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CAUSES OF

MISMATCH

oTolerances

in ICs is more compared to


discrete components
Analog design depends on matching to obtain
maximum precision and performance
Measuring the mismatch
Taking sample from different positions
Finding mismatch which can be positive or
negative
Mean(Systematic mismatch)
Standard deviation(Random mismatch)
3 Sigma (<1% units) and 6 Sigma deviations
(no units)

Causes of Mismatch

Random variations
Process biases
Interconnection parasitics
Pattern Shift
Etch rate variations
Photo lithography effects
Diffusion interactions
Hydrogenation
Mechanical shift and Package shift
Stress gradients
Temperature gradients and Thermoelectrics
Electrostatic interactions

Random variations
Peripheral variations: Irregularities along edge of
thedevice
Areal variations: Irregularities throughout the area
of the device
s=m sqroot(k/2A)
sd=sqroot(sum of sq of s/m ratios) where s & m are
standard deviation and means of a particular
device
Eg: voltage divider (various resistances needed in
which we will take small resistor as block and we
will connect in series to fabricate higher values of
resistors)
Similarly capacitors

Process biases
Dimensions of geometries fabricated in Si will never
match with that of layout database because the
geometries shrink or expand
Process bias : Diff. between drawn width of a
geometry and actual measured width
Eg:
o poly etching in poly resistors of values 2Kohm
and 4Kohm (solution:take 2K as unit)
o Capacitors of different areas (Make small unit as
square as possible and follow equ.s given for the
other capacitors)

Interconnection parasitics
Leads introduces mismatch because of sheet
resistors
Even more effect in case of jumpers
To avoid this we must increase resistance of the
2 resistors which will increase the space inturn
Other solution is to reduce jumper lengths by
placing more no. of vias even its not needed

Pattern Shift

surface discontinuities left from the thermal annealing of the N-buried layer (NBL)
propagate up through the monocrystalline silicon layer deposited during vaporphase epitaxy.
These discontinuities are frequently displaced laterally during epitaxial growth.
This effect is called pattern shift.
Sometimes the various edges of the discontinuity shift by different amounts,
causing pattern distortion.
Occasionally the surface discontinuities completely vanish during the course of
epitaxy, causing pattern washout.

Etch rate variations

Photo lithography effects

Diffusion interactions

Hydrogenation

Mechanical shift and Package


shift

Stress gradients

Temperature gradients and


Thermoelectrics

Electrostatic interactions