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DESERTIFICATION

LAND TRANSFORMS TO A
DESERT

WHAT IS DESERT ?
Deserts are areas of the earths surface which receives less than 25
cm or 10 inches of rainfall every year. They contain little or no
vegetation. The main characteristics of desert are :

Rare clouds

Little Rain

Very hot days

Very cold nights

TYPES OF DESERT
There are basically three types of Desert :

THE HOT OR THE TROPICAL DESERT

THE COLD OR THE TEMPERATE DESERT

THE COLD DESERT OR THE TUNDRA

All the hot desert generally lie between the latitudes 20 degree and
30 degree North and South of the Equator. They lie in the high
pressure belt along the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.

WHAT IS
DESERTIFICATION ?
Desertification means the spread of desert like
landscape into arid and semi- arid
environment. It occurs mainly in semi-arid
lands which border the worlds major deserts.
Land degradation in arid, semi- arid and dry subhumid, resulting from climatic variations and
human activities.
- Earth Summit 2002

MAJOR HOT DESERTS


OF THE WORLD

AREAS VULNERABLE DUE TO


DESERTIFICATION

GREATEST RISK IN THE


WORLD

FACTORS PLAYING A
MAJOR ROLE
HUMANANTHROPOGENIC
ACTIVITIES

CLIMATE

DESERTIFICATION

ROLE OF CLIMATIC
INDICES

LOW PRECIPATION

LOW EVAPORATION

HIGH TEMPERATURE

FREQUENCY OF SAND-DRIVING
WINDS AND DRIFT POTENTIAL

ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES CONTRIBUTING

TO THE DESERTIFICATION

OVER GRAZING

DEFORESTATION- CUTTING OF
FOREST

CLEARING OF ORIGINAL
VEGETATION FOR CULTIVATIONAGRICULTURE

INCORRECT IRRIGATION
TECNIQUES

PROCESS OF
DESERTIFICATION
The process of desertification results from anthropogenic
causes it begins as-:

Disruption or removal of the native covers of grasses and shrubs


through over gazing and intensive agriculture activities.

If the disruption or removal is severe enough, the original vegetation


cover cover cannot be re-established itself and the exposed soil is made
susceptible to erosion
Water runs off the land surface, instead of seepage downward, water
table is lowered
Eventually, even deep rooted bushes are unable to reach ground water,
and all the natural vegetation is lost.
The process is accentuated when too many animals pack down the earth
down with their hooves.

Loss of plant
cover

Loss of soil
moisture

Desertification

IMPACTS-A SERIOUS
GLOBAL ISSUE

Destruction of Biodiversity

Soil becomes less usable

Vegetation is lacked or damaged

Causes Famine

Food problems- shortage

CASE STUDY-THE
SAHEL DESERT
In the Sahel Desert, desertification is becoming a hug problem,
Around the 1950s people settled in this region, in the areas
where water was available. This resulted in overgrazing. Due to
overgrazing, the vegetation was lost and the top soil was washed
away, and all that was left was rocks. Therefore plants were not
able to grow and because of it the roots of the plants could not
reach the ground for water. Now this region is completed turned
into a desert and it will continue to influence the surrounding
areas.
Another reason for the desertification in this region is slash and
burn method for clearing the land. This degrades the soil quality.

SHORT TERM EFFECTS

Soil loses it nutrients which makes it not useful

Overgrazing destroys vegetation and without it


erosion occurs

Land becomes salty which makes it difficult to grow


crops.

LONG TERM EFFECTS

People die of starvation

Cattle die of starvation

The soil becomes completely useless.

SAHEL DESERT
THROUGH PICTURE

THINGS YOU SHOULD


KNOW

Worldwide, desertification affects about 900 million people in over


100 countries and impact about 1.2 billion hectares of land.

Africa is the most at risk, 40% of the continents non- desert land
is in danger of human- induced desertification and nearly a third
of Asias land and fifth of Latin America (South America) are
similarly endangered.

Desertification is particularly extensive arid severe in :

Africa, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Mali and Niger.

UNITES NATIONS CONVENTION TO

COMBAT DESERTIFICATION
The United Nations to combat desertification in those countries
experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, Particularly in
Africa (UNCCD) is a convention to combat desertification.
The convention, the only convention stemming from a direct
recommendation of the Rio Conference's Agenda 21, was
adopted in Paris, France on 17 June 1994 and entered into force
in December 1996. It has 196 parties, making it truly global in
reach.

Latest conference- Windhoek (Namibia) , 16 to 27 September


2013

THANK YOU

Presented by : Reema Singh