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Dissertation Defense

Prairie View A & M University


Educational Leadership
Candidate: Roselia Alaniz Salinas

Dissertation Chair:
William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.

Dissertation Committee:
Douglas Hermond, Ph.D.
David Herrington, Ph.D.
Camille Gibson, Ph.D.
A Comparison of Alternatively and
Traditionally Certified Bilingual
Elementary Teachers’
Student Achievement Scores in
Selected Major Urban Texas Schools
A Dissertation Defense
by
Roselia Alaniz Salinas

Dissertation Chair: William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.


Prairie View A & M University
Educational Leadership
Dissertation Defense
Format
I. Theoretical Framework
II. Purpose of the Study
III. Research Questions
IV. Method of Procedure
V. Quantitative Major Findings
VI. Qualitative Major Findings
VII. Review of Literature
VIII. Recommendations

3
Theoretical Framework
Teacher Student
Competencies Certification
001. Human Performance
Development Routes TAKS
Processes
002. Student Diversity
TRADITIONAL READING
003. Instruction &
Assessment
004. Learning Processes
005. Classroom
Climate ALTERNATIVE TAKS
006. Student Behavior MATH
007. Communication
008. Student
Engagement
009. Technology
010. Monitors Feedback/
Flexibility
011. Family
Involvement
4
012. Professional
Purpose of the Study
The purpose was threefold:
1. It sought to examine whether teacher

certification route (i.e., alternative or


traditional) made a difference in the
performance of elementary bilingual
students in selected major urban school
districts in Texas as measured by the
Texas Assessment of Knowledge and
Skills (TAKS).

5
Purpose of the Study
2. It attempted to distinguish if similarities or
differences exist in teacher preparation routes.

3. It intended to identify the extent classroom


teachers were prepared by their certification
program in the 13 teacher competencies
outlined in the Texas Examinations of Educator
Standards (TExES).

6
Quantitative Research
Questions
1. How do bilingual elementary
teachers rate their preparedness for
the teaching profession as
determined by the 13 teacher
competencies measured by the
Survey on Competencies Learned
Through Certification Routes
instrument?

7
Quantitative Research
Questions
2. What are the differences in the
academic performance of 3rd and 5th
grade students taught in a bilingual
classroom setting by traditional certified
teachers compared to those taught by
alternative certified teachers based on
the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and
Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard”
scores in Reading?

8
Quantitative Research
Questions
3. What are the differences in the
academic performance of 3rd and 5th
grade students taught in a bilingual
classroom setting by traditional certified
teachers compared to those taught by
alternative certified teachers based on
the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and
Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard”
scores in Mathematics?

9
Null Hypotheses
H01 - There are no statistically significant
differences in the academic performances of
3rd and 5th grade students taught in a bilingual
classroom setting by traditional certified
teachers compared to those taught by
alternative certified teachers based on the
Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
(TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in
Reading.

10
Null Hypotheses
H02 - There are no statistically significant
differences in the academic performances of
3rd and 5th grade students taught in a bilingual
classroom setting by traditional certified
teachers compared to those taught by
alternative certified teachers based on the
Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
(TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in
Mathematics.

11
Qualitative Research
Questions
4. What do bilingual elementary
teachers who received either
traditional or alternative certification
describe as factors that helped or
hindered them during their
preparation to enter the classroom?

12
Qualitative Research
Questions
5. What are some specific skills that
alternative or traditional certified
bilingual elementary teachers wished
their preparation program had
exposed them to before entering the
classroom?

13
Mixed Methods Study

Quantitative Data
Descriptive Statistics
 Demographic data
 13 teacher competencies

Independent t-test
 Comparison of Means

14
Mixed Methods Study

Qualitative Data
 Two-open ended questions

 Triangulation – Validation of the Findings


 Categorized the teacher participant questionnaire
responses to the 13 teacher competencies;
 Performed an analysis of the quantitative data
collected; and
 Conducted a qualitative analysis of the study.

15
Method
 Independent Variables – Teacher
certification routes (alternative or
traditional)

 Dependent Variable – Student


achievement based on “Percent Met
Standard” in Mathematics and Reading
TAKS scores by teacher.

16
Method
 Subjects of the Study
 Alternative and traditional certified
elementary bilingual teachers
 Grades 3 and 5

 5 major urban school districts

 25 demographically similar schools

 116 teachers responded out of 206


 56% rate of return

17
Method
Subjects of the Study
Traditional Certified: 53.4%
Alternative Certified: 46.6%

Years of Experience
0-3 years 31.0%
4-7 years 25.0%
8-12 years 20.7%
13-20 years 12.1%
> 20 years 11.2%

18
Method
 Instrumentation
 Four-choice Likert-type scale:
 No Preparation/None
 Minimal/Little Preparation

 Some/Moderate Preparation

 Significant Preparation

19
Method
 Instrumentation
 Survey on Competencies Learned Through the
Certification Route

 Instrument components:
 13 closed-ended responses taken from the Texas
Examination for Educator Standards (TExES).
 2 multiple choice questions about demographic data.

 2 open-ended questions soliciting responses about


level of teacher preparedness.

20
Method

 Pilot test conducted in an urban district


with similar demographics consisting of
40 participants.

21
Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain I – Designing Instruction and Assessment to
Promote Student Learning

001.The teacher understands human development


processes and applies this knowledge to plan
instruction and ongoing assessment that
motivate students and are responsive to their
development characteristics and needs.

002.The teacher understands student diversity and


knows how to plan learning differences and
design assessments that are responsive to
differences among students and that promote all
students’ learning.
22
Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain I – Designing Instruction and Assessment to
Promote Student Learning

The teacher understands procedures for designing


003.
effective and coherent instruction and assessment
based on appropriate learning goals and objectives.

004. The teacher understands learning processes and


factors that impact student learning and
demonstrates this knowledge by planning effective,
engaging instruction and appropriate assessments.

23
Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain II – Creating a Positive, Productive Classroom
Environment

005. The teacher knows how to establish classroom


climate that fosters learning, equity, and excellence
and uses this knowledge to create a physical and
emotional environment that is safe and productive.

006. The teacher understands strategies for creating an


organized and productive environment for
managing student behavior.

24
Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain III – Implementing Effective, Responsive
Instruction
and Assessment

007. The teacher understands and applies


principles and strategies for communicating
effectively in varied teaching and learning
contexts.

008. The teacher provides appropriate


instruction that actively engages students in
the learning process.

25
Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain III – Implementing Effective, Responsive
Instruction
and Assessment

009.The teacher incorporates the effective use of


technology to plan, organize, deliver, and
evaluate instruction for all students.

010. The teacher monitors student


performance and achievement; provides
students with timely, high-quality feedback;
and responds flexibly to promote learning for
all students.

26
Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain IV – Fulfilling Professional Roles and Responsibilities

011. The teacher understands the importance of family


involvement in children’s education and knows how to
interact and communicate effectively with families.

012. The teacher enhances professional knowledge and skills


by effectively interacting with other members of the
educational community and participating in various types
of professional activities.

27
Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain IV – Fulfilling Professional Roles and
Responsibilities

013. The teacher understands and adheres to legal


and ethical requirements for educators and
is knowledgeable of the structure of education
in Texas.

28
Major Findings
Research Question 1

How do bilingual elementary


teachers rate their preparedness for
the teaching profession as
determined by the 13 teacher
competencies measured by the
Survey on Competencies Learned
Through Certification Routes
instrument?
29
Major Findings
Research Question 1
Traditional certified  001-Human Development Processes
participants  002-Student Diversity
 003-Instruction and Assessment
 >50% rated teacher
 004-Learning Processes
preparedness as  005-Classroom Climate
“significantly  006-Student Behavior
 008-Student Engagement
prepared”  010-Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
in 11 of the 13  011-Family Involvement
teacher competencies.  012-Professional Development
 013-Legal and Ethical

30
Major Findings
Research Question 1
Traditional certified
participants  007-Communication
 <50% rated teacher  009-Technology
preparedness as
“significantly prepared”
in 2 of the 13
teacher competencies.

31
Major Findings
Research Question 1
Alternative certified
participants  004-Learning Processes
 >50% rated teacher  005-Classroom Climate
preparedness as  010-
“significantly Monitors/Feedback/Flexibilit
y
prepared”  012-Professional
in 5 of the 13 Development
teacher competencies.  013-Legal and Ethical

32
Major Findings
Research Question 1
Alternative certified
participants  001-Human Development Processes
 002-Student Diversity
 <50% rated teacher
 003-Instruction and Assessment
preparedness  006-Student Behavior
as “not significantly  007-Communication
008-Student Engagement
prepared” 

 009-Technology
in 8 of the 13  011-Family Involvement
teacher competencies.

33
Review of Literature
Research Question 1
Laczko-Kerr & Berliner (2003) – Classroom teachers appear to
perform better in their teaching abilities if they have fulfilled a
teacher preparation program that concentrates on content
knowledge, pedagogical coursework including learning theories,
developmental theories, theories of motivation and issues of
student assessment and practice teaching.

Glass (2002) – Teachers must know teaching methods, curriculum


design, learning theory and child adolescent development before
they get in front of a class of students and be a successful teacher.

34
Review of Literature
Research Question 1
Darling-Hammond (1999) – A growing body of
literature
confirms that effective teachers are those who
comprehend their
subject matter, understand student learning and
development,
know a wide range of teaching methods, and have
developed their
skills under expert guidance.

35
Review of Literature
Research Question 1
Lannie & McCurdy (2007) – Classroom management is seen as an
important component of effective teaching. For classroom teachers
to be successful in urban schools, they must embed classroom
management in every phase of classroom life, making the teaching
of social skills an automatic component of daily instruction.

Ingersoll & Smith (2004) – Scores of educational research have


recognized that the existence of a sense of community and
cohesion among teachers, parents, and students through
professional development and growth is critically important for the
success of schools.

36
Major Findings
Research Question 2
What are the differences in the academic
performance of 3rd and 5th grade students
taught in a bilingual education classroom
setting by traditional certified teachers
compared to those taught by alternative
certified teachers based on the Texas
Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)
“Percent Met Standard” scores in Reading?

37
Major Findings
Research Question 2
TAKS Reading
n _
x
Alternative certified 80 54.31
Traditional certified 110 67.84

Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Reading Scores t-test


t df Sig. Mean
(2-tailed) Difference

TAKS Equal 2.689 188 .008* 13.524


Reading variances
assumed
*p≤0.05
38
Major Findings
Research Question 3
What are the differences in the academic
performance of 3rd and 5th grade students taught in a
bilingual education classroom setting by traditional
certified teachers compared to those taught by
alternative certified teachers based on the Texas
Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent
Met Standard” scores in Mathematics?

39
Major Findings
Research Question 3
TAKS Mathematics
n _
x
Alternative 65 52.65
certified
Traditional 63 69.51
certified
Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Mathematics Scores t-test
t df Sig. Mean
(2-tailed) Difference

TAKS Equal 2.775 126 .006* 16.862


Math variances
assumed
*p≤0.05 40
Review of Literature
Research Questions 2 & 3
Darling-Hammond, Holtzman, Gatlin, & Vasquez Heilig
(2005) –
Results might be due to the specific knowledge classroom
teachers
need to know to effectively teach English learners.

Darling-Hammond (2000) – Studies show that measures of


teacher
preparation and certification of classroom teachers are the
strongest
connections of student achievement in reading and
mathematics.

41
Review of Literature
Research Questions 2 & 3
Laczko-Kerr & Berliner (2003) – Alternatively certified
teachers
tend to have a narrow viewpoint of curriculum and a lack
of
understanding of their student’s ability.

Laczko-Kerr & Berliner (2003) – Alternatively certified


teachers
face difficulty translating content knowledge into
meaningful
information for their students to understand; they are less
effective
planners of instruction; and they tend not to learn about
teaching
through their experiences.
42
Major Findings
Research Question 4
What do bilingual elementary
teachers who received either
traditional or alternative certification
describe as factors that helped or
hindered them during their
preparation to enter the classroom?

43
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Factors that helped teacher

Competency
preparedness: Traditional Alternative
003 - Instruction and 7.4% 19.6%
Assessment

006 - Student 9.3% 15.2%


Behavior
008 - Student 13.0% 21.7%
Engagement

012 - Professional 63.0% 39.1%


Development

44
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“Student teaching was a wonderful experience- it really helped
expose me to the classroom setting.”

Traditional certified participant


“The main thing that helped to prepare me for teaching was the
experience provided in my field based classes. That allowed me
to interact first-hand with what would be our potential future
careers.”

45
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“I was a teacher assistant for the entire time I was in college.
By the
time I became a teacher, I was ready. I had the knowledge to
run a
classroom more smoothly.”

Traditional certified participant


“The teaching experience and my love for teaching.”

Traditional certified participant


“My self-enthusiasm has helped and desire to perform the job
has
kept me in the profession.”
46
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“Observation of veteran educators in action with their
class at
several grade levels helped me a great deal. Tutoring
children while
in college helped prepare me also.”

Alternative certified participant


“Inservices and different institutes because they gave
me some
ideas and strategies to implement in the classroom.”

47
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Alternative certified participant
“I had a lot of help during my ACP training especially with the
development of lesson plans, lesson cycles, and classroom
management.

Alternative certified participant


“Classroom management workshops. Lesson cycle workshops.”

Alternative certified participant


“Previous life experiences, plus student teaching helped prepare
me.”

48
Review of Literature
Research Question 4
Darling-Hammond (1999) – A growing body of literature confirms
that effective teachers are those who comprehend their
subject matter, understand student learning, know a wide range of
teaching methods, and have developed their skills under expert
guidance in clinical settings.

Ingersoll & Smith (2004) – Scores of educational research have


recognized that the existence of a sense of community and cohesion
among teachers, parents, and students through professional
development and growth is critically important for the success of
schools.

49
Review of Literature
Research Question 4
Menken & Antunez (2001) – Teacher preparation and professional
development of teachers has become a focus to the problem of
teacher quality in today’s schools as a way to cultivate a pool of
teachers able to effectively teach the students.

Darling-Hammond, Holtzman, Gatlin & Vasquez Heilig (2005) – A


good quality teacher preparation program provides experiences for
the preservice teacher to convert information gained from
coursework in order to learn in the context of the real world of
teaching in the classroom.

50
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Factors that hindered teacher preparedness:
Traditional certified
Competency 002 (1.9%) - Student Diversity
Competency 003 (5.6%) - Instruction and
Assessment
Competency 005 (1.9%) - Classroom Climate
Competency 006 (9.3%) - Student Behavior
Competency 010 (3.7%) -
Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
Competency 012 (9.3%) - Professional
Development

51
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Factors that hindered teacher preparedness:
Alternative certified
Competency 002 (7.7%) - Student Diversity
Competency 003 (3.8%) - Instruction and Assessment
Competency 004 (1.9%) - Learning Processes
Competency 006 (1.9%) - Student Behavior
Competency 008 (5.8%) - Student Engagement
Competency 010 (3.8%) - Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
Competency 012 (3.8%) - Professional Development

52
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Non-category factors that hindered teacher preparedness:
Traditional certified
Program structure (5.6%)
Unrealistic teacher preparation (5.6%)
Teaching experience (3.7%)

Alternative certified
Program structure (7.8%)
Unrealistic teacher preparation (2.0%)
Expectation of “knowing how to teach” (2.0%)
More hands-on preparation (2.0%)
Mentoring (2.0%)

53
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“I think most education degrees and alternative certification
programs do a great job of preparing a teacher for an ideal teaching
situation. The problem is 99% of schools are not ideal situations.
Also, the larger number of minority students in Texas and their
learning and communication styles is not addressed in most
education classrooms. The truth is, the minority is the majority in
Texas, so why isn’t that truth really addressed in preparing teachers
to teach mostly Hispanic and African-American students?”

54
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“The educational programs found in undergraduate
programs are based on theories for which there is no
practical application of them. The issues that a classroom
teacher is faced with today aren’t covered in any depth for
the unsuspecting educator. Ways and tactics to deal with
these issues are discussed even less.”

55
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“College cannot fully prepare you for what a teacher has in store in
the classroom. It is learned through experience.”

Traditional certified participant


“When I started teaching, my university courses had done nothing
for me.”

Alternative certified participant


“I was expected to know how to teach since I had accepted the
position.

56
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Alternative certified participant
“ACPs do a great job preparing a teacher for the
ideal teaching situation. The problem is, schools
are not ideal situations.”

Alternative certified participant


“There is nothing that can ever prepare you than your
first day in
the classroom seeing different kinds of behavior that
sets the tone
of planning especially how you teach.”

57
Major Findings
Research Question 4
Alternative certified participant
“Some things that hindered my teaching were not knowing
exactly
what things were due/procedures or doing
grades/referrals/basic classroom need to know things.”

Alternative certified participant


“Not knowing how to handle children with special needs was a
hindrance.”

58
Review of Literature
Research Question 4
Imig (1997); Wong & Glass (2005) - Colleges and
universities need
to continue to transform every feature of their
teacher preparation
program in response to preparing students for
realistic teaching
environments which consist of economically
disadvantaged,
culturally and linguistically diverse student learners.

59
Review of Literature
Research Question 4
Hawley (2002) -Subject-matter content and subject-matter
methods, as well as skills and pedagogy, need to be
learned prior to teaching.

Darling-Hammond (2004) - Classroom teachers admitted


through alternative certification programs have difficulty
with curriculum development, pedagogy content
knowledge, teaching to students’ different learning styles
and levels, classroom management, instructional delivery
methods and assessment tools, and student motivation.

60
Major Findings
Research Question 5
What are some specific skills that
alternative or traditional certified
bilingual teachers elementary
teachers wished their preparation
program had exposed them to before
entering the classroom?

61
Major Findings
Research Question 5
Skills wished exposed to in teacher
preparation:
Competency Alternative Traditional
002 - Student 21.1% 37.0%
Diversity
003 - Instruction 19.2% 5.6%
and
Assessment
006 - Student 27.0% 26.0%
Behavior
008 - Student 23.0% 16.7%
Engagement

62
Major Findings
Research Question 5
Non-category skills wished exposed to for teacher preparedness:
Traditional certified
Program structure (5.6%)
Realistic experiences (5.6%)
Teaching experience (3.7%)
Teaching trends (1.9%)

Alternative certified
Program structure (11.8%)
Realistic experiences (2.0%)
Teaching experience (2.0%)

63
Major Findings
Research Question 5
Traditional certified participant
“Different kinds of behavior and how to deal with situations as it
happens.”

Traditional certified participant


“Needed to know how to motivate the unmotivated student.
Helping students who fail but have the potential to perform. ARD
process, modifying assignments for student with special needs;
addressing the needs of the homeless students; students of trauma
(separation from parents; Katrina).

64
Major Findings
Research Question 5
Traditional certified participant
“I strongly believe that the best way to implement the competencies
is
to use them in the classroom. Internships and student teaching is
probably the best way to actually prepare an educator. I now can
see
and realize that many who did not have prior experience in the
classroom tend to actually harm the system, and most importantly,
the students. Their hearts may be in the right place, but skills must
be learned through practice.”

65
Major Findings
Research Question 5
Traditional certified participant
“How to organize, plan for flexible groups and
individual instruction.”

Traditional certified participant


“I wish that my university had placed me in a school
where I could
get real experience, practice, observations,
speakers (teachers).”

66
Major Findings
Research Question 5

Alternative certified participant


“DISCIPLINE. DISCIPLINE. DISCIPLINE. For example,
dealing with one rowdy student is no big deal. I was
taught how to
handle that. But no one ever addressed what to do
when half of
your students don’t want to be in your class and are
determined to
act out in order to show you this.”

67
Major Findings
Research Question 5
Alternative certified participant
“Spend at least one month in a real-life classroom to get familiar.”

Alternative certified participant


“Some of the difficulties one would come to face in the classroom
environment. Immerse for a week or so in the real teaching
environment. Expose the prospective teacher to the learning
environment longer than just casual observations. Share ideas,
lesson plans, etc.

68
Review of Literature
Research Question 5
Howard (2003) – Teacher preparation programs must
clearly
educate its students about the social framework of
education in
urban schools, and by being realistic on how they
prepare teachers
for the classroom. The majority of students in urban
schools endure
a life outside of the school walls that are unfamiliar to
most of the
classroom teachers teaching in those schools.

69
Review of Literature
Research Question 5
McKibben (2001) – In their efforts to provide their
students with
positive teaching field experiences, most universities
assign students
to complete class observation hours and fulfill student
teaching
assignments at schools whose student populations are
not the same
type of schools that these students get teaching jobs
upon
graduation.

70
Review of Literature
Research Question 5
Weiner (2003) – Urban schools tend to hire significant numbers of
teachers who have never had formal preparation to teach. When this
occurs, the school becomes the training ground for classroom
teachers to learn to teach. For these teachers, “the workplace is their
classroom, as their classroom becomes their workplace.”

Darling-Hammond & Youngs (2002) - A teacher’s sense of


preparedness has been reported to be a prevailing predictor of
teaching efficacy.

71
Conclusions
It can be concluded that the level of teacher
preparedness is critical to the impact of student
achievement.

Teacher preparation programs must construct programs


that prepare teachers for realistic teaching
environments comprised of economically
disadvantaged, culturally and linguistically diverse
student learners.

Alternative certification programs are not adequately


preparing 3rd and 5th grade bilingual teachers to enter
the classroom.

72
Recommendations
 Alternative teacher preparation programs should
provide rigorous training preparedness in the areas
of designing classroom instruction and assessment
to promote student learning; creating a positive,
productive classroom environment; and
implementing effective, responsive instruction and
assessment.

 Alternative teacher preparation programs should


provide opportunities for classroom observations
and field experiences in realistic classroom teaching
environments prior to entering the classroom as the
teacher of record.

73
Recommendations
 Principals should provide ongoing professional
development opportunities for traditional certified
teachers to understand and apply principles and
techniques and strategies for communicating effectively
in varied teaching and learning contexts.

 Principals should provide ongoing professional


development opportunities for traditional certified
teachers to apply and incorporate the use of technology
to plan, organize, deliver and evaluate instruction for all
students.

74
Recommendations
 Principals should not assume that alternative
certified teachers “know how to teach.”

 Principals should provide “hands-on” training


opportunities for alternative certified teachers.

 Principals should conduct needs assessment of all


its alternative certified teachers to determine
their confidence of preparedness for the
classroom.

75
Recommendations
 Principals should determine the level of support
based on the needs assessment so that a plan of
support can be developed to support alternative
certified teachers.

 Principals should provide and encourage time for


collaboration between alternative certified
teachers and master teachers within grade level
planning meetings and other campus teams.

76
Recommendations
 Principals should ensure that mentoring supports
are in place for alternative certified teachers by
holding those involved accountable for providing
the support (i.e. mentor and assigned campus
administrator) needed.

 Principals should provide ongoing professional


development opportunities for alternative
certified teachers on student diversity to include
planning for learning experiences, and designing
assessments that are responsive to student
differences that promote student learning.

77
Recommendations
 Principals should provide ongoing professional
development opportunities for alternative certified
teachers on strategies for creating an organized and
productive learning environment and for managing
student behavior.

 Principals should provide ongoing professional


development opportunities for alternative certified
teachers to learn appropriate instructional strategies
that actively engage students in the learning process.

78
Recommendations
 Principals should engage the assistance of district
curriculum teams to aid alternative certified
teachers with implementation of curriculum and
assessment.

79
Recommendations
for Further Study
 A study could be conducted to compare first-year
alternatively certified bilingual classroom teachers
with first-year traditional certified bilingual classroom
teachers to determine whether there is a difference in
student achievement based on the annual student
assessment.

 A study could be conducted to compare experienced


alternatively certified bilingual classroom teachers
with experienced traditional certified bilingual
classroom teachers to determine whether there is a
difference in student achievement based on the
annual student assessment.

80
Recommendations
for Further Study
 A study could be conducted to compare
alternatively certified bilingual classroom
teachers and traditional certified bilingual
classroom teachers to determine whether there is
a difference in student achievement by matching
identical or similar teacher preparation program
characteristics.

 A study could be conducted to see if a difference


exists in student achievement among elementary
bilingual students in small urban schools.

81
Recommendations
for Further Study
 A study could be conducted to see if a difference
exists in student achievement among elementary
bilingual students in small rural schools.

 A study could be conducted to see if a difference


exists in student achievement among elementary
bilingual students from different regions in the
United States.

82
*
A Comparison of Alternatively and
Traditionally Certified Bilingual
Elementary Teachers’
Student Achievement Scores in
Selected Major Urban Texas Schools

Dissertation Defense

Candidate: Roselia Alaniz Salinas