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Zoonotic Diseases

Contents

Definition
Aetiological agent
Terminology
Categories
List of zoonoses (viral, bacterial, fungal,parasitical)
Mode of transmission
Epidemiology
Prevention and control

Defining Zoonoses
From the Greek:
Zoon
Noson

:
:

Animal
Disease

An Infection or Infectious Disease transmissible under


natural conditions from vertebrate animals to man.

Categories

Direct zoonoses:
Transmitted from an infected vertebrate host to a susceptible vertebrate
host by direct contact eg. Rabies, trichinosis and brucellosis.
Cyclo-zoonoses:
Require more than one vertebrate host species, but no invertebrate host , in
order to complete the developmental cycle of the agent . Eg. Taeniases,
echinococosis,
Metazoonoses:
Transmitted biologically by invertebrate vectors eg. Arbovirus, palgue
and schistomiasis.
Sapro-zoonosis:
Have both vertebrate host and a non animal developmental site or
reservior eg. larva migrants and mycoses

LIST OF ZOONOSES
BACTERIAL INFECTION
Anthrax

Herbivores, pigs

Brucellosis

Cattle, sheep, goat, camels, pigs, dogs, horses

Ornithosis

Wild and domestic animals

Q fever

Cattle, sheep, goat, wild animals

Leptospirosis Rodents, mammals


Tuberculosis

Cattle, sheep, goat

Plague

Rodent

VIRAL INFECTION
Cow pox

Cattle

Monkey pox

Monkey, rodents

Eastern equine
encephalitis

Horses, Rodents

Rose river fever

Horses, cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, rats

Yellow fever

Monkeys

Japanese
encephalitis

Wild birds

Lassa fever

Rat

Rabies

Dog, fox, jackal

PROTOZOAN & HELMENTHIC INFECTION


Leishmaniasis

Dogs, cats, swine

Toxoplasmosis

Cats, mammals, birds

Trypanosomiasis

cattle

Babesesiosis

cattle

Clonorchiasis

Dogs, cats, swine, wild mammals, fish

Fasciolopsis

Swine, dogs

Schistosmiasis

Rodents

Echinococcosis

Dogs, wild carnivores

Taeniasis

cattle

Trichinellosis

Swine, rodents, marine mammals

How are diseases transmitted to man?

Contact with animals

Inhalation

Arthropod intermediates

Handling carcasses

By-products (feces/urine)

Scratches or bites

Ingestion of contaminated milk

Contaminated meat

Contaminated soil

Rabies

Reservoir: Bat, Cat, Dog

Agent: Virus

Transmission: Saliva of infected animals

Human symptoms: Seizures, paralysis, fever

Control of Rabies

Animal

Notify the authorities of any suspicious case


Awareness creation
Control dog populations; all un-confined animals may be killed
Confine and observe suspect animal for 14 days;
Once signs and symptoms of rabies start, there is no treatment
Mass vaccination of all domestic carnivores and keep vaccination records
Maintain documentation of animal disposition and location

Human

Notify the authorities


If bitten/scratched by an animal, clean the wound and seek medical advice
Immunisation as soon as possible after suspect contact with an animal can
prevent rabies in 100% of cases
Once signs and symptoms of rabies start, there is no cure

Plague

An acute disease of animals and humans caused by a


bacteria transmitted from small animals to humans by
the bite of infected fleas

Occurs world wide but with focal distribution


depending on presence of rats and infected fleas in
defined geographical areas

Transmitted between animals and humans by the bite of


infected fleas, direct contact, inhalation and rarely,
ingestion of infective materials

Prevention and control of Plague


Cases

Early diagnosis
Treatment
Notification
Isolation in the of the cases

Community level

Flea control
Rat Control
Hygiene
Surveillance
Awareness creation
Preventive antibiotic therapy

Ebola
A highly virulent viral hemorrhagic fever that is often fatal in man
and other primates
Source:

Monkeys and Chimpanzees are the common source; bats are the
suspected as reservoir
Transmission:Direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected
persons
Handling, eating sick or dead infected wild animals
(chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope, fruit bats)

Toxoplasmosis
Reservoir: Pigs, Cats, Rats, Deer, Lamb
Agent: A single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii

Transmission: Touching infected cat feces, eating undercooked


meat, contaminated water drinking
Human symptoms: Flu like symptoms

Epidemiology

Zoonoses: Common Disease


Frequency: CDC(2003)
Salmonella- 39919
Lyme Disease- 18991
West Nile2862
Trichinosis4

Spectrum of Disease Severity

Death - Rabies
Severe illness- Plague
Chronic illness - Q- fever
Mild illness- Pisttacosis

A recent report found that over a 64 year, Zoonoses


account for 60% of emerging infectious diseases, the

majority of which (72%) originate in wildlife.

Salmonella and Campylobacter account for over 90% of all


reported cases of bacteria-related food poisoning worldwide
Salmonella enteritidis caused a pandemic in both poultry
and humans during the latter half of the 20th Century

Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC


O157) also emerged as a major food-borne zoonotic
pathogen in the 1980s and 1990s.
1996- E. coli o157 : H7- 10,000 cases in Japan.
Clinical disease is often severe, with a significant mortality
rate among the young and elderly.

Prevention and Control

Assure an uncontaminated water supply

Chlorination of water

Connect to water supply

Appropriate disposal of wastes

Prevent food contamination


1.

Avoid unpasteurized milk

2.

Wash hands

3.

Disinfect kitchen surfaces

4.

Wash fruits and vegetables

5.

Use separate utensils for raw/cooked meat

Cooking guidelines

Avoid foods with partially cooked eggs

Cook meats until juices are clear

Poultry internal temp of 180 degrees

Beef internal temp of 160 degrees

Always drink pasteurized milk!

Avoid contact with diseased animals

Dispose off carcasses properly

Wear appropriate clothing and gloves

Wash hands afterwards

Prevent Tick bites

Apply repellent

Wear appropriate clothing

Long-sleeved shirt

Check yourself and pets after being in a tick-infested


area

Definition
Aetiological agent
Terminology
Catergories
List of zoonoses (viral, bacterial, fungal, ricketsial, parasitical)
Mode of transmission
Epidemiology
Prevention and control

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