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# Peter Smith & Mike Rosenman

## In buildings majority of loads are vertical and

majority of useable surfaces are horizontal

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## bending and shear

University of Sydney Structures

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fixing etc

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Checking a Beam

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Designing a Beam

?
?

material

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## A beam picks up the load halfway to its

neighbours
Each member also carries its own weight
that comes from this area

span

spacing
University of Sydney Structures

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## A column generally picks up load from

halfway to its neighbours
It also carries the load that comes from the
floors above

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## Code values per cubic metre or square

metre
Multiply by the volume or area supported
Length

Height

Thickness

Surface area x
Wt per sq m,
or
volume x
wt per cu m
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## Code values per square metre

Multiply by the area supported
Area carried by
one beam

+ self weight
University of Sydney Structures

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beams

Distributed

Reactions

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## The loads (& reactions) bend the beam,

and try to shear through it

Bending

Shear
University of Sydney Structures

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## Peter Smith & Mike Rosenman

C
T
Bending

Shear
University of Sydney Structures

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## in architectural structures, bending

moment more important
importance increases as span increases

## short span structures with heavy loads,

shear dominant
e.g. pin connecting engine parts
beams in building
designed for bending
checked for shear

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## Make the beam into a freebody (cut it out and

artificially support it)

equilibrium

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## Consider cantilever beam with point load on end

W
vertical reaction,
R=W
and moment reaction MR = - WL

MR = -WL

L
R=W

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## Peter Smith & Mike Rosenman

W
M = -Wx
Take section anywhere at distance, x from end

## Add in forces, V = W and moment M = - Wx

V=W
Shear V = W constant along length
(X = 0 -> L)

V=W

BM = Wx

## Bending Moment BM = W.x

when x = L
BM = WL
when x = 0
BM = 0
University of Sydney Structures

BM = WL

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## Peter Smith & Mike Rosenman

w /unit length

L
For maximum shear V and bending moment BM
MR = -WL/2
= -wL2/2

L/2

L/2

R = W = wL
vertical reaction,
and moment reaction
University of Sydney Structures

R=W
= wL
MR = - WL/2 = - wL2/2
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wx

M = -wx2/2

X/2 X/2
V = wx

Shear
when x = L
when x = 0

V = wx
V = W = wL
V=0

V = wL
=W

## Shear Force Diagram

w.x2/2

BM = wx2 /2

Bending Moment BM =
2/2
BM
=
wL
2
when x = L
BM = wL /2 = WL/2
= WL/2
when x = 0
BM = 0
(parabolic)
Bending Moment Diagram
University of Sydney Structures

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Positive shear

Negative shear

L.H up

R.H up

## The opposite convention is equally valid,

but this one is common

## There is no difference in effect between

positive and negative shear forces

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W1

R1

W3

W2

R2

## Starting at the left hand end, imitate each force

you meet (up or down)
W1
R1

W2
W3

R2

## Shear Force Diagram

University of Sydney Structures

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## Peter Smith & Mike Rosenman

a block diagram

produce triangular diagrams

## Shear force diagrams

University of Sydney Structures

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## Although the shear forces are vertical, shear

stresses are both horizontal and vertical

Timber

may split
horizontally along
the grain

## Shear is seldom critical for steel

Concrete

needs
special shear reinforcement
(45o or stirrups)

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Hogging
NEGATIVE

Sagging
POSITIVE

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## Sagging bending moment is POSITIVE

(happy)

+
Hogging bending moment is NEGATIVE

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Cantilevers

+
Simple beam

+
Built-in beam

## Built-in & continuous beams have both, with

negative over the supports

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## Positive moments are drawn downwards

+
This way mimics the
beams deflection
University of Sydney Structures

## This way is normal

coordinate geometry
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## Bending moment diagrams

University of Sydney Structures

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UDL

UDL

## Bending moment diagrams

University of Sydney Structures

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## We are mainly concerned

with the maximum values

Maximum value
University of Sydney Structures

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## Use the Deflected shape as a guide to where the

sagging (+) and hogging (-) moments are

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moment

## Built-in and continuous beams also have lower

maximum BMs and less deflection

Simply supported

Continuous
University of Sydney Structures

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## Use the standard formulas where you can

W

Max bending moment
= WL/4
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(w per metre length)
L

Max bending moment
= WL/8 or wL2/8
where W = wL
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## Peter Smith & Mike Rosenman

Max bending moment
= -WL
University of Sydney Structures

(w per metre length)
L

Max bending moment
= -WL/2 or -wL2/2
where W = wL
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W W W

W /m

W /m

Beam

Cable
W

BMD

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## Peter Smith & Mike Rosenman

W = wL

W = wL

V = +W/2
V = +W

Mmax = -WL
University of Sydney Structures

V = +W

Mmax = -WL/2
= -wL2/2

V = -W/2

Mmax = WL/4

V = +W/2
V = -W/2

Mmax = WL/8
= wL2/8
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## Causes compression on one face and

tension on the other
Causes the beam to deflect
How much
compressive stress?

## How much deflection?

University of Sydney Structures

How much
tensile stress?
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section

## how big & what shape?

is the section we are using as a beam
University of Sydney Structures

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20 MPa

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## we need to find the

Section Properties

next lecture
University of Sydney Structures

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