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AMMONIA

PLANT
INTRODUCTION

PRESENTED BY:

FERTILIZERS
Provide essential nutrients (N,P,K ) to crops
Nitrogen is required to promote protein formation which helps
healthy growth, high yields and keep plants green.

(Urea, CAN, AN)


Phosphorus accelerates seeding and fruit formation (SSP, DAP)

Potassium is essential for the development of starch/


sugar/fibers of plants (Potassium phosphate, NPK blended)

PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA

Colorless
Strong pungent and irritating odors
Mol. Wt: 17.03
Boiling Point: -33.3 C at atmospheric pressure
Gas at ambient conditions
Flammability Range: 16-25 %
2500 ppm: fatal in 30 minutes

FFC AMMONIA PLANTS


FFC-I

FFC-II

*FFC-III

Commercial
Production

June 1982

March 1993

June 1980

Nameplate
Production
Capacity

1000 MTPD

1100 MTPD

1000 MTPD

Process Licenser

Haldore Topsoe Denmark

* Previously Pak Saudi (Acquired by FFC in 2003)

RAW MATERIALS

Natural gas
Raw water
Air
Electric Power

Ammonia
AMMONIA
PLANT
CO2

NATURAL GAS
Feedstock : Natural Gas
Fuel : Natural Gas
Typical Analysis of Natural Gas

Methane
Ethane
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
Sulphur

72.8%
0.2%
9.0%
18.0%
1-2 ppm

NATURAL GAS
Feed Gas
16

14
Fuel Gas
Mari Gas Fields

Distance: 52 Km

FFC

AMMONIA PROCESS
AIR

NATURAL
GAS CH4, N2,
CO2, H2S

SULPHUR
REMOVAL

(3)

(2)

PRIMARY
REFORMING
(TUBULAR)
PURGE GAS
CH4, H2, N2

AMMONIA

STEAM

N2

(9)

AMMONIA
REFRIG.

SECONDARY
REFORMING
(AUTHO
THERMAL)

AMMONIA
SYNTHESIS

H2, N2, NH3,


CH4

(5)

WASTE HEAT
RECOVERY

SHIFT
CONVERSION

H2, N2, CO,


CO2,

RECYCLE
GAS
H2, N2, CH4

AMMONIA
SEPERATION

(4)

(8)

CO2 TO
UREA

METHANATION

H2, N2, CH4

(7)

CARBON
DIOXIDE
REMOVAL

H2, N2,
(6)
TRACES OF
CO, CO2

H2, N2, CO2

(1)

STEAM

AMMONIA PROCESS
Desulphurization
-Removal of sulphur from natural gas feed
-Predesulphurization
Remove bulk of sulphur
-Desulphurization
Hydrogenation [ 360 380 oC, > 2% H2]
Active state is sulphided
Sulphur Absorption

AMMONIA PROCESS
Desulphurization
Natural gas is purified in the desulphurization unit
to eliminate traces of sulphur which is a poison to
several catalysts in the process. This is achieved in
zinc oxide beds.
ZnO + H2S

ZnS + H2O

ZnO + COS

ZnS + CO2

Diff between P-I and P-II

Sulphur slip: < 0.1 PPM AT 360 oC

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Reforming (tubular reformer)
The steam reforming section consists of a
primary tubular reformer and a secondary
auto-thermal reformer. The first reaction
between natural gas and steam takes place in
the catalyst filled tubes of the primary
reformer, producing H2, CO and CO2
CH4 + H2O

H2, CO, CO2 & (un-reacted


H2O, CH4)

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Reforming (tubular reformer)
Steam reforming

Side-fired furnace Reactor


Tubular reformer Operating Parameters:
Inlet temperature: 520 oC
Outlet temperature: 890 oC
Steam/Carbon ratio: 2.65-3.0
CH4 slip: 12 mole% dry
Catalyst poisons: Sulphur, Silica, Chlorine
Difference in P-I and P-II Furnaces

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Tubular Reformer Waste Heat Recovery:
Flue gas temp. from radiant chamber: 1040C
Preheating tubular reformer feed to 520C
Preheating process air to 550C
Steam superheating to 515C
Preheating feed for desulphurisation to 365C
Preheating BFW and DMW
Flue gas outlet temperature ~150C

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Reforming (Auto thermal reformer)
Residual methane is reduced in the secondary
reformer where air is mixed with the exit gas
from the primary reformer. A partial combustion

produces the necessary heat for the reforming


reaction to occur.
CH4 + 2O2

CO2 + 2H2O & N2, H2, CO

CH4 + H2O

H2, CO2, CO2, & (un-reacted

H2O, CH4)

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Reforming (Auto thermal reformer)
Partial combustion with air
H2/N2 ratio to be 2.7 - 3.0 during normal operation
RKS-2-7H catalyst and alumina lumps and tiles
Final methane at outlet of reforming
Outlet temperature: 950 -1000 oC

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


High Pressure Steam Generation
Process gas temperature is then lowered by the production of steam
Steam at a pressure as high as 110 Kgcm2 in a waste heat boiler.
BFW and steam circuit

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Shift Conversion
The shift conversion section comprises medium
and low temperature catalytic reactors where the
CO content is reduced by the production of H2 and
CO2
CO + H2O

CO2 + H2

High and low temperature shift converters


Optimum temperature?
Age/activity
Poisons:
Chlorine, Silica, Sulphure
Activated catalyst is pyrophoric

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Medium temp. Shift converter
Copper based catalyst

Operating temp: 240 oC


Higher activity at higher temperature but lower equilibrium
conversion

Low temp. Shift converter


Copper based catalyst
Operating temp: 195- 205 oC
Higher activity at higher temperature but lower equilibrium
conversion
Catalyst can be changed on-line

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


CO2 Removal
Carbon Dioxide removed in the CO2
removal section. The CO2 is sent to the
CO2 compressor at urea plant.
aMDEA solution is used for CO2
absorption.

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


CO2 Removal
BASF aMDEA (activated Methlyl
DiEthanol Amine).O2 absorption in
aMDEA solution in C-4302.
CO2 flash of in V-4302 and V-4301
Regenration of aMDEA solution in C4301.
MDEA is a tertiary amine
Activator is a secondary amine
Solution contains 40 wt% aMDEA
(balance: water)

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


CO2 absorption
Absorption in two stages
Bulk absorption in bottom part with
semi lean solution
Final absorption in top part (scrubbing)
with lean solution
Rich MDEA solution at bottom outlet
Depressurization through reverse pump

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Solution regeneration
Regeneration in two stage flashing:
HP flash vessel
LP flash vessel
Stripping in CO2 stripper

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Methanation
Final gas purification
Converts, residual CO and CO2 are
reduced to a few ppm in a catalytic
methanation unit
Ni based catalyst (PK-7R)
To prevent poisoning of the ammonia
synthesis catalyst
CO2 + 4H2
CH4 + 2H2O+Q
CO + 3H2
CH4 + H2O+Q

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Methanation Operating parameters
Recommended operating range 280- 420 oC
Equilibrium favoured by:
low temperature
High pressure
Low water content

Catalyst operation
higher temp higher activity but thermal aging

Poisons: sulphur and chlorine


Steam without H2 oxidises catalyst
Condensing steam; disintegration of catalyst

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Ammonia Synthesis
The ammonia synthesis loop features a
radial flow type ammonia converter. The
remaining part of the loop comprises
equipment for heat recovery,
condensation and ammonia separation.
3H2 + N2

380 C - 500 C

2NH3

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Ammonia Synthesis
Conversion of N2 and H2 into NH3
Synthesis loop with app. 30% conversion per pass
Make up synthesis gas from preparation section
Amm product separation by condensation
Inert level kept by purging

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Ammonia Synthesis
Synthesis make up gas;
Normal operating pressure 150 Kg/cm2.

Addition point; between the two ammonia chillers, just downstream


of purge point

Water in MU gas absorbed in Amm. (liquid)

CO2 in MU gas absorbed in Amm. (liquid)


CO only slightly soluble in Amm

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Ammonia Synthesis
Synthesis make up gas;
H2/N2 ratio inlet converter should be 3.0

H2/N2 ratio in MU gas to loop should be 2.97

Adjusted by: Ratio in raw synthesis gas outlet methanator by adjusting


air to secondary reformer and purge rate
Dependant on flow and composition of H2 recycle from Purge gas
recovery unit

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Ammonia Converter operation
Temporary catalyst poisons:
Oxygen

containing compounds; H2O, CO, CO2

Permanent catalyst poisons:


Sulphur, chlorine etc.

1st bed recommended inlet temperature: 380 oC


Outlet:

510 oC

2nd bed recommended inlet temperature: 381 oC


Outlet: 436 oC

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Ammonia Refrigeration circuit:
Performs the cooling tasks connected to synthesis loop:
Condensation of product Ammonia
Recovering Ammonia from purge gas

Recovering Ammonia from letdown gas

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Refrigeration circuit operation:
Two chillers levels:
1st chiller at 10 oC at pressure 1.87 Kg/cm2
2nd chiller at -4 oC at pressure 5.9 Kg/cm2

Chiller levels correspond to 1st and 2nd stages on refrigeration


compressor
Ammonia booster compressor used for Ammonia to storgae at -33 oC

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Ammonia Recovery:
Recovery of residual amm. From purge gas and low pressure off-gas
Absorption in water; from 4% Amm to < 0.01%
Regeneration by distillation

Section comprises:
Purge gas absorber
Off-gas absorber
Distillation column

AMMONIA PROCESS (contd.)


Process Condensate:
Remove ammonia, methanol and CO2 from process condensate
Reduce consumption of demineralisation chemicals
Avoid environmental pollution

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

CATALYSTS
Desulphurization

Reforming

MTS
Conversion

Zinc Oxide

Nickel Oxide

Copper Oxide

Ammonia
Synthesis

Methanation

LTS
Conversion

Iron Oxide

Nickel Oxide

Copper Oxide

COMPARISON OF AMMONIA PLANTS


FFC-1

PARAMETERS

FFC-2

FFC-3

Steam Super heater

Fuel

Waste Heat

Fuel

Shift Converter

HTSC

MTSC

HTSC

CO2 Removal

Benfield

aMDEA

Benfield

Ammonia Synthesis
Pressure Kg/cm2

250

145

250

Synthesis Reaction
Heat

BFW
Preheating

Steam
Production

BFW
Preheating

NH3 Recovery

No

Yes

Yes

Hydrogen Recovery

No

Yes

No

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT
HIERARCHY
HOP

PM1

PM2

DM-AMM I

DM
UTILITY

DM-UREA I

DM-AMM II

DM-UREA II

DM
BAGGING

Shift Engr
Amm

Shift Engr
Uty

Shift Engr
Urea

Shift Engr
Amm

Shift Engr
Urea

Shift Engr
Bagging

JOB DESCRIPTION OF SHIFT


ENGINEER
Shift Engineer is the overall incharge of his shift
group. He is responsible to ensure safe, smooth and

efficient operation of assigned unit. He actively


participates in trouble shooting plant problems,

smooth startup, shutdowns & emergency handling.

JOB RESPONSIBITES OF
SHIFT ENGINEER
Supervision of his team for smooth, effective and safe
Plant Operations.
Ensure implementation of work permit procedures for
safe handing/taking over of equipments and machines.
Optimization of plant parameters to ensure minimum
specific energy and chemicals consumption.
Any other task assigned by the supervisor

THANK YOU