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Chapter 2

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

PowerPoint slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell

Key Ideas
Definition of quantitative and qualitative
Research
Development of quantitative research
Development of qualitative research
Differences between quantitative and
qualitative in the process of research
Design procedures within your approach
Use of quantitative or qualitative approach
Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Definitions of Qualitative and


Quantitative Research
Quantitative Research
A type of educational
research in which the
researcher decides what to
study, asks specific, narrow
questions, collects numeric
(numbered) data from
participants, analyzes these
numbers using statistics, and
conducts the inquiry in an
unbiased, objective manner.

Qualitative Research
A type of educational research in
which the researcher relies on
the views of participants, asks
broad, general questions,
collects data consisting largely of
words (or text) from participants,
describes and analyzes these
words for themes, and conducts
the inquiry in a subjective, biased
manner.

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

The Development of Quantitative


Research: Historical Trends
Statistical Procedures
Test and Measurement Practices
Research Designs

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Historical Trends: Quantitative


Statistical Procedures
Correlational procedures
Comparing groups
Cause/Effect relationships

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Historical Trends: Quantitative


Testing and Measurement
Testing mental abilities (late 19th
century)
Measuring achievement (e.g. SAT)
Predicting achievement from
standardized measurements

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Historical Trends: Quantitative


Research Designs
Educational Surveys (late 19th century)
Simple Experiments (early 20th
century)
Multiple groups and tests (by 1935)
Longitudinal designs
Books on research design (e.g.
Kerlinger 1964)

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

The Development of Qualitative


Research: Major Themes
Philosophical Ideas
Procedural Developments
Advocacy Practices

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Historical Trends: Qualitative


Philosophical Ideas
Naturalistic Inquiry or Constructivism
consider the participants point of view
describe participants view within a setting
or context

This is an alternative perspective to


traditional research

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Historical Trends: Qualitative


Procedural Developments
Central Phenomenon rather than
research question or hypothesis
Methods such as interviews,
observations and interviews
Designs such as case studies,
grounded theory and narrative

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Historical Trends: Qualitative


Advocacy Practices
The qualitative researcher is not
objective, politically neutral observer
The qualitative researcher is an
observer of the human condition
The meaning of the research is plural,
political and open
The project is collaborative and
participatory
Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative


Research in the Process of Research
Quantitative
Characteristics
Descriptive/Explanatory
Role
Justify Problem

Steps in the
Research Process
Identifying a Problem

Major

and Narrow
Measurable/Observable

Reviewing the Literature

Specific

Specifying a Purpose

Pre-determined

Instruments
Numeric Data
Large numbers
Statistical
Description

of Trends
Comparisons/Predictions
Standard and Fixed
Objective and Unbiased

Collecting Data
Analyze and
Interpret Data
Report and Evaluate
Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Qualitative
Characteristics

Exploratory/
Understanding
a Central Phenomena
Minor Role
Justify Problem
General

and Broad
Participants Experience
General, emerging form
Text or image data
Small Number
Text Analysis
Description

and Themes
Larger Meanings of Findings
Flexible

and Emerging
Reflexive and Biased

Ways in Which Quantitative and


Qualitative Research are Similar
They both follow the steps in the
process of research
Format for reporting the research
problem is the same
Both have data collection steps

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

How Procedures or Research Designs Relate to


Quantitative and Qualitative Research and Steps in
the Process of Research
Steps in the Research Process Two Approaches
Identifying a Problem

Quantitative
Qualitative

Specifying a Purpose

Quantitative
Qualitative
Quantitative
Qualitative

Collecting Data

Quantitative
Qualitative

Reviewing the Literature

Research Designs

Experimental
Correlational
Survey

Mixed
Action

Analyze and Interpret Data


Report and Evaluate

Quantitative
Qualitative
Quantitative
Qualitative

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Ethnography
Grounded

Theory
Narrative

Quantitative Designs and Uses


Non-Intervention
Research

Intervention
Research
Explaining whether an
intervention influences
an outcome for one
group as opposed to
another group

Associating or
relating variables
in a predictable
pattern for one
group of
individuals

Experimental
Research

Correlational
Research
Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Describing trends for


the population of
people

Survey
Research

Qualitative Designs and Uses

Exploring the shared


culture of a people
group

Exploring common
experiences of
individuals to
develop a theory

Ethnographic
Research

Grounded Theory
Research

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

Exploring individual
stories to describe
the lives of people

Narrative
Research

Combined Designs and Uses

Combining quantitative and


qualitative data to best
understand and explain a
research problem.

Mixed Methods
Research

Using quantitative and


qualitative data for
individuals to study
problems that they face in
their setting

Action
Research
Educational Research 2e: Creswell

How Do You Choose Whether to Use the


Quantitative or Qualitative Approach?

Match the approach to the problem


Fit the approach to your audience
Relate the approach to your
experiences

Educational Research 2e: Creswell