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Personality

Different
personality
clip

Different well-known personalities

Personalitys

People differ from one another in ways that are relatively consistent over time and place

Personality
Personality is the sum total of
ways in which an individual REACTS
and INTERACTS with others.

Personality
Personality represents the sum total of
several attributes which manifest them
self in an individual, the ability of
individual to organise and integrates
all the qualities so as to give meaning
to life and uniqueness of the situation
which influence behavior of an
individual.

Definitions

Personality means how a person


affects
others
and
how
he
understands and view himself as well
as the pattern of inner and outer
measurable traits and person-situation
interaction
Fred Luthans

Definitions
personality
is
made
up
the
characteristic patterns of thoughts,
feelings, and behaviors that make a
person unique
Personality
includes
external
appearance and behaviour, inner
awareness of self as a permanent
organizing force and the particular
pattern or organization of measurable
traits, both inner and outer
Floyd L. Ruch

Features of personality
Each person is unique and distinct
Each person has some stable patterns
of behaviours and consistent internal
state
Personality, thus have both internal
and external elements

situations

Situation 1 :Suppose that you are new to the


organisation, and not familiar to your
colleague. You get a chance to interact with
them in this party.

What will you do in this situation?


a) You will take the initiative to talk
b) Feel strange and nervous so will not talk
with others
c) You will wait for someone else to talk to
you
d) you will stand and smile to others.

Situation 2 :

a)
b)
c)

d)

If you go in a shopping mall, and you like


one t-shirt,
What would be your action?
You will immediately buy it
You will take a trial before purchasing.
You will match the price with your budget
and if it matches than only you will
purchase it.
You will look out for the discount shceme

Situation 3 : If you are going for an important meeting . On the way


to the office, you see an accident.
How will you react in this situation?
a) you will take the victim to the hospital
b) you will call the victims family member
and
inform about the accident and will go away from there.
C) you will feel scared about it and will move away
from there.
d) Seen such critical situation, you start crying up.
e) you wont even notice about the accident.

Situation 4 : Shamina mam announcement in the class


that today she is going to take surprise
presentation of the students for the topic
already been explained by her in the
previously lecture.
a) you will readily accept and will present
only if mam will call you
c) you will take the initiative and start
presenting
d) you will hide your face so that you are not
being noticed
e) you will ask for some time to get
information organized and then will present.
f) you will get annoyed of not being informed
earlier.

Situation 5 : If girl is crossing the road, a group of boys


starts harassing her by whistling or by
passing comments or by making faces. If
you are that girl how will you react t that
time?
a) you will go and slap that boy
b) you will complaint to the police authority
c) you wouldnt react and pass by
d) you will call your brother or friend or
boyfriend to threaten that group

Situation 6 : You have been given a group project. You


have made a mistake in between and only
you are aware of it. How will you react on it?
a) you will confess that you have made the
mistake.
b) you will held someone else to be
responsible for the mistake
c) you will try to find out the solution for it
d) you will keep mum all through out the
project.

Determinants of Personality

Culture

Family
Environment

Personality
Social

Situational

Heredity

What Determines The Personality?

Heredity Environment Situation

Heredity
Examples

Abhishek bachchan
Kapoors and Deols family
Twins

Heredity
The ultimate explanation of an
individuals personality is the
molecular structure of the genes
located in the chromosome
(Transmission of qualities from the
parents to the children)
Heredity determines persons physical
stature, facial attractiveness, muscle
composition, temperament than his
values and ideals

Environment
Culture
It is a unique system of perceptions,
beliefs, values, norms, patterns of
behaviour and a code of conduct that
influence the behaviour of individuals
in a given society
Culture established the norms,
attitudes, and values that are passed
along from generation to generation.

Environment
Family
Socio economic level of family
Family size
Birth order
Parents educational level

Environment
Social
The contribution of family and social
groups in combination with the culture
is known as socialisation
There are some norms and laws of
every society in which the individual
exists.
Much of behaviour arises out of the
respect for these norms and laws.

Environment
Situational
Situation exerts an important pressure
on the individuals, it exercises
constraints and may provide push
In certain circumstances, it is not so
mush the kind of person a man is, as
the kind of situation in which he is
placed, that determines his action.

Environment
Examples
Sita-gita
Mogali,
Govinda jis desh me ganga rehta he

situation
Examples

John Abraham Amir khan


-

New York movie


lagan movie

Theories of Personality

Trait
Type
Psychoanalytic
Social learning
Humanistic

Trait Perspective
No hidden personality dynamics
just basic personality dimensions
Personality on the basics of individuals trait
Traits - peoples characteristic
behaviors & conscious motives

How do we describe & classify different personalities?


(Type A vs Type B or Depressed vs Cheerful?)

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - classify people


based upon responses to 126 questions

Traits

Allport and Cattell isolate the traits


Allport - 17,953
Cattell 171 then to 16
These 16 are called source or primary
traits

Primary traits personality


Reserved
Less intelligent

vs.
vs.

Affected by feeling vs.

Submissive
Serious
Expedient
Timid
Tough-minded

vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.

Outgoing
More intelligent
Emotionaly stable
Dominant
Happy-go-lucky
Conscientious
Venturesome
Sensitive

Primary traits personality

Trusting
Practical
Forthright
Self-assured
Conservative
Group-Dependent
Uncontrolled
Relaxed

vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.

Suspicious
Imaginative
Shrewd
Apprehensive
Experimenting
Self-Sufficient
Controlled
Tense

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


Type of Social
Interaction

Extrovert (E)

Preference for
Gathering Data

Sensing (S)

Preference for
Decision Making
Style of
Decision Making

Introvert (I)

Intuitive (N)
Feeling (F)
Thinking (T)
Perceptive (P)
Judgmental (J)

Extraversion

Introversion
Interest Orientation

Talkative,

Shy,

Sociable,

Reserved,

Friendly,

Quite,

Outspoken

Sensing

iNtuition
Perception

Organised,

Less Regular,

Practical,

Unconscious,

Focus Detail.

Focus Big
Picture

Feeling

Thinking
Judgment

Reliability of
logical order
cause and
effect,

Apathy

Priorities
based on
personal
importance
and values,
Sympathy

Judgment

Perception
Environment Orientation

Judging
attitude
Control of
events and
systematic
planning

Spontaneity
Curious,
awaiting
events and
adapting to
them,
Flexible

ISTJ
Take Your Time
and Do It Right

ISFJ

INFJ

On My Honor, to
Catalyst for
Do My Duty Positive Change

INTJ
Competence +
Independence =
Perfection

ISTP

ISFP

INFP

INTP

Doing the Best I


Can With What
Ive Got

Its the Thought


That Counts

Still Waters Run


Deep

Ingenious
Problem Solvers

ENFP

ENTP

Anythings
Possible

Lifes
Entrepreneurs

ESTP

ESFP

Lets Get Busy! Dont Worry, Be


Happy

ESTJ

ESFJ

ENFJ

ENTJ

Taking Care of
Business

What Can I Do
For You?

The Public
Relations
Specialist

Everythings
Fine Im in
Charge

Conscientiousness
Extroversion

Emotional
stability

Agreeableness

Openness to
Experiance

Extraversion

Agreeableness

The
Big Five
Personality
Model

Conscientiousness

Emotional Stability

Openness to Experience

The Big Five Personality Dimensions


Extraversion:

Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive

Agreeableness:

Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft


hearted

Conscientiousness: Dependable, responsible, achievement


oriented, persistent

Emotional stability: Relaxed, secure, unworried


Openness to experience: Intellectual, imaginative, curious,
broad minded

Research finding: Conscientiousness is the best (but not a


strong) predictor of job performance

Type theory
Individuals are categorized depending upon their
physical characteristics( kretschmer &sheldon)
Personality classification
Body build
Psychological factor.
Body build
Short or plumb body - sociable, relaxed
Tall and thin
- self-conscious ,restrained
Heavy set muscular - Noisy, callous, fond of
physical activities

Type theory
Carl Jung - divided all personality into
Psychological factor.

introverts
extroverts
Introverts avoid social contacts and
interaction with others, quite and enjoy
solitude.
Extroverts- sociable, friendly, aggressive
etc.
Ambiverts.

Psychoanalytic Perspective
first comprehensive theory of personality
University of Vienna 1873
Voracious Reader
Medical School Graduate

(1856-1939)
Specialized in Nervous
Disorders
Some patients disorders
had no physical cause!

Psychoanalytic Approach
Conscious - all things we are aware of
at any given moment
Preconscious - everything that can,
with a little effort, be brought into
consciousness
Unconscious
inaccessible
warehouse
of
anxiety-producing
thoughts and drives

Psychoanalytic Approach
Human behaviour is influenced more by unseen
forces than conscious and rational thoughts
To understand the conscious and unconscious
forces guiding an individuals behavior, Freud
developed a personality model. He divided the
personality into three elements: the id, the ego
and the superego. These elements are not
physical structures found in the brain, instead
they represent a general model of personality that
describes the interaction of various behaviors and
drives that motivate us.

The Unconscious
the mind is like an iceburg - mostly hidden

Conscious Awareness
small part above surface
(Preconscious)

Unconscious
below the surface
(thoughts, feelings,
wishes, memories)

Repression

banishing unacceptable
thoughts & passions to
unconscious
Dreams & Slips

Freud & Personality Structure


Id

- energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives


Pleasure Principle
Ego

- seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways


Reality Principle
Super
Ego

Ego

Id

Super Ego

- voice of conscience
that focuses on how
we ought to behave
(Perfection)

Psychoanalytic Approach
The id refers to the raw, unorganized, inherited
part of the personality. Its main goal is to reduce
tension created by our primitive drives which are
related to hunger, sex, aggression and irrational
impulses. The id operates according to the
pleasure principle, in which its goal is immediate
gratification and reduction of tension. In most
people, reality prevents the ids instant demands
from being fulfilled. We cannot always eat when
we are not hungry, and we can act on sexual
drives only in the right place and time.

Psychoanalytic Approach
The ego is the buffer between the id and the worlds
realities. The ego operates on the reality principle. In
this principle, instinctual energy is restrained in order
to maintain the safety of the individual and help
integrate the person into society. The ego is
sometimes called the executive of an individuals
personality. The ego makes the decisions, controls
actions and allows for a higher capability of problem
solving. The id is not capable of such higher level of
thinking. The ego is responsible for the higher
cognitive
functions
such
as
intelligence,
thoughtfulness and learning.

Psychoanalytic Approach
The superego is the final element of
Freuds model of personality. It is
similar to the id in that it is somewhat
unrealistic. The superego represents
the rights and wrongs of the society as
handed down to an individual over
their lifetime. The superego has two
subparts: the conscience and the egoideal.
The conscience prevents us from
doing morally bad things.
The ego-ideal motivates us to do what
is morally proper.

Psychoanalytic Divisions of the Mind


Id - instinctual drives present at birth
does not distinguish between reality
and fantasy
operates according to the pleasure
principle

Ego - develops out of the id in infancy


understands reality and logic
mediator between id and superego

Superego
internalization of societys moral
standards
responsible for guilt

Social-Cognitive Perspective
Behavior learned through
conditioning & observation

What we think about our situation


affects our behavior

Interaction of
Environment & Intellect

Reciprocal Determinism
Personal/
Cognitive
Factors

Environment
Factors
Internal World + External World = Us

Behavior

The Humanistic Perspective


Maslows
Self-Actualizing
Person

Carl Rogers
Person-Centered
Perspective

Healthy rather than Sick


Individual as greater than the sum of test scores

Self theory
Self image- one sees one self
Ideal-self what one would like to
look
like
Looking glass self - How others are
perceiving
Real self what one actual is

Maslow & Self-Actualization


Self-Actualization
the process of fufilling our potential

Esteem
Love Needs
Safety

Physiological

As per 11th Edition

Locus
of Control

Machiavellian
Personality

Risk
Propensity

Self-Esteem

Other Key
Personality
Attributes

Proactive Personality

Self
Monitoring

Type A
Personality

As per 11th Edition

As per 11th Edition

JULIAN ROTTER

As per 11th Edition

Locus of Control

Internal locus of control: belief that one controls


key events and consequences in ones life.

External locus of control: Ones life outcomes


attributed to environmental factors such
as luck or fate.

As per 11th Edition

EXTERNALS

INTERNALS

Relationship Between LOC &


some other factors
Job Satisfaction

LOC

Absenteeism

Turnover

As per 11th Edition

FACTORS

INTERNALS

EXTERNALS

Job
Satisfaction

Satisfied

More
dissatisfied

Absenteeism

Less
absenteeism

Turnover

No clear
relationship

Depends on
their luck or
chance
Depends on
their luck or
chance

As per 11th Edition

COMPARISION BETWEEN
INTERNALS & EXTERNALS
INTERNALS
Better job
performance
Attempt to
control their
environment
Good decision
maker

EXTERNALS
More compliant
Follow direction

As per 11th Edition

JOB SUITABILITY

INTERNALS

EXTERNALS

Sophisticated task

Structured jobs

Professional jobs

Routine jobs

Managerial jobs

As per 11th Edition

JOB SUITABILITY

Judge of court

-Internals

Teacher of driving school

-Externals

Watchman

-Externals

Financial adviser

-Internals

CEO of any co

-Internals

Salesman

-internals

Call center

-Externals

Named after Niccolo Machiavelli

Characteristics: Pragmatic
Maintains emotional distance
Believes that ends can justify the means

As 11th per Edition

High Machs

Manipulate more
Win more
Persuaded less
Persuade others more

High Machs persuaded by :Persuaded by 3 factors

1. Face-to-face interaction
2. Situation having minimum number
of rules & regulations ,allowing
latitude for improvisation
3. Emotional involvement with
details irrelevant

Job suitability
For High Machs
Job requiring bargaining skills ( such
as labor negotiation )
Or that offer substantial rewards for
winning ( as commissioned sales )

Self Esteem

The degree to which a person likes


or dislikes himself

It is directly related to expectations for


success

Two types:1. High Self Esteem


2. Low self Esteem

High Self Esteem


They believe that they possess the
ability they need to succeed at work
Will take more risks in job selection
And more likely to choose
unconventional jobs than people with
low self esteem
They will not be susceptible to the
external influences
They are more satisfied with their job

Self-Monitoring
Ability to adjust ones behaviour to
external ,situational factors

High self monitoring


Capable of presenting striking
contradictions between their public
persona & private self
Tend to pay closer behaviour of others
& more capable of conforming than
low self monitoring
Capable of putting different faces for
different audiences

Low Self Esteem


They seek appreciation from others

Seek approval from others and try to


conform to the beliefs and behaviours
of those they respect
They try to please others and
therefore they would not take
unpopular stands than are high SEs

Personality Attributes
influencing OB

Risk Taking

Quick Decision making


Specific to jobs (stocks) (accounts)

Personality Attributes
influencing OB

A & B Types of Personality


Type A

Suffer high level of stress


Quantity over quality
Time pressure/deadlines
Rarely creative
Poor decision makers
Behavior is easier to
predict

Type B
Difficult to predict
behavior
Good decision makers
Quality of work
No compromise on
health
Wiser than hasty
Creative / innovative
solutions to same
problem

Occupational Personality Types

Conventional

Hollands Personality-Job Fit Theory


Type

Personality

Occupations

Realistic

Shy, Stable, Practical

Mechanic, Farmer,
Assembly-Line Worker

Investigative

Analytical, Independent

Biologist, Economist,
Mathematician

Social

Sociable, Cooperative

Social Worker,
Teacher, Counselor

Conventional

Practical, Efficient

Accountant, Manager
Bank Teller

Enterprising

Ambitious, Energetic

Lawyer, Salesperson

Artistic

Imaginative, Idealistic

Painter, Writer,
Musician

Extoversion - aggressive, team-oriented culture


Agreeableness - supportive organizational climate

Openess to experience - inovation oriented organization

Darshak Shah

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