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WASTEWATER

TREATMENT
TECHNOLOGY
BPS4613

Chapter 1

Outline
Introduction to wastewater treatment
technology

Water Quality and Regulation


-portable water and surface water
- EQA 1974

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this lecture, student should be
able:
Outline the layout of wastewater treatment plant
Discuss the wastewater treatment technology

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

What comes down the


sewer?

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

What is wastewater
treatment
Refer to sewage treatment, or domestic
wastewater treatment

process of removing contaminants from


wastewater, both runoff and domestic

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

Objectives of wastewater
treatment
To produce waste stream (effluent)
To discharge or reuse them back into the
environment

The Wastewater Treatment


Process

Preliminary Treatment
Primary Treatment
Secondary Treatment

Tertiary Treatment
Sludge Handling &
Treatment

3 stages of water treatment

Primary
solids are separated

Secondary
dissolved biological matter is converted into a solid mass by
using water-borne bacteria
95% of the suspended molecules should be removed

Tertiary
biological solids are neutralized then disposed, and treated
water may be disinfected chemically or physically
Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

A little more detail..

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

Preliminary treatment
Remove large objects
Ex: sticks, rags, toilet paper

Raked screen
To prevent clogging in equipment in sewage
treatment plant

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

Preliminary Treatment

Sewer

Coarse
Screens
(optional)

Screenings
treatment

Grit
Removal
(optional)

Grit
treatment

Fine
Screens

Screenings
treatment

Primary
treatment

Treatment stages - Primary


treatment
In primary treatment screening and sedimentation
remove some of the suspended solids and organic
matter. The effluent from primary treatment will contain
high amounts or organic matter
typical materials that are removed during primary
treatment include

fats, oils, and greases (FOG)


sand, gravels and rocks (grit)
larger settleable solids including human waste, and
floating materials

Primary Sedimentation
Tank
Remove grease, oil
Fecal solid settle, floating
material rise to the surface
Produce a homologous liquid
for later biological treatment
Fecal sludge are pumped to
sludge treatment plant

Primary Treatment

Preliminary
Treatment

Primary
Settlement

Sludge
Treatment

Secondary
Treatment

Secondary Treatment

Secondary sewage treatment is directed at the


removal of biodegradable organic and
suspended solids, mainly using biological unit
processes. Disinfection may be included in
secondary sewage treatment.

Secondary Treatment

Soluble organic fraction removed by biological treatment typically by either trickling


filters or activated sludge plant (ASP) but could be something else.

Secondary Treatment

Primary
Treatment

Secondary
Treatment

Sludge
Treatment

Tertiary
Treatment/
Outfall

Treatment stages Tertiary


treatment
Tertiary sewage treatment includes the removal of
nutrients, toxic substances including heavy metals and
further removal of suspended solids and organic.
Effluent from tertiary treatment is of a high standard
and suitable for reuse
remove disease-causing organisms from wastewater
3 different disinfection process
Chlorination
UV light radiation
Ozonation

Outline of
Wastewater Treatment

1 Screening
Three course screens collect
debris such as rags, plastics
and larger solids. The
screenings got to the
landfill.

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

2 Pre-aeration &
grit removal
Air is pumped into
the pre-aeration
tank where grit
falls out of
suspension into a
collection hopper.

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

3 Sedimentation
Sedimentation tanks allow heavy solids to settle to
the bottom and fats, oils and greases to rise to the
top. About 60% of solid matter is removed at this
point.
Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

4 Aerated lagoons
Air is pumped into the lagoons
by large paddle aerators to
provide oxygen to help
microbiological organisms grow
and consume the organic
material as a food supply
Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

4 Aerated lagoons
Air is pumped into the lagoons
by large paddle aerators to
provide oxygen to help
microbiological organisms grow
and consume the organic
material as a food supply
Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

6 UV
disinfection
Banks of ultra
violet lamps
mounted in the
wastewater
channel emit
light of a
wavelength that
kills 99.9% of
bacteria as the
wastewater
flows past.

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

7 Wetland pond and land passage


This facility allows the flow to pass
through a wetland pond and a rock
land passage before entering the
river. It also provides addition storage
for wastewater at high river levels
and some extra treatment.

8 Outfall structure
This distributes the
discharge along 50m of
rock embankment
providing better mixing
and a more aesthetic
interface with the river.

9 Sludge digesters
Sludge is held in digesters for 20
days at 35C. Anaerobic
breakdown occurs producing a
more stable and more easily
dewatered sludge.

Summary

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012

Questions

Prepared by: Afiza Abdullah Suhaimi /01300/ Ftech /042012