re8uired are A
a. .etermine precautions to maintain controls and
minimi=e chances of higher e%posure occurringD
b. .etermine additional measures for regaining
control if a high ris e!ent occurs, despite
precautionsD
c. .etermine if monitoring or health sur!eillance is

re8uired to chec on effecti!eness of controlsD
d. -e!iew assessment e!ery fi!e years or when
there is a change in circumstances.
*or ris/ decision C@ A ris/ signi'icant no- and
not ade0!atel" controlledD the actions re8uired
are A
a. 7dentify and implement immediate measures
for pre!enting or controlling e%posureD
b. 2stablish the need to stop the processD
c. 1egin re!iew of longer-term control
re8uirementsD
d. -ee!aluate e%posure when thr upgraded
control measures are in placeD
e. .etermine if monitoring or health sur!eillance
is re8uired.
*or ris/ decision C8 A uncertain &insufficient
informationD or uncertain about degree and
e%tent of e%posure'D the actions re8uired
are A
a. Meanwhile, implement good wor practices
to minimi=e e%posure.
b. ;btain additional information or conduct a
more detailed assessment. ;btain specialist
ad!ice if necessaryD
Recording o' an assessment is important
because it will be useful for the purpose of follow
up action, re!iew and compliance with legal
re8uirements. The information to be recorded
include A
a. <ame and address of the worplaceD
b. Particulars of chemicals being assessed
including their ha=ard descriptions and
ha=ard ratingD
c. .escription of wor units
eep Records
d. Particulars of the worplace assessment
including e%posure description and rating
and ade8uacy of e%isting control measuresD
e. -is e!aluation and conclusion of
assessmentD
f. -ecommendations for further actionD
g. .ate of the (/-"D and
h. <ame and position of the assessor or
assessor team.
eep Records
The assessment needs to #e re%ie-ed A
a. E%er" 'i%e "earsO
b. I' the ris/ sit!ation changesD such as due to A
- changes in the chemicals used or handledD
- a significant change in the 8uantity of
ha=ardous chemicals usedD
- change in methods or rate of worD
- deterioration in the efficiency of control
e8uipmentD or
- plant failure or system failure.
7ased on the ris/ decision and the
assessment o' e+isting control
meas!res there are 3 conclusions that
could be reached from the assessment and
there are denoted by (1, (2, (#, or (3.
(oncl%sions of (HRA
*or ris/ decision C3 A ris/ not
signi'icant
now and not li/el" to increase in '!t!re,
the actions taen re8uired are A

2nd current assessmentD


-e!iew assessment in fi!e years or
situation changes.
(oncl%sions of (HRA
*or ris/ decision C9 A ris/ signi'icant #!t
alread" ade0!atel" controlled, co!ld increase
in '!t!re, the actions re0!ired are A
?
.etermine precautions to maintain controls and
minimi=e chances of higher e%posure occurringD
?
.etermine additional measures for regaining
control if a high ris e!ent occurs, despite
precautionsD
?
.etermine if monitoring or health sur!eillance is
re8uired to chec on effecti!eness of controls
?
-e!iew assessment e!ery fi!e years of when
there is a change in circumstances.
*or ris/ decision C@ A ris/ signi'icant no-, and
not ade0!atel" controlled, the actions re8uired
are A
?
7dentify and implement immediate measures for
pre!enting or controlling e%posureD
?
2stablish the need to stop the processD
?
1egin re!iew of longer-term control
re8uirementsD
?
-e-e!aluate e%posure when the upgraded
control measures are in placeD
?
.etermine if monitoring or health sur!eillance is
re8uired.
<;. Tuestion5+tatement "nswer
1. /a=ard is something that has the potential to cause
harm to people, e8uipment, or the en!ironment is
"
2. -is is the lielihood, chance or probability that
harm may occur from a particular ha=ard. 7t is
commonly represented as a combination of the
fre8uency and conse8uences of a specific identified
incident.
"
#. 2%ample of risA "n employee with limited dri!ing
sill is dri!ing his car in *rassberg
"
3. +ounds, lights, and dust is categori=ed as
ergonomic ha=ard
1
B. To be safe in operating a hea!y e8uipment, you
must use these controls. "mong others areA hea!y
e8uipment training D PT97 9i!e -ules to +afety D and
/ea!y 28uipment +;Ps
"
@. 2%amples of Yconse8uence of Yha=ardA Y+omeone
falling when woring at height and broe his legs.
"
E. $hat is meant by Ycontrol action is safe acts
performed by employees during their wor
1
C. 2%ample of control instrument in the conte%t of
safetyA a tele!ision operated with remote control
1
I. 9re8uency is the amount of occurrences that this
e!ent is liely to occur, measured from e.g.
G2%pected <e!er To /appenH to G ;nce per $ee,
+hift, Month or the present TimeH
"
14. (orrect (ontrol /ierarchy &at PT97'A 2limination-
+ubstitution-2ngineering-"dministration-Personal
Protecti!e e8uipment &PP2'
"
11. The operational rule for practicing /7-".( at PT97 is
PT97 +tandard <o. B.24
1
12 To now the ris ran of any tas at PT97, you are
suggested to utili=e PT97 +/2 -is and 7mpact
"ssessment Matri%.
"
1# 7n /7-".(, you should do communication properly,
especially in the beginning stage, because it a !ery
important stage.
1
13 0nowing the detailed process of any tas is actually
not too important in identifying the ha=ards
1
1B 7n /7-".(, to determine the ris rans of tass, it is
enough for reference if we see the accident trend of
the year before.
1
#@@
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