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CNC MACHINE TOOL PROG. & OPTN.

- Basic and Common Competencies

Objectives
I.

At the end of the course, the participants


will be able to:
Identify the different kinds of metals and its

properties; and,
State important pointers in the selection of

metals for specific industrial application.

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Course Outline
Introduction

I.

Metals VS Nonmetals

Sources of Metals

Metal Classification

Physical Properties

Standards

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Course Outline
V. Ferrous Metals
Steel
Cast Iron

VI. Non-Ferrous Metals


Aluminum and Its Alloy
Copper and Its Alloy

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Course Outline
VII. Metals

Identification and Pointers to


Selection

VIII.Mechanical Testing
IX. Chemical Analysis

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MATERIALS
SELECTION
SINCE THE
PREHISTORIC TIMES

Wood
Stone

Bones

Learning was by experience


Skills/Knowledge was passed down from father to

son
The art of materials selection became a valued

skill within the community


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MATERIALS SELECTION SPECIALISTS


TODAY
Trained Metallurgists
Materials Engineer / Scientists

As modern materials are becoming diversified


and complex, it is more effective that the task
of materials selection is done by people of
many different backgrounds.

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Its
Processing
Product
Design

Performance
Material
Selection

Cost
Recycleability
Availability

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Design Process Overview

MATERIALS SELECTION PROCESS


During conceptual design, only general data were required about the materials.
Broad description need to be refined into specific performance requirements.
Selection of the CORRECT material is a KEY-Step in product realization.
The task, selection of materials, is enormous in that there are well over 100,000

engineering materials to choose from.


On the practical level, access to info on 50 80 materials should be enough.
World pressure / Competition led to the creation of new materials (Metals,

Polymers, Elastomers, Ceramics, Glasses and Composites)

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MATERIALS SELECTION PROCESS


4-Level Approach to Materials Selection

Level 1. Based on critical properties, determine whether the part will be made
from metal, plastic, ceramic, or composite.

Level 2. Determine whether parts will be produced by a deformation process or a


casting process.

Level 3. Narrow options to a broad category of material. Metals can be


subdivided into categories such as carbon steel, stainless steel, and copper
alloys.

Level 4. Select a specific material according to a specific grade or specification.

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MATERIALS SELECTION PROCESS


The materials selection problem usually involves one of
two situations:

Selection of the materials and processes for a new


product or design.

The

evaluation

of

alternative

materials

or

manufacturing routes for an existing product or


design.

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NON-METALS

METALS

METALS against NON-METALS

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Sources of Metals
MINERAL
- is any substance, compound, or mixture that
occurs naturally as a product of inorganic
processes.

ORE
- is a mineral from which a useful metal can be
profitably extracted.

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Sources of Metals
Native and Combined Metals
Native or uncombined :
Gold and Platinum (complete inactivity)
Native/Combined:
Silver, Copper, and Mercury
Combined or never found free:
Iron, Zinc, Aluminum and Sodium
(more active metals)

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Sources of Metals
Natural agents of chemical reaction:
Water, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrogen Sulfide
- Converted metals into compounds
.. Oxides of Iron, Zinc, and Aluminum
.. Carbonates of Calcium, Magnesium,
and Copper
.. Sulfides of Mercury, Lead, and Silver
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Physical Properties of Metals


1. Color
Their color is usually described as silvery or lustrous.

2. Density and Hardness


Most metals are hard and dense.

3. Melting and Boiling Points


Metals have usually high melting and boiling points.

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Physical Properties of Metals


4. Malleability
Some metals can be rolled out into sheets without
breaking.

5. Ductility
The ability of metallic particles to hang together
(tensile strength) is great, permitting them to be drawn
into fine wires.

6. Conductivity
Metals are good conductors of heat and of electricity.

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Codes and Standards


ABS
SAE
AISI
ANSI

American Bureau of Shipping

Society of Automotive Engineers


American Iron and Steel Institute
American National Standard Institute

ASTM American Society for Testing & Materials


ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
API
American Petroleum Institute
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Codes and Standards


BS

British Standard

DIN

Deutsch Industrie Normen

TV

Technischer berwachungsverein

RS

RussiansRegisterofShipping

TTK

Teknilinen Tutkimuskeskus

CEN

Comit Europen de Normalisation

EN

Europen Norms

Codes and Standards


AS

Australian Standard

JIS

Japanese Industrial Standard

PNS Philippine National Standard


ISO International Organization for Standardization

Classification of Materials
Materials

Metals

Non-Ferrous

Ferrous

Steel

Non-Metallic
Materials

Cast
Iron

Heavy

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Artificial

Natural

Light

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Classification of Metals

Ferrous Alloy

Non-ferrous Alloy

Classification of Metals

Steel

Cast Iron

Classification of Metals

Plain Carbon
Steel

Alloyed Steel

Classification of Metals

Low
Carbon Steel
(Less than
0.30%C)

Medium
Carbon Steel
(0.30%-0.55%C)

High
Carbon Steel
(more than
0.55%C)

Outline of Steel-making Process


Iron making

Steel making

Rolling

Main products

Iron Making
Iron making=Reduction of iron oxide to
iron Removal of impurities
Main reaction in blast furnace
Burning of coke

Reduction of iron ore

Removal of impurities such as


SiO2 as Slag

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Steel Making

Converter
C:4.3mass% -> 0.04mass%
Add ferroalloys,
deoxiding agent
desulfuring agent

Electric furnace(arc furnace)


Melting iron scrap
with high efficiency
Secondary refining in ladle
Final desulfurization
Degassing of O2, N2, H2, etc
Removal of inclusions
Final decarburization
Adjustment of alloying elements
Casting
Continuous casting(CC)
Advantage for semiproduct:
Low segregation
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High homogeniety Rev 2/10-02Ratio of CC in Japan > 90%08

Classification of Steels
Steels are classified into groups as follows:

Plain Carbon Steels


1.

Low Carbon Steel 0.01 0.03% Carbon

2.

Medium Carbon Steel 0.3 0.6% Carbon

3.

High Carbon Steel 0.6 1.4% Carbon

Plain carbon steels contain only iron and carbon as main


alloying elements; traces of Mn, Si, Al, S and P may also
be present.

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Classification of Steels
Classification method

Type of steel

Classification by
hardness

Ultra-mild steels, mild steels, hard steels

Classification by strength

High strength steels, high tensile strength steels, ultra-high


tensile strength steels

Classification by shape

Sheets, plates, pipes, sections, bars, rods, wires, foils

Classification by
characteristics

Classification by
application
Classification by
chemical composition

Tough steels, Case-hardening steels, heat steels, low


temperature steels, weathering steels, wear resistant
steels, non-aging steels, free cutting steels, stainless
steels, electromagnetic steels, nonmagnetic steels,
Automotive steel sheets, structural steels, pressure vessel
steels, steel pipes for boilers, tool steels, high speed steels,
bearing steels, spring steels, piano wires
Ultra-low carbon steels, low carbon steels, medium carbon
steels, high carbon steels, low alloy steels, high alloy
steels, Si-Mn steels, Cr-Mo steels
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Classification of Steels
Classification method

Type of steel

Classification by
production process

Hot rolled steels, cold rolled steels, cats steels, forged


steels

Classification by heat
treatment

Thermal refined steels, non-heat treated steels, normalized


steels, maraging steels

Classification by metal
structure

Ferritic steels, ferritic-pearlitic steels, austenitic steels,


bainitic steels, martensitic steels, duplex steels,

Classification by post
treatment

Surface-treated steel sheets, galvanized steel sheets,


organic coatings steel sheets, colored stainless steel

Classification by
production process

Converter steel, open hearth steel, electric furnace steel

Classification by
deoxidization

Rimmed steel, killed steel, aluminium-killed steel, titaniumdeoxidized steel


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LOW CARBON STEEL


I.

Structural Material
Example:
Re-bar, Angle bar, Bolts, Nuts
Beams, etc.
Good Weldability
Non-Hardenable
Good Machinability

LOW CARBON STEEL


Grating up to 0.2% C

Deep-drawing quality sheet


steel 0.06 to 0.12% C

Rivet steel 0.12 to 0.22% C

Girder 0.15 to 0.30% C

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MEDIUM CARBON STEEL


I.

Machinery Steel
Example:
Gears, Axels, Crankshafts, etc.

Hardenable
Higher Strength than low carbon steels

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LOW CARBON STEEL

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LOW CARBON STEEL

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HIGH CARBON STEEL


I.

Tool Steel
Example:
Chisel, Hacksaw Blade, File, Drillbit, etc.
Hardenable
Wear Resistant

ADVANTAGES:
low price, simple heat treatment process

DISADVANTAGES:
compared with alloyed tool steels supporting
a higher strain, it only withstands working
temperature of up to 200 C, thus it is not
able to withstand high cutting speeds.

Application of unalloyed
tool steel for low
strained tools.

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FERROUS METALS

Low Alloy Steel


(less than 5% Total Alloying
Element Content)

High Alloy Steel

What is an ALLOY?
is a substance that has metallic

properties and is composed of two or


more chemical elements of which at
least one is metal.

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ALLOYING ELEMENTS
Nickel (Ni)
Silicon (Si)

Chromium (Cr)

Aluminum (Al)

Tungsten (W)

Copper (Cu)

Molybdenum (Mo)

Manganese (Mn)

Vanadium (V)
Titanium (Ti)

ALLOYING ELEMENTS
Nickel

25%
12 20 %

toughness & solution strengthening


improves corrosion resistance

Silicon

0.2 0.7 %
2%
higher

increase strength
used for spring steels
improves magnetic properties

Aluminum
Copper

small qty.
0.1 0.4%

inhibits grain growth


improves corrosion resistance

ALLOYING ELEMENTS
Manganese 0.25 4 %

Chromium

0.5 2 %
4%

combines with sulfur to prevent


brittleness at high temperatures
increases hardenabilty
improves corrosion resistance

Tungsten

increases hardness

Molybdenum 0.2- 5 %

forms stable carbides and


inhibits grain growth

ALLOYING ELEMENTS
Vanadium

Titanium

0.15 %

forms stable carbides


and increases hardness;
increases strength while retaining
ductility
fixes carbon in inert particles;
reduces martensitic hardness in
chromium steels

LOW ALLOY STEEL


(AISI Designation)
10XX

- Plain Carbon Steel

13XX

- Manganese Steel (1.75% Mn)

31XX

- Nickel Chromium Steel (1.25% Ni;


0.65% Cr)

4XXX

- Molybdenum Steel (0.20% Mo)

5XXX

- Chromium Steel

Tool Steel

Stainless Steel

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Tool Steel Type

Prefix

Specific Types

Cold Work

W=Water Hardening
O=Oil Hardening
A=Medium alloy Air
Hardening
D=High Carbon, High
Chromium

W1,W2,W5
O1,O2,O6,O7
A2,A4,A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,A11
D2,D3,D4,D5,D7

Shock Resisting

S1,S2,S4,S5,S7

Hot Work

H10-H19 Chromium types


H40-H59 Molybdenum types

High Speed

Molybdenum types
(M1,M2,M3-1,M32,M4,M6,M7,M10,M33,M34,M36
,M41,M42,M46,M50)
Tungsten
types(T1,T4,T5,T6.T8,T15)

Mold Steels

P6,P20,P21

Special purpose

L and F purpose

L2,L6

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Cold Work Tool Steels (W, O, A, D-types)


Cold work tool steels are used for
gages, blanking, drawing and
piercing dies, shears, forming and
banding rolls, lathe centers,
mandrels, broaches, reamers, taps,
threading dies, plastic molds,
knurling tools.

Water Hardening
Tool Steels
(W series)

Oil Hardening
Tool Steels
(O-Series)

Essentially these are


carbon steels with
0.60 to 1.10 % carbon.

0.90 to 1.45 % Carbon


with Mn, Si, W, Mo, Cr.

Lowest cost tool


steels.
Soft core(for
toughness) with hard
shallow layer (for
wear resistance).
Use of w-series steels
is declining.

They contain graphite


in the hardened
structure along with
martensite. (Graphite
acts as a lubricator
and also makes
machining easier.

Medium Alloy Air


Hardening Steels
(A-series)

5 to 10 % alloying
elements (Mn, Si, W,
Mo, Cr, V, Ni) to
improve the
hardenability, wear
resistance,
toughness.

High Carbon
High Chromium
Steels
(D-series)

All D-series contain


12% Cr and over 1.5 %
C.
Air or oil quench.
Low distortion, high
abrasion resistance.

Tungsten forms
tungsten carbide
which improves the
abrasion resistance
and edge retention in
cutting devices.

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Hot Work Tool Steels (H-series)


I. are categorized by major alloying
elements into three subgroups.
Chromium types
Tungsten types
Molybdenum types
II. are used in extrusion dies, forging
dies, die casting, hot shear blades,
plastic molds, punches and dies for
piercing shells, hot press, etc.

Shock Resisting Tool Steels (S-series)


has a very good shock resistant qualities with

excellent toughness
have 0.45 to 0.55% carbon
alloyed with silicon and nickel for ferrite

strengtheners; chromium to increase wear


resistance and hardenability
used in form tools, chisels, punches,

cutting
blades, springs, trimming, and swaging dies,
concrete and rock drills, bolt cutters.

Mold Tool Steels (P-series)


have 0.10 to 0.35 % carbon.

show high toughness.


these low carbon mold steels cannot be quench

hardened.
the carbon and alloy content is low to allow

hubbing of mold details. The desired mold


shape is pressed into the steel with a hub that is
usually made from a high-speed steel. Thus mold
cavities can be made without machining. Hubbed
cavities are then carburized to make a production
injection molding cavity.

High-Speed Tool Steels (M and T-series)


These are the classes of steel that deep
harden, retain that hardness at elevated

temperatures
have high resistance to wear and abrasion

carbon content vary from 0.85 % to 1.50 %.

High-Speed Tool Steels (M and T-series)


M-type tool steels are

high in molybdenum content

used for lathe centers, blanking dies, hot forming


dies, lathe cutting tools, drills, taps, etc.

they are used in almost all cutting tools.

High-Speed Tool Steels (M and T-series)


T-type tool steel:

with high carbon content, they have high wear

resistance and very high hardness.


with lower carbon content, are tougher but not as

hard as the former group.


the tougher decreases when the amount of

tungsten increases
these are used in machine cutting tools such as

tool bits, milling cutters, taps, reamers, drills,


broaches.
in

some instances, it is used where


temperature structural steel is needed.

high

Special Purpose Tool Steels (L and F series):


L-type steels

F-type steels

are low alloy steels with 1


% Cr
a good low cost substitute
for cold work steels.
used in gages, broaches,
drills, taps, threading
dies, ball and roller
bearings, clutch plates,
knurls, files.

high in carbon tungsten.


have high wear resistance,
good toughness, and
medium hardenability.
used as finish machining
tools because of good wear
resistance and maintain a
sharp cutting edge.
They may be used in dies,
cutting tools, form tools,
knives, etc.
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Stainless Steels
I. Used for corrosion and heat

resisting application
II. Contains more than 12% Chromium
III. Three types:
Austenitic
Ferritic

stainless steel

stainless steel

Martensitic

MIRDC-ITS

stainless steel
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Austenitic Stainless Steel


Non-magnetic
Non-hardenable

Ni + Cr :at least 23%


Type 304 and 316

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Ferritic Stainless Steel


Cr : 14-27%
Lower in carbon and higher in chromium content

compared to martensitic types


Non-hardenable
Magnetic
Type 405, 430, 446

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Martensitic Stainless Steel


Cr: 11.5-18%
Magnetic
Hardenable
Types 410, 420, 440

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430
General
purpose
S43000

445
Cr
Increased
to Improve
scaling
Resistance
s44600

442 Cr
Increased
to improve
scaling
resistance
S44200

429 Slightly
Less for Cr
for better
weldability

444 C
reduced Mo
added to
improve
corrosion
resistance:
TI and Nb
Added
S44400

405 Lower
Cr: Al
added to
prevent
hardening
when
cooled
from
elerated
temperatur
es S40500

439 C
reduce;TI
added to
oppose
carbide
precipatation
S43035

409 Lower
Cr:
primarily
used for
automotive
exhaust
system
S40900

430F P and
B added for
improved
machinabili
ty S43020

434 Mo
added for
Improved
corrosion
resistance
in
automotive
trim S43400

S30F Se
added for
better
machined
surfaces
S43023

435 Mo, Nb
and Ta
added for
corrosion
and heat
resistance
S43500

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Family relationships for standard ferritic stainless steels Rev 2/10-02MIRDC-ITS

08

410 General
purpose
S41000

431 Cr increased
and Ni added for
better corrosion
resistance good
mechanical
properties S43100

414 Ni added for


better corrosion
resistance
S41400

403 Select
quality for
turbines and
highly stressed
parts S40300

422 Strength
and toughness
to 1200 F via
addition of Mo,
V ,W

Family relationships for standard


martensitic stainless steels
MIRDC-ITS

470 C increased
to improved
mechanical
properties
S42000

475 P and S
increased to
improve
machinability
S41500

440C C
increased for
highest
hardness; Cr
increased for
corrosion
S44004

41565 Se added
for better
machined
surfaces S41623

4408
C decreased
slightly to
improve
toughness
S44003

420F P and S
increased to
improve
machinability
S402020

44BA C
decreased even
more than for
440B to improve
tougness
S44002

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PROPERTIES AND
USES OF CAST IRON
Cast irons are iron-carbon alloys contain more than 2%

carbon.
Least expensive of all metallic materials.
Melting and composition are done in a cupola or electric

furnace.
Is formed into a final shape by pouring molten metal into a

mold.
Advantage for bulky engineering applications such as

automotive engine blocks.

TYPES OF CAST IRON


Gray Cast Iron
Ductile Cast Iron
White Cast Iron
Malleable Cast Iron

Alloyed Cast Iron

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GRAY CAST IRON


Has a gray fracture surface with a finely
structure.
Weak in tension, fairly soft, brittle, and
strong in compression.
The microstructure reveals a large
amount of free carbon in the form of

flakes.

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GRAY CAST IRON

Grey cast iron is classified according to quality: DIN 1691 grey


cast iron
grey cast iron

specific gravity 7.3


kg/dm3 melting point 1200
to 1300

is classified acc. to DIN


1691 in qualities

quality

Abbreviated name*

Tensile strain kg/mm2

application

Normal grey cast iron

GG-12

12

Agricultural machine,
office machine

GG-14

14

Textile machine;
engines and naval

GG-18

18

Construction: cylinders,
mounting

GG-22

22

for steam;heat resisting


casting

GG-26

26

piston rings, pistons

High quality gray cast


iron

* The abbreviated name-12 means: GG- grey cast iron; 12-tensile strain in kg/mm2

Application of Grey Cast Iron


Grates, plates and rings of stoves
must be heat resisting.
Cylinders, pistons and piston rings
of engines must be heat resisting
and wear resisting.
Pillow blocks, supports and
columns of machines must be
compression-proof.
Pipes and branch pieces must be
acid-proof.

Special alloy additions of small amount,

results in compact spheroids of its free


carbon.
Round carbon particles
regular in shape.

are

more

This type has improved the mechanical


properties of cast iron.

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All the carbon is in cementite form.


Hard and wear resistant but extremely

brittle and difficult to machine.


Seldom used in engineering application.

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All of the carbon is in the form of irregular


round particles known as temper carbon.
This is obtained by heat treatment of white cast
iron.
It has good strength and ductility.

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Malleable cast iron is classified according to quality:


DIN 1692 malleable cast iron
Malleable cast iron

Specific gravity 7.3 kg/dm3


Melting point 1200 to 1300 C

Is classified acc. To DIN


1692 in qualities

Quality

Abbreviated
name *

Tensile
strain
kg/mm

Ductile yield

application

Industrial white
malleable cast
iron
Industrial black
malleable cast
iron

GTW-35

35

Usual
malleable
casting

GTS-35

35

10

high quality white


malleable cast
iron

GTW-40

40

GTS-38

38

12

high quality black


malleable cast
iron

MIRDC-ITS

high quality
malleable
castings

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Use of Malleable Cast Iron


lever

The shift lever of an agricultural


machine, a thin-walled workpiece,
is often roughly stressed when
reversing it. Sometimes it must
also withstand deforming without
breaking. Thus the lever must be
tough and solid and despite its
difficult shape be able to be made
by the cheap method of casting.

Use of Malleable Cast Iron

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The properties or the structure of any of the


above types are modified by the addition of
alloying elements.

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NON-FERROUS METALS

ALUMINUM AND
ALUMINUM ALLOYS

ALUMINUM
White, bright metal
Chemical symbol is Al
Light metal with density of 2.7 gm/cm3
Readily oxidized but the oxidation product

(Al2O3) produces a protective coating and


prevents corrosion
Has low melting temperature (660oC)
Pure aluminum is used as electrical
conductors, transmission lines and bus bars

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PROPERTIES
I.

Light Weight
only one-third of the weight of steel of equal

volume; aluminum equipment is portable

II. Strong
several grades are even stronger than mild

steel

III. Reflects Light


accepts a mirror polish for high relativity

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PROPERTIES
I.

Conducts Heat
used in radiators and other heat transfer devices

II. Resist Corrosion


thanks to its strong oxide film

III. Conducts Electricity


60% effective compared to copper, yet much lighter in

weight

IV. Eased Fabrication


can be stamped, rolled, drawn or punched

WROUGHT ALUMINUM ALLOY


FOUR-DIGIT DESIGNATION SYSTEM

This digit
identifies
alloy type

This digit
identifies
alloy
modification
Ex.
A17S
becomes 2117

This two digit


Identify the Al
purity or the
specified Al alloy
Ex.
24S
becomes 2024

TYPES OF ALUMINUM ALLOY


1XXX
2XXX
3XXX
4XXX
5XXX
6XXX
7XXX
8XXX
9XXX

Pure Aluminum (above 90%)


Al Copper
Al Manganese
Al Silicon
Al Magnesium
Al Magnesium & Silicon
Al Zinc
Other element
Unused series

Basic Temper
Designation
for Aluminum
Alloys

Designation

Condition

As-fabricated

Annealed

H1

Strain hardened only

H2

Strain hardened and partially annealed

H3

Strain hardened and thermally stabilized

Solution heat-treated

T1

Cooled from an elevated temperature


shaping process and naturally aged

T2

Cooled from an elevated temperature


shaping process,cold worked, and naturally

T3

Cooled from an elevated temperature


shaping process,cold worked, and naturally

T4

Cooled from an elevated temperature


shaping process,cold worked, and naturally

T5

Cooled from an elevated temperature


shaping process,cold worked, and naturally

1000 Series
99% or higher aluminum
Excellent corrosion resistance
Good heat and electrical conductivity

2000 Series
Copper is the principal alloying element
Popular in aircraft manufacture
Requires solution heat treat and aging
for highest mechanical properties

Poor corrosion resistance

92
Rev 2/10-0208

3000 Series
Manganese
element

is

the

principal

alloying

Good work hardening


Fair corrosion resistance
Commonly used for extruded marine
hardware, cooking utensils and pressure
vessels
93
Rev 2/10-0208

4000 Series
High silicon content lowers melting point
Popular
for
requirements

many

Also popular for cladding

welding

wire

5000 Series
Magnesium used as hardener
Popular architectural and structural grade

Takes anodizing colors beautifully


Good weldability

Fair corrosion resistance


Popular extrusion grade
95
Rev 2/10-0208

6000 Series
Silicon and Magnesium combine in heat
treating to form magnesium silicides
Popular for frames on transportation
equipment an strong forging

96
Rev 2/10-0208

7000 Series
Zinc plus a little Copper gives highest
strength through heat treatment
Better for riveting or bolting than welding

97
Rev 2/10-0208

Use of aluminum forging alloys

a. Framework (AlCuMg)
b. Reservoir of a tank car (AlMgSi)
c. Assemblage point of light construction (AlMg7)
98
Rev 2/10-0208

Aluminum alloys are standardized: DIN 1725 aluminum alloys


I. Forging alloys the abbreviation of A1Mg 3means: A1 = Aluminum Alloys: Mg 3
= Average Magnesium Content- 3%
Abbreviation *
(Characteristic)

Characteristic
properties

Tensile strain
kg/mm2

Shape and Condition


when deliverd

Application

AICuMG (dark red)


Commercially available
As duralumin and
bondur

High strength alloy ;


temperHarden able, age
hardens at ambient
temperature,
Very high strength;
when plated highest
resistance corrosion
particularly against sea
water; can be anodized
not weldable. Specific
gravity 2.8 kg/dm
High strength alloy ;
temperHarden able, age
hardens at ambient
temperature,
Very high strength;
when plated highest
resistance corrosion
particularly against sea
water; can be anodized
not weldable. Specific
gravity 2.8 kg/dm

18 to 45

Plates, bands, plates


and band profiles,
plated and non plated
tubes. Solid bars,
wires, profilated bars,
pressed parts and
forged pieces. Delivery
state of these semi
products can be soft;
age hardened and
cold work - hardened
or hard pressed.
Plates, bands, plates
and band profiles,
plated and non plated
tubes. Solid bars,
wires, profilated bars,
pressed parts and
forged pieces. Delivery
state of these semi
products can be soft;
age hardened and
cold work - hardened
or hard pressed.

High class structural


material for highly
stressed structural
members with high
requirements of
resistance to corrosion

AICuMG (dark red)


Commercially available
As duralumin and
bondur

18 to 45

High class structural


material for highly
stressed structural
members with high
requirements of
resistance to corrosion

99
Rev 2/10-0208

Aluminum alloys are standardized: DIN 1725 aluminum alloys


I. Forging alloys the abbreviation of A1Mg 3means: A1 = Aluminum Alloys: Mg 3
= Average Magnesium Content- 3%
Abbreviation *
(Characteristic)
AIMgSi (white)

Characteristic
properties
Age-hardenable,
limited age-hardening
at room
temperatures, warm
age-hardenable,
moderate strength,
well workable
polishable, good
resistance to
corrosion, weldable.
Specific gravity 2.7
kg/dm

Tensile strain
kg/mm2

11 to 32

Shape and
Condition when
deliverd

Plates, bands, plate


and band profiles,
tubes, solid bars,
wires, pro-filated
bars, pressed parts
and forged pieces

Application

Structural members,
Moderately stressed,
good resistance to
chemicals

100
Rev 2/10-0208

Aluminum alloys are standardized: DIN 1725 aluminum alloys


AlMg3 Si(green-white
)commercially
available as pantal,
anticorodal

Very good
weldability, very good
resistance to
chemicals, Specific
gravity 2.7 kg/dm

AlMg 3 * (green-yellow)
commerically available
as hydronalium

Same properties as
AlMg 5 and AlMg 7.
Specific gravity 2.65
kg/dm

17 to 26

AlMg 5 (green-black)
commercially available
as hydronalium

higher resistance to
sea water and low
alkaline solutions than
pure aluminum and
other unplated alloys;
very good polishable,
weldable, Specific
gravity 2.6 kg/dm

22 to 25

good weldability,
resistant to sea water.
Specific gravity 2.7 and
2.75 kg/dm

18 to 26

AlMg 5 (green-red)
commercially available
as hydronalium

AlMgMn(green)
AlMn(violet)

Plates, bands, solid bars, wire,


profilated bars, pressed parts,
forged pieces

Structural members,
moderately stressed,
high resistance to
atmospheric
corrosion; tank
construction

Plates, bands, tubes, solid bars,


wires, profilated bars, pressed parts
and forged pieces plates,tubes,
solidbars, pressed parts and forged
pieces

preferably used for


decorative anodizing
and same as AlMg 5
and AlMg 7
moderately and highly
stressed structural
members; high
resistance to corrosion
and sea wate; mainly
used for naval
construction, in the
chemical and food
industries

30 to 35

9 to 15

plates, tubes, solid bars, pressed


parts and forged pieces

vehicle facing, ships


building, chemical and
food industries

101
Rev 2/10-0208

Use of aluminum casting alloys

a. Turbine blade wheel (G AlSi5Cu1)


b. Case of an engine cylinder (G AlSi)
c. Bullseyeofaship(GAlMg5)
102
Rev 2/10-0208

Aluminum alloys are standardized: DIN 1725 aluminum alloys


I. Forging alloys * The abbreviation AlMg 3 means: Al-aluminum alloy; Mg 3- average
magnesium content-3%
Abbreviation(charact
eristic colour)

Tensile strain kg/mm3

Specific gravity
kg/dm3

characteristic

Application

G AlSi(blue-white)

17 to 26

2.65

Good resistance to
chemicals excellent
casting properly,
weldability

Chemically stressed
casting also for the
food industry; for
intricate thin-walled
castings liquid-tight
and resisting to shock
and vibrations

G AlSi(Cu) (blue)

15 to 26

2.65

Very good casting


property, weldable

Intricate and thinwalled highly stressed


liquid-tight casting of
all kinds

G Al Si Mg(Cu)
(blue-yellow-white)

18 to 32

2.65

Excellent casting
properly good
weldability, agehardeable

Intricate and thinwalled highly stressed


liquid-tight casting of
all kinds

G Al Si 5 Cu 1
(blue-red)

16 to 30

2.8

Very good casting


property, good
weldability, agehardeable

G Al Si 9(Cu)
(blue-red-blue)

15 to 22

207

Very good casting


property, weldable

Intricate thin-walled
liquid-tight castings

103
Rev 2/10-0208

Aluminum alloys are standardized: DIN 1725 aluminum alloys


G Al Mg Mn

14 to 33

2.7

Very good chemical resistance to


sea water; of higher stability than
pure aluminum; good polishable,
anodizing and age hardeable acc. To
Si-content

For casting that are


subject to medium
and high stresses
used in: ship building
and marine
engineering, fire
protection, building
chemical and food
industries

G Al Mg 3 (yellowwhite)

14 to 33

2.7

G Al Mg3 (Cu)
(yellow)

14 to 20

2.7

Good resistance to chemicals, well


polishable and anodizable

For medium stressed


casting: building,
fittings, instrument

G Al Mg 5(Yellowwhite-yellow)

16 to 25

2.6

Very good chemical resistance to sea


water; good properties for polishing,
anodizing and age-hardening

Intricate castings
susceptible to corrosion
for architecture and
interior decorating, food
and chemical industries

G Al Si 5 Mg
(yellow-green-white)

15 to 30

2.7

Good casting properties, agehardenable, well polishable, good


resistance to chemical

Hardware and fittings


as well as for casting of
the chemical and food
industries

G Al Si 6 Cu 3 (red)

16 to 22

2.75

Good casting properties, weldable

For thin-walled casting


of all kinds, medium
and high stresses

G Al Cu Si (red- red)

16 to 22

2.8

Good casting properties, non-resistance


to shocks, good workability

For normally stressed


casting of all 104
kinds
Rev 2/10-0208

COPPER AND ITS ALLOY

COPPER
Reddish, bright metal
ChemicalsymbolisCu
3x heavier than Aluminum
Good conductor both heat and

electricity
Pure copper used for commercial
purposes

Excellent corrosion resistance


MIRDC-ITS

Specific Gravity 8.9 kg/dm3


Melting Point 1083 oC

106
Rev 2/10-0208

DESIGNATION SYSTEM IN IDENTIFYING


COPPER & COPPER ALLOYS
Identified by the
Association of USA

Copper

Development

The system is not a specification but rather an


orderly method defining and identifying copper

and copper alloys

DESIGNATION SYSTEM IN IDENTIFYING


COPPER & COPPER ALLOYS
I.

Copper

Metal which has designated minimum


copper content of 99.3%

II. High Copper Alloys


Alloys with a designated copper content in

excess of 94%.
Silver may be added for special properties

THREE GENERAL TYPES OF COPPER


I.

Commercially Pure (99%)

Work hardens

Found mostly in electronic wires

Metals at 1083oC

II. Electrolytic

Contains dissolved oxygen

Excess heating affects the restrained oxygen,


weakening the metal

Repair with silver bearing alloys

THREE GENERAL TYPES OF COPPER


De-oxidized

Free of oxygen

Contains phosphorus to reduce oxygen


pick-up

Found in welding rods

The copper as component


in the most important semi-products
Shape

DIN

Raw material

dimensions

application

Sheet copper, coldrolled

1752

Commercial copper C

Thickness from 0.1 to


5mm sizes
1000X2000mm

Kettles, boilers roof


covering, applied arts

Copper band, coldrolled

1792

Commercial Copper C

Thickness from 0.1 to


4mm width form 4 to
600mm in rings and
stripes

For stamping; for


drawing of profiles

Copper wire, drawn

1766

Diameters from 0.03 to


10mm in rings and rolls

1787

Commercial coppr C
and
Electrolytic copper E

Mainly electrical
engineering, copper
rivets

Copper tube, seamless


pressed or rolled and
drawn

1754

Commercial copper C

Outside diameters from


2 to 450 mm; wall
thickness from 0.5 to
1.5mm

Cold and water pipes,


heating and cooling
serpentines, oil pipes

Round bars of copper

1767

A-Cu, C-Cu, E-Cu

Diameter from 2 to
50mm lenght from 2 to
4.5mm

Conductor rail and


switching system

Full-profiled copper, hot


pressed and drawn

1773

Commercial copper A,
C;
Electrolytic copper E

Various cross section


and dimensions

Mainly for electrical


engineering111
and
lighting
conductors
Rev
2/10-0208

COPPER-BASE ALLOYS

Metallic Copper and Its Alloys

113
Rev 2/10-0208

BRASS
Brass is a copper-zinc alloy containing at least
50% of copper.
Copper-zinc alloys with more than 67% of Cu
are occasionally called TOMBAC.
Special brass is used for high stresses.
Besides copper and zinc, it also contains parts
of manganese, aluminum, iron, nickel, silizium
and tin.

Use of brass
a. Valves, plugs of
cocks, cocks
b. Tubes of a motor
car radiator

SpecificGravity8.5 kg/dm3
MeltingPoint980 oC
115
Rev 2/10-0208

BRONZE
Bronzes are alloys composed of at least
60% of copper and of one or more alloying
metals.
When in alloying process tin, aluminum, lead,
silicon, manganese, nickel, or beryllium are
added to copper, resulting product is tin bonze,
aluminum bronze, lead bronze, silicon bronze,
manganese bronze, nickel bronze and
beryllium bronze.

Use of bronze

a. Corner pieces of
door frame made
of bronze profiles
b. Bearing of Tombac
and cast tin bronze
for high pressures
SpecificGravity7.6 - 8.8 kg/dm3
MeltingPoint900 oC 1,000 oC
117
Rev 2/10-0208

Beryllium Copper
A heat-treatable copper alloy containing
varying amount of beryllium and sometimes
small amounts of cobalt, nickel, and
chromium.

Hardness to that of steel can be obtained.

118
Rev 2/10-0208

Silicon Bronzes & Silicon Brasses


Alloys which contain silicon as the principal
alloying element, which may also contain

zinc

Tin Bronzes & Leaded Tin Bronzes


Alloys which contain tin as the principal
alloying element and which usually contain
small amount of phosphorous and may
contain zinc, lead and nickel

High Leaded Tin Bronzes


Alloy which contain tin as the principal

alloying element and which more than 6%


lead and small amounts of zinc, nickel
and phosphorous

Nickel -Tin Bronzes


Alloy containing approximately 5%
each of tin and nickel as the principal
alloying elements with or without lead

Red Brasses & Leaded Red Brasses


Alloys which contain tin, lead and zinc
(principal alloying elements)

Yellow Brasses & Leaded Yellow


Brasses
Principal alloying element is zinc with
minute amount of tin and lead

Semi-Brasses & Leaded Semi-Red


Brasses
Contain tin, lead and zinc

Copper content is less than that found in


the Red and Leaded Red Brass category

High Strength Yellow Brasses & Leaded High


Strength Yellow Brasses
Principal alloying element is zinc with
smaller amounts of iron, aluminum,
magnesium, nickel and lead

Production of bronze
Zn

Sn

Al

copper

Pb

Si

Mn

Be

bronze

Aluminum bronze
Fead bronze
Silicon bronze
Manganese bronze
Beryllium bronze

Tin bronze
phosphor bronze
tin bronze of several
materials

Forging alloy s

casling alloys
123
Rev 2/10-0208

HEAT TREATMENT
HEAT TREATMENT is the
controlled heating and
cooling of metals
in order to
deliberately alter
their mechanical properties.

125
Rev 2/10-0208

Importance of heat treatment


A simple hand tool like cold chisel must
exhibit certain properties:
Strong to resist deformation

Hard to resist wear


Tough to resist fracture

126
Rev 2/10-0208

Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram


A map showing the ranges of composition
and temperatures at which various
microstructures are present and the
boundaries at which changes in the
microstructure occurs

127
Rev 2/10-0208

Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram

MIRDC-ITS

128
Rev 2/10-0208

Transformation Temperature
I.

A1

Lower Critical Temperature


(LCT)
Completion of austenite to
pearlite transformation during
slow cooling

II.

A3

Upper Critical Temperature


(UCT) for hypoeutectoid steel
Austenite begins to transform
to ferrite during slow cooling

III.

Acm

Upper Critical Temperature


(UCT) for hypereutectoid steel
Austenite begins to transform
to cementite during slow
cooling

MIRDC-ITS

129
Rev 2/10-0208

Microstructures

0.008% C

0.4% C
MIRDC-ITS

0.83% C

1.20% C
130
Rev 2/10-0208

METALS IDENTIFICATION
AND POINTERS TO SELECTION

INTRODUCTION
Mechanical Properties:
are the properties which are concerned with
behavior of metallic material when forces
are applied. (Source: Metals Engineering - A Technical
Guide by Leonardo E. Samuels)

the properties of a material that reveal its


elastic and inelastic behavior when force is
applied or that involve the relationship
between the intensity of the applied stress
and the strain produced. (Source: Metals
Handbook Ninth Edition, Volume 8 Mechanical Testing)
MIRDC-ITS

132
Rev 2/10-0208

TENSION TEST

Stress and Strain


Stress

is the force that happens to be acting in


a given region of a body divide by the
area over which the force acts.
force (f)
stress (s) =
area (a)
where: s = stress in N/mm2 (MPa)
f = force in Newtons (N)
a = area in mm2

Stress and Strain


Strain
describes the change in shape that
occurs in the metal when the force is
applied.
change in length ()
strain (e) =

original length (L)


where: e = strain (unit less)
= change in length in millimeter (mm)
L = original length in millimeter (mm)

Hookes Law states that:


Stress is proportional to strain below the

elastic limit
Modulus of Elasticity, E
The measure of rigidity or stiffness of a metal
The slope of the stress-strain curve in the elastic
range
Modulus of
=
Elasticity, E

Stress below proportionality limit


corresponding strain

Stress, S

Uniform deformation

Localized deformation

TS

Breaking Strength

UYS

LYS
Proportionality Line

Strain, e
elastic range

plastic range

Stress Strain Diagram


MIRDC-ITS

137
Rev 2/10-0208

MODULUS OF RESILIENCY
ability of a material to absorb energy when
deformed elastically and return to it when
unloaded.
determined by measuring the area under the
stress-strain curve up to the elastic limit.

MODULUS OF TOUGHNESS
ability of a material to absorb energy in the

plastic range.

the area under the stress-strain curve

TENSION TEST
Stress, S
High Carbon Spring Steel

Structural Steel

Proportionality Line

Strain, e

Comparison of stress-strain curves for high and low-toughness


139
Rev 2/10-02materials
MIRDC-ITS
08

TENSION TEST EQUIPMENT

Universal Testing Machine (UTM)


MIRDC-ITS

141
Rev 2/10-0208

Loading
Unit

Control Panel

Personal
Computer

UH-500kNA with Data Processor


MIRDC-ITS

142
Rev 2/10-0208

Dimension
Dimensions
Standard Specimen

Nominal Diameter

G-Gage length

Small-Size Specimen Proportional to Standard

In.

mm.

In.

mm.

In.

0.500

12.5

0.350

8.75

0.250

6.25

0.160

1.000
0.005

25.0
0.10

0.250
0.005

2.00
0.005

50.0
0.10

1.400
0.005

35.0
0.10

mm

in

mm

4.00

0.113

2.50

0.640
0.005

16.0
0.10

4.450
0.005

10.0
0.10

6.25
0.12

0.160
0.003

4.00
0.08

0.113
0.002

2.50
0.05

5/32

3/32

20

5/8

16

D-Diameter (Note 1)

0.500
0.010

12.5
0.25

0.350
0.007

8.75
0.18

R-Radius of fillet, min

3/8

10

3/16

A-Lenght of reduce
section, min(Note 2)

60

45

32

in

mm

Standard Round Tension Test Specimen and Small-Size


Specimen Proportional to the standard
MIRDC-ITS

143
Rev 2/10-0208

Dimension
Standard Specimens
Plate-Type, 1 1/2-in. Wide
in.

Subsize Specimen
Sheet-Type, 1/2-in Wide

mm

in

1/4-in.Wide

mm

In.

mm

8.000.001

2000.25

2.0000.005

50.00.10

1.0000.003

25.00.08

1 +1/8
-

40+3
-6

0.5000.010

12.50.25

0.2500.002

6.250.05

1/4

G-Gage length
(Notes 1 and 2)
W-Width(Notes 3,5,
and 6)
T-Thickness(Note 7)
R-Radius of fillet,
min(Note 4)

Thickness of material
1/2

13

1/2

13

Standard Plate Tension Test Specimen and Subsize Specimen


144
Plate Specimen
Rev 2/10-02MIRDC-ITS

08

Dimension
Standard Specimens

Subsize Specimen

Plate-Type, 1 1/2-in. Wide

Sheet-Type, 1/2-in Wide

1/4-in.Wide

in.

mm

in

mm

In.

mm

18

450

200

100

A-Length of reduced
section,min

225

60

32

B-Lenght of grip
section,min(Note 9)

75

50

32

C-Width of grip section,


approximate

50

20

3/8

10

L-Over-all
length,min(Notes 2 and
8)

(Notes 4,10, and 11)


145

Standard Plate Tension Test Specimen and Subsize Specimen Plate SpecimenRev 2/10-02MIRDC-ITS

08

Typical Set-up for Tension Testing Full-Size Bolt


MIRDC-ITS

146
Rev 2/10-0208

Strip Tension Test Specimen for Tubular Products


MIRDC-ITS

147
Rev 2/10-0208

Full size Tension Test specimen for Tubular Products

MIRDC-ITS

148
Rev 2/10-0208

Note 1- The edges of the blank for the specimen shall be cut
parallel to each other.

Location of Longitudinal Tension Test specimen


for Tubular Products
MIRDC-ITS

149
Rev 2/10-0208

Tension Testing of Plates


MIRDC-ITS

150
Rev 2/10-0208

Tension Testing of Plates


MIRDC-ITS

151
Rev 2/10-0208

Tension Testing of Plates


MIRDC-ITS

152
Rev 2/10-0208

Tension Testing of Plates


MIRDC-ITS

153
Rev 2/10-0208

Tension Testing of Plates


MIRDC-ITS

154
Rev 2/10-0208

Tension Testing of Plates


MIRDC-ITS

155
Rev 2/10-0208

Tension Testing of Plates


MIRDC-ITS

156
Rev 2/10-0208

Turnbuckles after tension testing

MIRDC-ITS

157
Rev 2/10-0208

Wire Rope after tension testing

MIRDC-ITS

158
Rev 2/10-0208

BEND AND
COMPRESSION TEST

BEND TEST

Guided Bend Test

BEND TEST

Bend Test of Rebars


MIRDC-ITS

161
Rev 2/10-0208

BEND TEST

Bend Test of Rebars


MIRDC-ITS

162
Rev 2/10-0208

BEND TEST

Bend Tested Welded Plate


MIRDC-ITS

163
Rev 2/10-0208

COMPRESSION TEST

Compression Test of Coil Springs


MIRDC-ITS

164
Rev 2/10-0208

COMPRESSION TEST

Compression Test of Manhole Cover

MIRDC-ITS

165
Rev 2/10-0208

HARDNESS TEST

HARDNESS
a measure of metals resistance

to permanent or plastic
deformation
Types of Hardness Measurements
1. Scratch Hardness

2. Static Indentation Hardness


3. Dynamic Hardness

SCRATCH HARDNESS
The oldest type of hardness evaluation
procedure

Most common techniques for measuring


scratch hardness
1. Mohs Scale
2. File Hardness Test

MOHS SCALE
1. Talc

6. Orthoclase (feldspar)

2. Gypsum

7. Quartz

3. Calcite

8. Topaz

4. Fluorite

9. Corundum

5. Apatite

10. Diamond

STATIC INDENTATION HARDNESS


in which a ball, diamond cone, or
pyramid is forced to the material being
tested.
the relationship of total test force to
the area or depth of indentation
provides the measure of hardness

Rockwell Hardness Tester


An indentation hardness test using a
calibrated machine that utilizes the depth
of indentation under constant load.
most widely used method for determining
hardness

simple to perform and does not require


highly skilled operators
can determine the hardness of most
metals and alloys

Rockwell
Hardness
Test
Principle

MIRDC-ITS

172
Rev 2/10-0208

Rockwell
Hardness
Test
Principle

MIRDC-ITS

173
Rev 2/10-0208

Rockwell
Hardness
Tester

MIRDC-ITS

174
Rev 2/10-0208

Anvils for Rockwell Hardness Testing

Brinell Hardness Tester


- A test for determining the hardness of a
material by forcing a hard steel or carbide
ball of specified diameter into it under a
specified load.
- it consists of applying a constant load,
usually between 500-3000 kgf, for a
specified time (10-30 s) using a 5-10mm
tungsten carbide ball indenter on a flat
surface of a workpiece.

Brinell
Hardness
Test
Principle
MIRDC-ITS

177
Rev 2/10-0208

Brinell Hardness Testers


MIRDC-ITS

178
Rev 2/10-0208

Brinell Hardness Test Set-Up

MIRDC-ITS

179
Rev 2/10-0208

Brinell Scope

MIRDC-ITS

180
Rev 2/10-0208

d1

d2

Brinell Hardness Impression


MIRDC-ITS

181
Rev 2/10-0208

HB =

2P
D ( D - D22 d22 )

where:
P = applied load in kgs
D = ball diameter in mm
d = average indentation diameter in mm

BRINELL HARDNESS TEST


Advantages
Suitable for hardness tests on inhomogeneous materials

owing to the large indentation, as long as the expansion of


the inhomogeneity is small in relation to the indentation
Suitable for hardness tests on large tests on large

unfinished parts such as forged parts, cast parts, hot


rolled or pressed and heat treated parts
No errorneous measurement at specimen yield in the

direction of action of the test load


Simple and robust
MIRDC-ITS

183
Rev 2/1002-08

BRINELL HARDNESS TEST


Disadvantages
Limitation of the range of application for a maximum

Brinell hardness of 650 HBW


Limitation for testing small and thin specimen
Time consuming for measuring the indentation diameter
Relatively large degree of damage to the specimen by

the indentation

MIRDC-ITS

184
Rev 2/1002-08

Brinell Hardness Impressions


MIRDC-ITS

185
Rev 2/10-0208

Vickers Hardness Tester


An indentation hardness employing a 136
diamond pyramid indenter and variable
loads, enabling the use of one hardness
scale for all ranges of hardness.

also known as the diamond pyramid


hardness test

Vickers
Hardness Test
Principle

Vickers
Hardness
Tester

Vickers Hardness
Impression
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Microhardness Hardness
Tester
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100X

500X

Magnification used in Microhardness test


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Microhardness Specimen
MIRDC-ITS

192
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Portable Hardness Tester


MIRDC-ITS

193
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A technician
conducting
Portable
hardness
testing

MIRDC-ITS

194
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IMPACT TESTING

Charpy Impact Testing Principle


MIRDC-ITS

196
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Various criteria of transition temperature


obtained from Charpy impact test
MIRDC-ITS

197
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Effect of temperature in notch


toughness
MIRDC-ITS

198
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Effect of Carbon content on the


energy-transition-curves for steel

Effect of specimen orientation of


Charpy- transition-temperature curves
MIRDC-ITS

200
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Temperature dependence of impact resistance


for different alloy steels of same carbon content
MIRDC-ITS

201
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FATIGUE TESTING

FATIGUE TEST (Principle)


Fatigue Failure

occurs in parts subjected to repeated


loading at a stress much lower than the
tensile strength of the material after a
considerable period of time.
Fatigue Limit
sometimes called the endurance limit, the
limiting stress which the material can endure
an infinite number of cycles without failure.

MIRDC-ITS

S N Curve

204
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Reduction factor for fatigue limit of steel due to


various surface treatments
MIRDC-ITS

205
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Fatigue striations in beta-annealed


Ti-6Al-4V alloy (2000X)
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206
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METALS IDENTIFICATION
A. Physical Test
1. Appearance
2. Sound
3. Magnetic Property
4. Specific Gravity
a. by volume displacement
b. by weight
B. Chemical Test
1. Qualitative Analysis
2. Quantitative Analysis

Metals Identification
1. The properties of metal
that can be judged by outer features
characteristic

SURFACE

condition

sound

colour

Surface of fracture
condition

colour

Steel

smooth

Bluish grey

High and full

Silvergrey dullfinish

Grey cast
iron(cast iron)

Rough and
granulated

Grey to dark
grey

Deep and
dull

grey

MIRDC-ITS

condition

208
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FORM AND DESIGNATION OF SPARK

MIRDC-ITS

209
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CHARACTERISTICS OF
CARBON
STEEL SPARK (Carbon
Bursts)

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210
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Metals Identification
1. The workpieces make
different demands on the metals
Specific Gravity

The specific gravity of a matter is


the weight per unit of volume.
Hardness

Hardness is the resistance by which a material


opposes the penetration of foreign matter.
Brittleness

A material is brittle when it easily burst as a


consequence of shocks, impacts and bending
strains.

Metals Identification
1. The workpieces make

different demands on the metals


Strength
The resistance by which material
opposes the deformation is called strength.

Different Strength Requirements


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Metals Identification
2. The properties of metals
are also determined by the composition

Flame Test

Metals Identification
3. The properties of metals
are also determined by the composition

Borax Bead Test


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QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
determining the exact amounts of
the constituents present.

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
I.

Wet or Classical Method


Gravimetric
Volumetric

II. Instrumental Method

LECO C/S Analyzer

Electro Analyzer

Spectrometers

Optical Emission Spectrometers

Example: Vacuum emission spectrometer

Atomic Absorption Spectrometers

Ultra Violet or Visible Spectrometer

Samples for AAS analysis


Low Alloy Steel
Stainless Steel

Solder

MIRDC-ITS

Cast Iron (High Cr)

Brass

Monel

Babbitt

217
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VES

MIRDC-ITS

218
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LECO Carbon Sulfur


Analyzer

MIRDC-ITS

219
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Principle of C/S Analyzer (Combustion Method)


O2, H2O,
CO, H2

O2

1
O2

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

O2, CO,
SO2, H2O,
Dust

O2, CO,
SO2

O2, CO2

SO3 Trap

Exhaust

Ceramic
Crucible

CupperOxide.OxidizeCOandH2 to CO2 and H2O


Lecosorb(NaOH).RemoveCO2 (CO2 + NaOH
NaHCO)
Anhydron (Mg(ClO2)4 .RemoveH2O (Mg(ClO2)4 + H2O
Mg(ClO2)4.nH2O)
HighFrequencyFurnace.Burnsample
Glasswool.DustTrap
DetectorIRCell.MeasureSO2 Concentration
PlatinumSilicaGelOxidizeCOandSO2 to CO2 and SO3
Cellulose.SO3 Trap
DetectorIRCellMeasureCO2 Concentration
MIRDC-ITS

220

Specific Gravity

Specific =
Gravity

(Wt. in Air)
(Wt. in Air) (Wt. in Water)
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STEEL
alloy of iron and carbon with less than 2%C
magnetic / non-magnetic
with luster
gray to silver color
no taste
no smell
brown rust
hard

high pitch

MIRDC-ITS

223
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CAST IRON
alloy of iron and carbon with more than 2%C

gray to silvery
with luster but sometimes dull
magnetic

no taste
fishy smell
brown rust
hard/brittle
low pitch
heavy
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224
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STAINLESS STEEL
with luster
gray/ light gray
no oxides

heavier than steel


no taste
no smell
magnetic except for austenitic
higher pitch than steel

MIRDC-ITS

225
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ALUMINUM
light weight
strong
with luster
rust (white, oxide)
non-magnetic
no taste/smell

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226
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COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS


reddish

soft
non-magnetic
no taste/smell

heavy
conducts electricity and heat
rust (green, oxide)
ductile

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COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS


Brass

- alloy of zinc and copper


- yellowish to reddish

Bronze

- alloy of tin and copper


- yellowish/greenish to brownish

Pure Copper - reddish

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TIN
yellowish
non-toxic
provide corrosion resistance
low melting point
chemically inert to pure water and will not contaminate

the water in any way


soft

LEAD

heavy and dense


soft
malleable
low melting point
dark gray
good lubricity
low electrical conductivity

MIRDC-ITS

high coefficient of expansion


high resistance to corrosion
cannot be penetrated by x-ray
ability to alloy with other metals
never taste

230
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ZINC

low melting point


combines with other important metals
high corrosion resistance
ductile
malleable
bluish
with luster
for coatings/galvanization

Hands-On / Exercises