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Client Server System and

Remote Connectivity
Chapter 17

Chapter Objectives I

Differentiate between Centralized and Distributed


Processing
Understand Radio Frequency (RF)
Explain Microwave
Explain Infrared (IR)
Differentiate between Radio Single Frequency and
Spread Spectrum
Understand Electromagnet (EM)

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Chapter Objectives II

Understand Lightwave
Explain Remote Access
Explain VPN
Explain Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)
Understand Connectionless Internetworking
Explain Internetworking Routing

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Recall I

Different types of switching are:

Circuit switching
Message switching
Packet switching

Telephone services carried by the Public Switched


Telephone Network are called Plain Old Telephone
Service (POTS). Services offered by POTS are:

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Signal to carry the sound of the human voice both ways at


once called as bi-directional
Ringing signals and dial-tone

Recall II

X.25 is a connection-oriented packet-switching protocol


which defines the way in which connections between the
user devices and network devices are established and
maintained
Different frame relay devices are:

Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)


Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE)

Services provided by ATM are:

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Permanent virtual circuits (PVC)


Switched virtual circuits (SVC)
Connectionless service
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Recall III

Polling is a communication technique which determines


when a terminal is ready to send data
Communications scheme in which each transmitter or
source in a network sends data whenever there is a
frame to send is called ALOHA

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Types of Processing I

Processing

Centralized

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Distributed

Types of Processing II

Centralized In centralized computing, database


was stored in a server which was generally a
powerful mainframe
Distributed In distributed processing, most of the
processing is done by the client computer and the
file server only stores and serves data

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Client/Server Model

Client-server model
Combination of centralized processing model and
distributed processing model
Client contacts server for data, formats this data and
displays it to user

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Radio Frequency (RF)

Wireless communication technology


Uses electromagnetic waves used in radio
communication to transmit and receive data
Provides real-time access to a host computer
Electromagnetic waves generated by altering
current fed to an antenna

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RF Spectrum I

Part of electromagnetic spectrum corresponding to


radio frequencies
Consists of different frequency bands:

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Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)


Super Low Frequency (SLF)
Ultra Low Frequency (ULF)
Very Low Frequency (VLF)

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RF Spectrum II

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Low Frequency (LF)


Medium Frequency (MF)
High Frequency (HF)
Very High Frequency (VHF)
Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
Super High Frequency (SHF)
Extremely High Frequency (EHF)

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Radio Transmission

Radio station is a broadcasting service that sends


sound or audio from transmitter to an antenna and
finally to receiving device
Traditionally it broadcasts through air as radio
waves
Stations broadcast these services via cables, local
wire networks, satellite and Internet
Network system where programming is distributed to
multiple stations simultaneously is a radio network

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Single Frequency

Type of radio network that operates several


transmitters on a single frequency is SingleFrequency Network (SFN)
Each station usually runs synchronously with others
to avoid interference
Two forms of modulations such as FM and AM
operate in this manner
When SFN is used in simple form, secondary
transmitter can be called a booster or on-channel
repeater

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Spread Spectrum

Signals from different sources are combined


together to fit into larger bandwidth
Information encoded into discrete packages before
spreading
Receivers then filter the coded material
To reassemble the signal, the receiver has to be
compatible
Thus, number of simultaneous users within a radio
frequency band may increase

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Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

Modulation technique used in spread spectrum


transmission
The frequencies are repeatedly switched between
predetermined frequencies known as hops
To transfer data correctly, proper synchronization of
transmitter and receiver is necessary

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Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

Most common modulation technology


Data is divided into smaller parts called chips
Different frequencies are used to transmit these
chips
Dividing the data into chips enables the receiver to
properly reassemble the data by providing
information about the cycle of frequency changes

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Microwave I

Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths longer


than those of infrared light, but shorter than radio
waves
Frequency ranging between 1 and 300 GHz
High frequency radio waves
Used for point-to-point and omni directional
communication of various signals
Antennas required:

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Parabolic dish antenna


Horn antenna
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Uses of microwave

In broadcasting transmissions
Widely used in television news to transmit a signal
from a remote location to a television station from a
specially equipped van
Lower microwave frequencies are used in the cable
TV and Internet access
Used to transmit power over long distances

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Infrared I

Derived from the Latin word infra which means


below red
Electromagnetic radiation of wavelength longer than
that of visible light but shorter than that of radio
waves
Known as heat or heat radiation
IR light is used by infrared systems to carry data
between devices

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Infrared II
IR

Unidirectional

Omnidirectional

Reflective

Unidirectional Also called point-to-point. Uses


focused laser.
Omnidirectional Also called broadcast. Scattered
infrared technology used.
Reflective Uses optical transceivers.

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Applications of IR

It has an excellent potential for data transmission


Standards published for using IR signals for
communication between devices such as
Keyboards
Mice
PCs
Printers
Standards published by Infrared Data Association
(IrDA)

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Disadvantages of IR

Does not have penetration ability


When exposed to light, IR signals goes weak. To
resolve this problem, they should have very high
output
Very expensive when used over large distances

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Electromagnet (EM)

Energy traveled through a material medium or


through free space in the form of electromagnetic
waves
EM exhibits :

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Reflection
Refraction
Interference
Diffraction

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Electromagnet (EM) - II

Types of radiation in EM spectrum:


Radio
Microwaves
Infrared
Visible Light
Ultraviolet
X-rays
Gamma rays

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Lightwave

Connecting LANs in two buildings using lasers is the


most modern application of lightwave transmission
Lasers follow unidirectional path
Each building should have its own laser and its own
photo detector
Advantages are:

Cost effective solution


Offers very high bandwidth
Very easy to install

Major disadvantage is that laser beams cannot


penetrate rain or thick fog

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Using Remote Access

Communication established with a distant computer


system or computer network is called as remote
access
Remote computer becomes a host on the network
To connect to the network, a computer, a modem or
some remote access software is needed

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Types of Remote Access Connectivity

Remote access clients can dial in from remote locations and


access resources as if they are physically attached to the
network.
Types of
Remote
Access
Connectivity

Dial-up
remote
access

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VPN
remote
access

Dial up
to the
Internet

Dedicated
Connection

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Remote Access Methods

Remote
Access
Methods

Using
Phone-lines
And
Modems

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Using
ISDN
Lines

Using
X.25

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Virtual Private Network I

A private communication network provided over a


public network such as Internet

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VPN Security I

Uses different methods to keep connection and data


secure
Methods for security are:
Firewalls A filtering mechanism which checks the
incoming and outgoing information between the
local network and the Internet

Encryption Translation of data into secret code.


Types of encryption are:

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Symmetric-key
Public-key
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VPN Security II

IPSec Supports two encryption modes:

AAA Servers When dial-up client sends request


to establish session, request is sent to the AAA
server which checks:

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Transport Encrypts only the data portion


(payload) of each packet
Tunnel Encrypts both header and payload. It is
more secure

who you are (authentication)


what you are allowed to do (authorization)
what you actually do (accounting)
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Types of VPN
VPN

Remote-Access

Site-to-Site

Intranet-based

Extranet-based

Remote-Access VPN Is a user-to-LAN connection


which is also called Virtual Private Dial-up Network
Site-to-Site VPN Employs Quality Of Service
(QOS) for transport reliability and uses tunneling
and encryption for data privacy

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VPN Tunneling

Also known as port forwarding


Data intended for use only within a private network
can be transmitted through public network
Public network may not be aware that data
transmitted is part of private network
Most VPNs rely on tunneling

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Types of VPN Tunneling

Voluntary tunneling Connection setup is managed


by the VPN client
Compulsory tunneling VPN connection is
managed by the carrier network provider. Also
called the VPN Front End Processor (FEP) or
Network Access Server (NAS) or Point of Presence
(POS) servers

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VPN Tunneling Protocols I

Many network protocols


have been
implemented
specifically for use with
VPN tunnels
These protocols are
generally incompatible
with each other

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VPN
Tunneling
Protocols

PPTP

L2TP

IPSec

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VPN Tunneling Protocols II

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) Enables


users to dial to their companies network through the
Internet
Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) Exists at
data link layer in the OSI model and allows ISPs to
operate VPNs
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) Exists at the
network layer in the OSI model. Multiple related
protocols combine together to form IPSec

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Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)

Method for connecting multiple computers in a


LAN to the Internet through a single connection
and a single IP address
Works with connection technologies, such as DSL,
cable modem, ISDN, dial-up and satellite.

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Internet Connection Sharing - II

Comprises of the following:


ICS Host Device which has a modem or broadband
interface that establishes connection to the Internet
ICS clients Devices that connect to the Internet
through the network and the ICS hosts

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Case Study

The network administrator John of the Mumbai


branch of MoneyMaker bank has configured ICS in
the branch. Whenever the client computers
connected to the ICS host use an Internet program
an error message appears which says the mail
server cannot be located

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Problem

The client side browser is set to use a proxy server

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Suggested Solution

The administrator should verify that the client


computer is not configured to use a proxy server

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Internetworking

Creation of Wide Area Networks (WANs) by


connecting individual Local Area Networks (LANs)
These WANs may be connected to form even larger
WANs
Minimum two networks are connected

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Connectionless Internetworking and


Protocol

In connectionless Internetworking, data can be


sent without any need to establish a connection
first
Thus, there is no guarantee of delivery of data
An ISO network layer datagram protocol
Similar to the Internet Protocol (IP)
Also named as ISO-IP

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Connectionless Internetworking II

Internetworking is achieved using the following:

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Gateways
Bridges
Routers

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Internetwork Routing

A connection of two or more networks using routers


is called Internetwork
A process of forwarding data packets from source to
destination is called Internetwork routing

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Routing Process

Two processes are involved in routing as follows:


Host routing
Router routing

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Routing Concepts

Routing
Concepts

Host
routing

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Router
routing

Routing
table

Static
And
Dynamic
Router

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Routing Problems

Routing
Problems

Routing
Loops

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Black
Holes

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Routing Infrastructure

Routing
Infra
structure

Single
path

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Multi
path

Flat

Hierarchical

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Summary I

A network connected to the Internet but isolated from the


Internet is called as a private network
Centralized processing is performed in one computer or
in a cluster of computers in a single location
When more than one computer or processor is used to
execute an application it is called as a distributed
processing
The combination of centralized processing model and
distributed processing model is called the client-server
model

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Summary II

Radio Frequency (RF) is the wireless communication


technology which uses electromagnetic waves used in
radio communication to transmit and receive data
The part of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding
to radio frequencies is called as the radio frequency
spectrum
Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths longer than
those of infrared light, but shorter than those radio waves
are called microwaves

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Summary III

A type of radio network that operates several


transmitters on a single frequency is called as a SingleFrequency Network (SFN)
When the information been sent is transmitted over a
frequency band which is much wider than the minimum
bandwidth needed to send that information then it is
called as a spread spectrum
Communication established with a distant computer
system or computer network is called as remote access

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Summary IV

A method for connecting multiple computers in a LAN to


the Internet through a single connection and a single IP
address is called as Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)
The creation of Wide Area Networks (WANs) by
connecting individual Local Area Networks (LANs) is
called as Internetworking
A computer networking device that forwards data
packets towards its destination is called as a router
The process of transferring data across an Internetwork
from a source host to a destination host is called as
routing

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