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Tripoli University

PETROLEUM SEMINAR FOR

Hydraulic fracturing

CONTENT

Introduction
The objective of the hydraulic fracturing
Fracture Mechanism
Fracture Orientation
Fracturing fluids
Types of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids
Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing
Example problem
References

Introduction

Hydraulic fracture can be defined as process of


creating a fracturing in a porous medium by
injecting a fluid under pressure through a well bore
in order to overcome native stresses and to cause
material failure of the porous medium.

Hydraulic fracturing was introduced first in the


Hugoton gas field in western Kansas in 1947.
Fracturing techniques were developed in 1948 and
the first commercial fracturing treatments were
conduced in 1949. And the within a very few years
thousands of wells per year were being stimulation
by hydraulic fracturing treatment.

Continue

Nature

of hydraulic fracturing is a process


applied to improve the ability of
hydrocarbon fluids to flow to the hole and
be recovered.
Hydraulic fracturing has been and will
remain one of the primary engineering
tools for improving well productivity in old
and new wells.
Fracturing has been used in some types of
the formation such as sandstone and
carbonates.

The objective of the hydraulic


fracturing:
There are many different applications for
hydraulic fracturing, such as :
Increase the flow rate of oil and/or gas
from low permeability reservoir.
Increase the flow rate of oil and/or gas
from wells that have
been damaged.
Connect the natural fractures and/or
cleats in a formation to the well bore.
Decrease the pressure drop around the
well to minimize sand production.

Continue

5.

6.

7.

Decrease the pressure drop around the


well to minimize problems with
asphaltine and/or paraffin deposition.
Increase the area of drainage or the
amount of formation in
contact with
the well bore.
Connect the full vertical extent of a
reservoir to a slanted or horizontal well.

Fracture Mechanism

Fracture Mechanism can be divided into


two steps:

1.

Fracture Initiation.

2.

Fracture Extension.

In-situ stress
Underground formation are confined and under
stress. Figure.1 illustrates the local stress state at
depth for an element of formation. The stresses can
be divided into 3 principal stresses. In Figure. 1, z is
the vertical stress, x is the maximum horizontal
stress, while y is the minimum horizontal stress

z Gob D
Where:
z = Over burden stress, psi.
Gob = Overburden gradient, psi/ft.
D = Depth, ft.

Fracture Orientation

A hydraulic fracture will propagate perpendicular


to the least principle stress Figure. (2).

As a rule of thumb, if the fracture gradient is less


than 0.8 psi/ft, the fracture will be vertical. If the
fracture gradient is greater than 1.0 psi/ft, the
fracture will be horizontal.

Horizontal fractures

A vertical fracture

Fracturing fluids

To select the proper fluid for a specific well it is


necessary to understand the properties of fluids.
The fluid design must be considered these
characteristics:

1.

Low leak off rate .


The ability of the fluid to carry the propping
agent .
Friction loss .
Fluid viscosity.

2.
3.

4.

Types of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids


1)
2)

3)

4)
5)

Water-Base fluids .
Oil-base fluids:
Napalm gels ,viscous refined oil and lease
crude oils
Acid based fluids .
Foams .
Emulsions .

Propping agents

Propping agents are required to (prop-open) the


fracture once the pumps are shut down and the
fracture begins to close. The ideal propping
agent will be strong, resistant to crushing,
resistant to corrosion, have a low density, and
readily available at low cost. The products that
best meet these desired traits are silica sand,
resin-coated sand, and ceramic proppant.

Modeling of the hydraulic fracturing

The first fracture treatments were pumped just to


see if a fracture could be created and if sand could
be pumped into the fracture. In 1955, Howard and
Fast published the first mathematical model that an
engineer could use to design a fracture treatment.
2D fracture model:
The Howard and Fast model was a twodimensional (2D) model. In the following years,
other 2D models were published. When using a 2D
model, the engineer fixes one of the dimensions
(normally the fracture height), then calculates the
width and length of the fracture.

This Figure is shows the PKN geometry and its


normally used when the fracture length is much
greater than the fracture height.

The KGD geometry is used if the length of fracture is


less than the height.

3D

fracture model
Pseudo three-dimensional (P-3D).
Planar three-dimensional (PL-3D).
Fully three-dimensional (3D).

Example

We will select KGD model to explain to the


design of hydraulic fracture.

A fracturing treatment is intended to be


conducted in an oil well completed in a tight
limestone formation in order to increase the oil
production rate from the well from 200 BPD to
600 BPD. Given the following information

DEPTH.

12,000 FT

Formation thickness

80 ft

Minimum horizontal stress

4185 psi

Over burden pressure gradient

1.1 psi/ft

Fracturing angle

30 degree

Reservoir oil compressibility

1110-6 psi-1

Reservoir water compressibility

2 10-6 psi-1

Reservoir gas compressibility

5.3010-4 psi-1

Gas saturation

0%

Oil saturation

75 %

Gas gravity

0.890

Oil formation volume factor

1.17 resbbl/STB

Connate water saturation

25%

Formation porosity

25 %

Poisson's ratio

0.2

Fracturing fluid viscosity

6 cp

Fracturing fluid density (versa Gel)

12 ppg

Frictional pressure gradient inside tubing

0.1501 psi/ft

Original formation permeability

5 md

AVERAGE RESERVOIR PRESSURE (BHSP)

4000 PSI

Reservoir fluids viscosity

2 cp

Area of filter medium

45 cm2

Slop of fluid loss curve at lab

1.5 cm/min 1/2

Filtration pressure at lab

100 psi

Yong's modulus

3107

Casing outer diameter

9.6250 in

Casing inner diameter

8.6810 in

Well bore radius

0.292 in

Drainage radius

745 ft

Proppant size and type (Z-proppant)

20/40 mesh

Porosity of packed proppant

35 %

Specific gravity of proppant

2.63

Bottom hole flowing pressure before fracturing

1200 psi

Biot constant

0.8

Initiation shear stress

650 psi

Fracturing fluid spurt loss

0.010 gal/ft2

Tubing outer diameter

3.5 in

Tubing inner diameter

2.9910 in

Assume that:
hf = h , qi =30 bbl/min ,Vi = 900 bbls
Calculate:
1. The formation fracturing pressure.
2. The effective fracturing fluid coefficient.
3. The fracture volume.
4. The fracture efficiency.
5. The concentration of proppant in the fracturing
fluid.
6. Well head injection pressure.
7. The well productivity ratio.
8. The bottom hole flowing pressure after
fracturing.
9. The oil flow rate after fracturing

Calculation

of fracturing pressure (pf ):

Pob (z) = Gob X D = 1.1 X 1200 = 12,300Psi

Pf


2
Pp
z
1

2 1 2

Where:
= Poisson's ratio.
= Initiation shear stress.
= Biot constant

Pp

Continue
0.2

13200
4000

650

0.2

4000 7,750
Pf

2 0.8 1 2 0.2

1 0.2

Psi

Calculation of fracturing fluid coefficient (CT):

CT
1

1
1
Cc

Cw

P (Closure stress) = Pf -Pres = 7,750 4,000


= 3,750 Psi.
Viscosity control coefficient, C:
C 0.0469
Where:

ff

k P

ff

= Fracturing fluid viscosity

C 0.0469

0.0050.25 3750

0.04145 ft / min

Calculate total compressibility Ct:


Ct = Sw x Cw + So x Co + Sg x Cg
Ct = (0.25 x 2 x 10-6) + (0.75 8. x 11 x 10-6) +
(530 x 10-6 x 0.0)
Ct = 8.75 x 10-6 Psi -1
Compressibility control of reservoir fluids, Cc:
Cc 0.0374 3750

0.005 0.25 8.750 10 6

Wall building coefficient, Cw:

0.0164
mact
Cw

A
f

0.01037 ft / min

mact mlab

Pact
Plab

mact 1.5 3750 9.186cm / min


100

0.0164
9.186 0.00335
Cw

45

1
CT
1
1

0.04145 0.01037

ft / min

0.00239

0.00335

ft / min

Calculation of fracturing dimension ( L,Wf )


Pumping time t

Vi

q
i

t Vi 900 30 min
qi
30

C
T t

ww 8 Sp

0.1856
8 CT t 8 0.00239 30

ww 8 Sp
8 0.01 0.262 ww 0.0107

ww

12
7.48

The Fracture length (L):


qi 5.615
8 Sp e 2 .erfc( ) 2 1

L
w
w

7.48

64 hf CT2 12

3
0

5.615
8

0.01

e .erfc( ) 2 1
L

w
w

7.48

64 80 0.00239 2 12

2
0.262 ww 0.011 e .erfc(

L 2571

)
1

The Fracture area (A):


A = 4 x L x hf = 4 x 80 x L = 320 x L.
A
A
A

AQ

q
2

3
0

5.615
336
.9

Assume ww, Calculate: L, A, AQ.

Assume ww, Calculate: L, A, AQ.

WW
ASSUM
E

CAL.

0.05

7.798

0.2

2
e

1
.erfc
(
)

L
CAL.

A
CAL.

AQ
CAL.

7.87087

334

110,080

327

2.941

2.50205

290

92,800

275

0.4

1.607

1.11824

237

75,840

225

0.6

1.105

0.64740

199

63,680

189

0.8

0.842

0.42495

172

55,040

163

1.0

0.681

0.30190

151

48,320

143

Calculate Fracture width ( ww ).


ww

0.350

ff qi L
E' hf

E
'

E
2
1

3 107
'
3.125 107 Psi
E
2
1

0
.
2

40

15

ww 0.350
7
1.099 10 95

Assume L/re, Calculate: A, AQ, ww :


L= L/re x re = L/re x 745
A = 4 x L x hf = 4 x 80 x L = 320 x L
A
AQ
2 qi


A
A

2 30 5.615 336.9

L/re
Assume

L
Cal.

ww
Cal.

A
Cal.

AQ
Cal.

0.2

149

0.069

47,680

142

0.4

298

0.099

95,360

283

0.6

447

0.121

143,040

425

0.8

596

0.140

190,720

566

1.0

745

0.156

238,400

708

(in)

300
(Min/ft)

Plotted (ww vs. AQ) on Log-Log scale. The intercept


of two lines given solution:
ww= 0.1 in , AQ = 300 min / ft
From AQ equation:
A
AQ
2 qi

A=AQ x 2 x qi x 5.615

A = 300 x 2 x 30 x 5.615 = 101,070 ft2

L A
4 hf

101,070

4 80 316

ft

The fracturing dimension: (L= 316 ft, ww= 0.1 in).

Calculation of fracture volume (Vf ):


Vf L hf ww
2

Vf 316 80 0.1 330.7 ft 3


2
12

Calculation of fracture efficiency (Eff ):


Vf 330.7
100 6.54 %
Eff

Vi 900 5.615

Calculation of proppant weight needed (Wp):


Wp Vf 1 Vf (1 ) Sp.Gr 62.4

Wp 330.7 (1 0.35) 2.6362.4 35277 lbm

Calculation of proppant concentration (Cpp):


Cpp Wpp 35,277 0.933 lbm/gal (ppg)
Vi 900 42

Calculation of wellhead injection pressure:


Pth = Pwh = Pf Phydrostatic + Pfric + Pperf
Corrected fracturing fluid density ( mix ):

8.34 12 0.933
8.34
8.34 f Cpp

mix.
12.405

1 0.0456 Cpp 1 0.0456 0.933

lbm / gal

A)Pf =7,750 Psi.


B) Phyd = 0.052 x mix x D = 0.052 x 12.405
x12,000 = 7,741 Psi
C)Pfric= Gfric x D = 0.1501 x 12,000 =1,801 Psi
D)Pperf = 0.0 Psi open hole completion.
Pth = Pwh = 7750 7741 + 1801 + 0 = 1810 Psi

103

Calculation of fracture conductivity (Fc): ,


Fc = kf x Wf .
By using propped fracture permeability curves.
From curves; by using closure stress = 3750 Psi &
20/40 mesh.
The propped fracture permeability is 160 Darcy.

Kf = 160 x103 md
Fc 160 103 0.1 1,047 md ft
12 4

Calculation of production increase:


Relative conductivity,

0.1 160 10 3

Jf

Jo

Wf kf

ke

40
A

40 2225
51

L/re =316 / 745 =0.42


Entering the production increase curves with these
values.
Obtained the

Jf
7.13
Jo 0.472 re
ln


rw

3.2

Jf

Jo

Then,

3.2 ln 0.472 745

0.929

7.13

2.66

Productivity ratio = 2.66


Construct of IPR curve before fracturing.
PI

PI =

3
k h
7.08 10

re
Bo ln

r
w

7.08 10 3 5 80
745
2 1.17 ln
0.292

PI

Pe Pwf

q PI (Pe Pwf )

=0.154 BPD/Psi

0.154 ( 4,000 Pwf )

PWF, ASSUME

Q, (BPD)

4000

3,000

154

2,000

308

1,000

462

616

Construct tubing intake curve. By using Brown correlation


Q

PTH

PWF

800

120

1,390

1,000

160

1,520

2,000

280

2,000

From the intersection of IPR curve with the tubing


intake curve TPC.
qo optimum before fracturing = 440 BPD
Pwf optimum before fracturing = 1200 Psi
Construct of IPR curve after fracturing.

qo
Jf q f

=2.66
Jo Pe Pwf ' Pe Pwf
qf

440

2.66

4000

P
wf '
4000

1200

PWF' , ASSUME

QF , (BPD)

4000

3,000

544

2,000

1,088

1,000

1,632

2,176

From IPR curve and tubing intake curve after fracturing


qf optimum after fracturing = 1270 BPD.
Pwf ' optimum after fracturing =1640 psi.:

1640
1200

440

1270

References:
Reservoir

Stimulation.
Production Operation.
Howard and Fast Hydraulic Fracturing.
Petroleum Engineering Hand Book.