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Limbic system

Irfan Idris
Physiology Department
Medical Faculty UNHAS

Limbic System
limbic means border. describe the border
structures around the basal regions of the
cerebrum
The term limbic system has been expanded to
mean the entire neuronal circuitry that controls
emotional behavior and motivational drives
A major part of the limbic system is the
hypothalamus vegetative functions of the
brain

Hypothalamus, a Major Control


Headquarters for the Limbic
System

(1) backward and downward to the brain


stem
(2) upward toward many higher areas of
the diencephalon and cerebrum
(3) into the hypothalamic infundibulum to
control or partially control most of the
secretory functions of both the posterior
and the anterior pituitary glands.

Vegetative and Endocrine Control


Functions of the Hypothalamus

Cardiovascular Regulation
Regulation of Body Temperature
Regulation of Body Water
Regulation of Uterine Contractility and of
Milk Ejection from the Breasts
Gastrointestinal and Feeding Regulation
Hypothalamic Control of Endocrine
Hormone Secretion by the Anterior
Pituitary Gland

Behavioral Functions of the


Hypothalamus and Associated
Limbic Structures
Stimulation in the lateral hypothalamus thirst
and eating also leading to overt rage and
fighting
Stimulation in the ventromedial nucleus
a sense of satiety, decreased eating, and
tranquility
Stimulation of a thin zone of periventricular
nuclei leads to fear and punishment
reactions
Sexual drive can be stimulated especially
the most anterior and most posterior portions
of the hypothalamus

Reward and Punishment Function


of the Limbic System
Reward centers have been found to be located
along the course of the medial forebrain bundle,
especially in the lateral and ventromedial nuclei of
the hypothalamus

Punishment center
central gray area surrounding the aqueduct of
Sylvius in the mesencephalon
periventricular zones of the hypothalamus and
thalamus

Almost everything that we do is related in some


way to reward and punishment.
If we are doing something that is rewarding, we
continue to do it; if it is punishing, we cease to
do it
It is presumed that tranquilizers function in
psychotic states by suppressing many of the
important behavioral areas of the
hypothalamus and its associated regions of the
limbic brain

Functions of the
Hippocampus
the elongated portion of the cerebral cortex that folds
inward to form the ventral surface of much of the inside
of the lateral ventricle
an additional channel through which incoming sensory
signals can initiate behavioral reactions for different
purposes.
Any of the different behavioral patterns such as
pleasure, rage, passivity, or excess sex drive
focal epileptic seizures in small areas of the
hippocampi : the person experiences various
psychomotor effects, including olfactory, visual,
auditory, tactile, and other types of hallucinations

hippocampus provides the drive that


causes translation of short-term memory
into longterm memorythat is, the
hippocampus transmits some signal or
signals that seem to make the mind
rehearse over and over the new
information until permanent storage takes
place

Functions of the Amygdala


small nuclei located immediately beneath the cerebral cortex of
the medial anterior pole of each temporal lobe
Stimulation in the amygdala can cause almost all the same effects
as those elicited by direct stimulation of the hypothalamus
(vegetatif)
Tonic movements, circling movements, occasionally clonic,
rhythmical movements; different types of movements associated
with olfaction and eating, such as licking, chewing, and swallowing
rage, escape, punishment, severe pain, and fear similar to the
rage pattern
On the basis of this information, the amygdala is believed to make
the persons behavioral response appropriate for each occasion.