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PHASED ARRAY

ANTENNAS

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
RADIATION PATTERN
ARCHITECTURE OF PHASED ARRAY ANTENNAS
BEAM STEERING METHODS
ATTRACTIVE ATTRIBUTES OF PHASED ARRAY ANTENNAS
LIMITATIONS
APPLICATION

INTRODUCTION
What describes a phased array antenna?
Contains many antenna elements
Phase and amplitude of signal at each element is variable
Provides control of the beam direction and pattern shape

Accomplish beam steering electronically, without the mechanical


and inertial problems of rotating an entire array

HISTORICAL BACKGROND
FOR LONG IT REMAINED AS A DREAM

NEEDED ELECTRONIC PHASE SHIFTERS


ELECTRONIC COMPUTER TO PROGRMM THE ARRAY
BEAM

MAJOR BULDING BLOCKS


ELEMENT ARRAY
PHASE SHIFTERS
FEED SYSTEM

RADIATION PATTEREN

=(2dsin )/

(sin[ sin /] )
|Ea()|=|
|
(sin[ sin /] )

Maximum at sin =
, =0

is the main beam


Other maximas are called grating lobes ,can be avoided by
d .

Back radiation should be avoided using reflecting screen

Normalised radiation pattern of isotropic array= Ga()=

|Ea|2
2

If not isotropic G()= () Ga()

Due to mutual coupling () is different for each radiating


elements.

ARCHITECTURE OF PHASED ARRAYS


ARRAY FEED
TWO KINDS OF ARRAY FEEDS
1. SPACE FEEDS
2.CONSTRAINED FEEDS
SPACE FEED
1.LENS ARRAY

2.REFLECT ARRAYS
ENERGY PASSES
THROUGH THE PHASE
SHIFTER TWICE
PHASE SHIFTER MUST
BE RECIPROCAL

CONSTRINED FEED
TAKES POWER FROM SOURCE AND DISTRIBUTES USING
A FEED LINE AND PASSIVE DEVICES
FEED CONSISTS OF WAVEGUIDES AND COAXIAL LINES IT
CAN HANDLE HIGH POWER AND LOW LOSS
1.PARALLEL FED ARRAY

2.SERIES FED ARRAY

1.PARALLEL FEED

2.SERIES FEED

If loss at each element is , then entire loss is


Parallel feeds also known as corporate feeds
in series fed arrays signal fed from one end and coupled serially
to the antennas
Required phase shift is smaller than a factor of (N-1)
Cumulative nature of loss through phase shifter is a
disadvantage

BEAM STREERING
TIME DELAY SCANNING
FREQUENCY SCANNING
PHASE SCANNING

TIME DELAY SCANNING


T=d sin C
1

THE BEAM CAN BE STEERED IN ANY ANGLE BY CHANGING


THE RELATIVE TIME DELAYS BETWEEN THE ELEMENTS.
THE SIGNAL ARRIVES AT ELEMENT 2 BEFORE IT ARRIVES AT
ELEMENT 1 .
IF SIGNAL AT 2 IS DELAYED BY T=d sin C IT WILL BE IN
TIME COINCEDENCE WITH ELEMENT 1
BEAM STREERING OCCURS BY CHANGING TIME DELAY
INSERTING VARIABLE TIME DELAYS IS COMPLICATED
dsin 0
1

0
d

2
Time delay=

sin 0

PHASE SCANNING
VARIABLE PHASE SHIFTERS CAN BE USED AT EACH ELEMENT
OF THE LINEAR ARRAY
ALL SIGNALS ARE IN
PHASE SHIFT= 2dsin0 /
PHASE.
NORMALISED
RADIATION PATTERN=
G()= (

sin[ (sin sin 0 )/]


sin[ (sin sin 0 )/]
)(
)
Nsin[ (sin sin 0 )/] Nsin[ (sin sin 0 )/]

PHASE SHIFTERS
SHIFT IN PHASE OF A SIGNAL= = 2l/ = 2fl/v = 2fl
METHODS TO OBTAIN PHASE SHIFT

FREQUENCY SCANNING
ITS BEAM STEERED BY
SIMPLY CHANGING
FREQUENCY
POPULAR FOR SCANNING
BEAM IN ONE ANGULAR
COORDINATE

Radiating elements

d
input

Snake feed

PREVENTS FRQUENCY TO BE USED FOR OTHER PURPOSE

PHASE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELEMENTS SERIES FED ARRAY


=2fl v = 2l
WHEN POINTING ALONG , = 2d sin
2d sin + 2m =2l

IT ALLOWS TO GIVEN SCAN ANGLE TO BE OBTAINED WITH A


SMALL FREQUENCY RANGE
WAVELENGTH EXCURSION REQUIRED TO SCAN THE BEAM
OVER AN ANGLE , =2dsin /l
l/d CALLED WRAP UP FACTOR

BANDWIDTH LIMITATION
IF l/d IS SMALL ,A LARGE BANDWIDTH WILL INTERFERE WITH
OTHER SYSTEM
IF l/d IS LARGE , SIGNAL BANDWIDTH DECRESES .
BUILD UP TIME WILL LIMIT THE BANDWIDTH
WRAP UP FACTOR

FREQUENCY EXCURSION

MORE NARROWBAND SYSTEM

ADVANTAGES OF USING PHASE ARRAY


SPATIAL FILTERING
Can be used to
avoid signal from
undesired direction
Reception pattern
is controllable

GAIN BOOSTING IN TRANSMIT ARRAY

Maximum range
of communication
is determined by
power
transmitted in the
direction of the
receiver

ATTRACTIVE ATTRIBUTES OF PHASED


ARRAY ANTENNA

rapid beam steering


Multiple, independent beam
Potential for large peak and average power
Control of the aperture illumination
Adaptive processing
Flush aperture shape
Electronics beam stabilization
Multiple function
Degrade gracefully

Limitation of phased array

Complexity
Software intensive
Cost
System limitations

APPLICATION
MILITARY RADAR SYSTEMS
AUTOMOTIVE COLLISION
AVOIDANCE
GIGA BIT WIRELESS
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
SATELLITE TV SYSTEMS
DETECTION OF MALIGNENT
TUMOR

CONCLUSION
Phased array antennas have many attractive
capability
cost is the main drawback which blocks the
wide use of phased array
more design approaches has to be followed
such that satisfactory performance is obtained
with less cost so that phased array antennas
can be used for civilian application widely.

REFERENCE
Louis stark Microwave theory of phased array antenna a review
proceedings of the IEEE vol 62 ,no 12,December 1974
Merril lskolnik introduction to modern radar systems third edition Tata
Mcgraw hill education private limited ,2001
Merril l skolnik Introduction to radar system second edition Mcgraw hill
book company,1981
RC Hansen phased array antennas second edition A john wiley &sons inc
publications
Ajioka J.S frequency scan antennas antenna engineering hand book,RC
Johnson new york Mcgraw hill,1970
Begovich na frequency scanning microwave scanning antennas ,vol 3 RC
Hansen academic ,1966
Daniel ehyaie Novel approach to the design of the phased array
antennas ,2011
Hammer i.w Frequency scanned arrays radar hand book ,new york
Mcgraw hill 1970 ,chap 2