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WAN Technologies

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Chapter Objectives I

Differentiate between the types of network switching

Explain the Public Switched Telephone System
Discuss the Mobile Telephone System
Explain point-to-point WANs
Describe the X.25 protocol

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Chapter Objectives II

Explain Frame Relay

Explain ATM
Explain the ISDN protocol and BISDN
Explain the FDDI protocol

Explain satellite communication

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Recall I

Router is an Internetworking device used to link two

different networks
Two types of NAT are:

Static NAT
Dynamic NAT

Proxy server is a computer that allows network

users to make an indirect network connection to
different network services

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Recall II

Types of proxies are:

Transparent proxies
Reverse proxies
Anonymous proxies

Zones of Internet explorer:

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Internet zone
Local Intranet zone
Trusted Sites zone
Restricted Sites zone

Recall III

Applications of Internet:

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World Wide Web

Electronic mail
File Transfer Protocol

Types of Switching

Switching is a process of moving the data through a

series of intermediate steps rather than moving from
the start point directly to the end point.

Circuit Switching

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Message Switching

Packet Switching

Circuit Switching

Direct physical connection established between sender

and receiver before data transmission
Allows a fixed rate of transmission
Major drawbacks are:
Unused transmission is wasted
Unused bandwidth cannot be used by any other

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Message Switching

No direct physical connection established between

sender and receiver
Message routed through the intermediate nodes
This technology is also known as store and forward

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Packet Switching

Message to be transmitted broken into units called

Packet contains addressing information
Packets are carried on virtual circuits. Virtual circuits
are temporary connections over which the sending
and receiving stations communicate

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Connectionless Services

Before transmitting the packets, actual connection

not established between the sender and the receiver
Each packet considered as an independent unit
Each packet treated as a complete message
Packets follow different routes to reach destination

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Connection-oriented Services

Before transmitting packets, communication link

Packets follow same route to reach destination
For transmission, uses Switched Virtual Circuit
(SVC) or Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC)

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Public Switched Telephone Network

Telephone system that uses copper wires to carry

analog voice data is called Public Switched
Telephone Network (PSTN)
Telephone services carried by the PSTN are often
called as Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS).
Services offered by POTS are follows:

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Ringing signals and dial-tone
Operator services


Structure of Telephone System I

Telephone system consists of following major


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Local loops Analog twisted pairs going into houses

and businesses
Switching offices Place where the calls moved from
one trunk to another
Trunks Switching offices connected using digital
fiber optics called trunks


Structure of Telephone System II

Typical circuit route for a medium-distance call:

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Point to Point WANs

Two remote devices connected using a line

available from a public network
Public network can be a telephone network
Services basically provided at the physical layer

Users responsible for the data link layer protocols

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Physical Layer

To accomplish point-to-point connection between

two devices at the physical layer, use the following

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Modem technology
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Cable modem
E1 Lines


Data Link Layer

Concerned with data transfer

Protocol needed for reliable connection
A protocol is needed at this layer to have a reliable
point-to-point connection. For reliability, uses Pointto-Point Protocol (PPP)
For establishing, maintaining and terminating the
link, uses Link Control Protocol (LCP)
For providing flexibility to PPP, uses Network
Control Protocol (NCP)

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X.25 Protocol

Connection-oriented packet-switching protocol

Defines the way in which the connections between
the user devices and the network devices are
established and maintained.
Used in the packet-switched networks (PSNs) such
as the telephone companies.

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X.25 Devices

X.25 network devices are:

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Data terminal equipment (DTE)

Data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE)
Packet-switching exchange (PSE)


X.25 Virtual Circuits

X.25 virtual circuits are:

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Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs)

Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs)


Frame Relay

High performance WAN protocol, faster than X.25

Operates at the physical and data link layer of the
OSI reference model
Does not involve error correction and network flow
control operations
Frame relay virtual circuits are:

Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs)

Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs)

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Frame Relay Devices

The devices attached to the Frame Relay WAN for

transmission of data packets are, Data terminal
equipment (DTE) and Data circuit-terminating
equipment (DCE).

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Case Study I
The head office of the MoneyMaker bank in Mumbai
is integrated with all its branches using the FDDI
technology. All the transactions are carried out using
this network. Due to congestion in the network the
bank is losing critical data which has become a
major area of concern for the bank.

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Data loss due to congestion in FDDI network


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Suggested Solution

All the branches should be integrated using the

Frame Relay technology. Frame Relay provides a
congestion control mechanism.

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Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Cell-switching and multiplexing technology which

combines the benefits of both circuit switching and
packet switching
Transmits data, voice and video signals
simultaneously over the same communication lines
Before transmission, this information is converted
into fixed size cells

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ATM Devices

ATM network consists of two devices:

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ATM Switch
ATM endpoint


ATM Services

ATM Services

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ATM Reference Model

Reference model comprises of the following:

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ATM layers
ATM planes


Integrated Services Digital Network


Involves digital telephony and data-transport

services offered by the regional telephone carriers
Permits transmission of voice, data, text, graphics,
music and video over existing telephone lines
Consists of following devices:

Terminal Adapters

Network Termination Devices

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ISDN Devices

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ISDN Services

The information transmitted over the ISDN network

travels through the three logical digital communication
B-Channel - Carries user service information that
includes digital data, video and voice. It is the basic
user channel
D-Channel - Carries signals and data between the
user and the network.
H-Channel - Performs the same functions as that of
the B-Channels and operates at data rate of 64 Kbps.

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Broadband ISDN (BISDN)

Extension of ISDN
Used for technologies such as video conferencing
and file transfer
Provides two types of services as follows:

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Interactive Services
Distributive Services


Case Study II
All the branches of MoneyMaker bank have to send
daily transaction details to the Mumbai branch. The
size of this file is very large. The bank uses a regular
telephone line and a standard modem to send this

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Slow data transmission

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Suggested Solution
Setup an ISDN. Certain things are required to set
up an ISDN service which includes, a ISDN
modem or router, Service Profile Identifiers
(SPIDs) from the telephone company, the name
of the switch or the network type the phone
company uses, and account information from the
ISDN service provider.

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Fiber Distributed Data Interface

Based on ring topology and token passing

Two optical fibers used as follows:

Multimode optical fiber

Single-mode optical fiber

Two types of copper cables used as follows:

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Category 5 Unshielded Twisted Pair copper wiring

IBM Type 1 Shielded Twisted Pair copper wiring


Satellite Communication

Two parts of satellite communication are:

Uplink Transmitter consisting of a ground-based

Transponder The satellite-based part reflecting
signals towards receivers


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Satellites can cover large areas of earth

It is commercially attractive

It is preferred instead of cables as maintenance

of cables is expensive and difficult


Communication technique which determines when a

terminal is ready to send data
Round robin sequence is used by the computer to
continuously interrogate its connected terminals
Communication system comprises of the following:

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A Master station
Number of slave stations each communicating with
the master station
A two-way transmission line connecting the master
station and the slave stations



A simple communications scheme in which each

transmitter or source in a network sends data
whenever there is a frame to send is called as
Next frame sent only if the first frame reaches the
destination successfully
If the frame fails to reach the receiver, it is sent
Types of ALOHA:

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Pure aloha
Slotted aloha


Summary - I

WAN covers a large geographical area and consists

of two or more local area networks (LANs)
Circuit switching, message switching and packet
switching are types of switching technologies used
by WAN
Leased lines are the permanent point-to-point links
used for data communication
Circuit switching networks establish a direct physical
connection between a sender and a receiver before
communication occurs

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Summary II

In message switching, each switch stores the whole

message and forwards it to the next switch
Packet switching network transmits messages in the
form of packets
The telephone system that uses copper wires to
carry analog voice data is called Public Switched
Telephone Network (PSTN)
Multiplexing is the technique that allows the
simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across
a single data link

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Summary III

X.25 is a connection-oriented packet-switching

protocol which was earlier used by the Internet
Frame relay is a high performance WAN protocol
which operates at the physical and data link layers
and uses fiber optic cable and ISDN for digital data
ATM transmits data, voice and video signals
simultaneously over the same communication lines
ISDN digitizes the telephone network, to transmit the
information over the existing telephone wires

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Summary IV

BISDN which an extension to ISDN used for high

speed data transfer application such as video
conferencing and the ATM technology for
transmitting information
FDDI is based on ring topology and token passing
Polling is a communication technique which
determines when a terminal is ready to send data

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