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Thyristor Converters or Controlled Converters

:-The controlled rectifier circuit is divided into three main circuits


Power Circuit

Control Circuit

Triggering circuit

The commutation of thyristor is


Natural Commutation

Forced Commutation

Half Wave Single Phase Controlled Rectifier With Resistive Load

Vdc

Vm
Vm
1

Vm sin(t ) dt
( cos cos( ))
(1 cos )
2
2
2

Vdm Vm /

Vn Vdc / Vm 0.5 (1 cos )

Vrms

1
Vm 1
sin(2 )
2
Vm sin( t ) d t

2
2
2

Example 1 In the rectifier shown in Fig.3.1 it has a load of R=15 and,


Vs=220 sin 314 t and unity transformer ratio. If it is required to obtain an
average output voltage of 70% of the maximum possible output voltage,
calculate:- (a) The firing angle, (b) The efficiency, (c) Ripple factor (d)
Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of the thyristor

Vdc
Vn
0.5 (1 cos ) 0.7
Vdm
Vdc 49.02
Vm
I dc

3.268 A
Vdc 0.7 * Vdm 0.7 *
49.02 V
R
15

Vm 1
sin( 2 )
o
=66.42
, Vrms=95.1217V
Vrms

2
2

, Irms=95.122/15=6.34145A

Pdc
Vdc * I dc
49.02 * 3.268

26.56%
Pac Vrms * I rms 95.121 * 6.34145

Vrms 95.121

FF

1.94
Vdc
49.02 2 2
Vac
RF
FF 2 1 1.94 2 1 1.6624
Vdc

The PIV is Vm

Half Wave Single Phase Controlled Rectifier With RL Load

Fig.3.4 Half wave single phase controlled rectifier with RL load.

Single-Phase Center Tap Controlled Rectifier With Resistive Load

Fig.3.8 Center tap controlled rectifier with resistive load.

Vdc

Vm
Vm
1
Vm sin( t ) d t
( cos cos( ))
(1 cos )

Vdc
Vn
0.5 (1 cos )
Vdm
Vrms

Vm sin( t )

Vm
d t
2

sin( 2 )

2

Example 4 The rectifier shown in Fig.3.8 has load of


R=15 and, Vs=220 sin 314 t and unity transformer
ratio. If it is required to obtain an average output voltage
of 70 % of the maximum possible output voltage,
calculate:- (a) The delay angle, (b) The efficiency, (c)
The ripple factor (d) The peak inverse voltage (PIV) of
the thyristor.

Vdc
Vn
0.5 (1 cos ) 0.7
Vdm

Vm 220 , then, Vdc 0.7 *Vdm

I dc

then, =66.42o
2 Vm
0.7 *
98.04 V

Vm
Vdc 98.04

6.536 A Vrms
R
15
2

sin(2 )

2

at =66.42o Vrms=134.638 V. Then, Irms=134.638/15=8.976 A

Pdc
V *I
98.04 * 6.536
dc dc
53.04%
Pac Vrms * I rms 134.638 * 8.976

Vrms 134.638
FF

1.3733
Vdc
98.04

Vac
2
2
RF
FF 1 1.3733 1 0.9413
Vdc

The PIV is 2 Vm

Single-Phase Fully Controlled Rectifier Bridge With Resistive Load

Fig.3.11 Single-phase fully controlled rectifier bridge with resistive load.

Vdc

Vm
Vm
1
cos cos( ) (1 cos )

Vm sin( t ) d t

Vn Vdc / Vdm 0.5 (1 cos )

Vrms

Vm sin( t )

Vm
d t
2

sin( 2 )

2

Example 5 The rectifier shown in Fig.3.11 has load of R=15


and, Vs=220 sin 314 t and unity transformer ratio. If it is required
to obtain an average output voltage of 70% of the maximum
possible output voltage, calculate:- (a) The delay angle , (b) The
efficiency, (c) Ripple factor of output voltage(d) The peak inverse
voltage (PIV) of one thyristor.

Vdc
Vn
0.5 (1 cos ) 0.7 , then, =66.42o
Vdm
Vm 220 , then, Vdc 0.7 *Vdm

2 Vm
0.7 *
98.04 V

Vdc 98.04
I dc

6.536 A
R
15
Vm
sin( 2 )
Vrms

2
2

=66.42o Vrms=134.638 V. Then, Irms=134.638/15=8.976 A

Pdc
Vdc * I dc
98.04 * 6.536


53.04%
Pac Vrms * I rms
134.638 * 8.976
Vrms 134.638
FF

1.3733
Vdc
98.04

Vac
2
2
RF
FF 1 1.3733 1 0.9413
Vdc
The PIV is Vm

Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With RL Load In Continuous Conduction Mode

Fig.3.14 Full wave fully controlled rectifier with RL load.

Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With pure DC Load

i (t )

4 Io
1
1
1
1
* (sin t sin 3t sin 5t sin 7t sin 9t ..........)

3
5
7
9

Vdc

2Vm
Vm sin(t ) dt
cos

Vn Vdc / Vdm cos


Vrms

Vm sin( t )

Vm
d t
2

Vm
(1 cos(2 t ) d t 2

Example 6 The rectifier shown in Fig.3.14 has pure DC load


current of 50 A and, Vs=220 sin 314 t and unity transformer ratio.
If it is required to obtain an average output voltage of 70% of the
maximum possible output voltage, calculate:- (a) The delay
angle , (b) The efficiency, (c) Ripple factor (d) The peak inverse
voltage (PIV) of the thyristor and (e) Input displacement factor.

Vdc
Vn
cos 0.7
Vdm

then, =45.5731o= 0.7954

Vm 220 , Vdc 0.7 * Vdm 0.7 * 2 Vm / 98.04 V , Vrms Vm / 2


o

At =45.5731 Vrms=155.563 V. Then, Irms=50 A

Pdc
Vdc * I dc

Pac Vrms * I rms

98.04 * 50

63.02%
155.563 * 50

Vrms 155.563
The PIV is Vm
FF

1.587
Vdc
98.04
Vac
RF
FF 2 1 1.37332 1 1.23195
Vdc

cos 0.7
Input displacement factor.

Single Phase Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With Source Inductance

2Ls
u cos cos

Vm

Vrd
Vdc

4 Ls I o

4 fLs I o
2

actual

Is

Vdc

without sourceinduc tan ce

2
2I o

2 3

I s1
u

p. f
cos
Is
2

Vrd

2Vm

cos 4 fLs I o

8I o
u
I S1
* sin
2
2 u

Inverter Mode Of Operation

Fig.3.25 Single phase SCR inverter.

.Fig.3.27 SCR inverter with a DC voltage source

2
E d Vd Vdo cos Ls I d

Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier with Resistive Load

Fig.3.31 Three phase half wave controlled rectifier.

30

30
3

Vdc

5 / 6

3 3 Vm
Vm sin t d t 2 cos 0.827Vm cos
/ 6

VLL cos 0.675VLL cos


2
I dc

3 3 Vm
0.827 * Vm

cos
cos
2 * *R
R

Vrms
I rms

2
3 Vm

5 / 6

Vm sin t

d t 3 Vm

/ 6

1
3

cos 2
6 8

Ir IS

1
3

cos 2
6 8

I rms

Vm

R
3

1
3

cos 2
6 8

> 30

> 30
3
Vdc
2

I dc

Vm sin t dt

/ 6

3 Vm
2





0.4775Vm 1 cos
6

6

1 cos

3 Vm

1 cos

2 R
6

Vrms

I rms

3
5

1
2

Vm sin t d t 3 Vm

sin( / 3 2 )

2 / 6
24 4 8

3 Vm

Ir IS

5
1

sin( / 3 2 )
24 4 8

I rms

Vm

R
3

5
1

sin( / 3 2 )
24 4 8

Example 7 Three-phase half-wave controlled rectfier is connected to 380 V


three phase supply via delta-way 380/460V transformer. The load of the
rectfier is pure resistance of 5 . The delay angle 25o . Calculate: The
rectfication effeciency (b) PIV of thyristors

3
3
VLL cos
460 cos 25 281.5V
2
2
Vdc 281.5

56.3 A
1
3
R
5

Vdc
I dc

Vrms 2 VLL *

6 8

cos 2

1
3
2 * 460 *

cos 2 * 25 298.8 V
6 8

I rms

Vrms 298.8

59.76 A
R
5

Vdc I dc

*100 88.75%
Vrms I rms

Example 8 Solve the previous example (evample 7) if the firing angle 60 o

Vdc

3 Vm

I dc

cos

2
* 460
3


1 cos 179.33 V

2
6 3

Vdc 179.33

35.87 A
R
5

From (3.65) we can calculate Vrms as following:

5
1

sin( / 3 2 ) 230V
24 4 8
Vrms 230

46 A
R
5

Vrms 3 Vm

I rms

Vdc I dc

*100 60.79 %
Vrms I rms
PIV 2 VLL 2 * 460 650.54 V

Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier With DC Load Current

Fig.3.36 Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier With DC Load Current

t=0

bn

2 / 3

I dc sin( n t ) d t

2 I dc
2n
1

cos

n
3

2 I dc 3
Then, bn
*
n 2
And

bn 0

3I dc
i p (t )

THD

THD

for n=1,2,4,5,7,8,10,..

For n=3,6,9,12

1
1
1
1

sin

sin
2

sin
4

sin
5

sin
7

......

2
4
5
7

I 2p I 2p1

3I dc
I p1
2

2
Ip
* I dc
3

I 2p1

2 2
9 2
I dc
I dc
2
3
2
68 %
9 2
I
2 dc
2

1
THD
2

1

4

1

5

1

7

1

8

10

11

13

14

.... 68 %

Example 9 Three phase half wave controlled rectfier is connected to


380 V three phase supply via delta-way 380/460V transformer. The load
of the rectfier draws 100 A pure DC current. The delay angle, 30 o .
Calculate: (a) THD of primary current. (b) Input power factor.
the peak value of primary current is 100 *

2
121.05 *
98.84 A
3

I P, rms

460
121.05 A .
380

3I dc 3 *121.05
I P1

81.74 A
2
2

THD I P
P. f

I P, rms

I P1

I P1
I P, rms

98.84
1 *100

81.74

1 *100 67.98 %

81.74


* cos
* cos 0.414 Lagging
6 98.84

6 6

Three Phase Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With Resistive Load

60

Vdc

Vdm

/ 2

/ 6

3 3 Vm

3 Vm sin( t ) d t
cos
6

3 3 Vm

Vrms

/ 2


3 Vm sin( t 6 )
/ 6

d t 3 Vm

1 3 3


cos 2
2
4

60 o

Vdc

5 / 6

/ 6

3 3 Vm

1 cos / 3
3 Vm sin( t ) d t
6

Vdm

3 3 Vm

Vrms

/ 6

5 / 6

Vdc
Vn
1 cos / 3
Vdm

V
sin(

)
m
6

d t 3Vm 1

2 cos 2
4
6

Example 10 Three-phase full-wave controlled rectifier is connected to


380 V, 50 Hz supply to feed a load of 10 pure resistance. If it is
required to get 400 V DC output voltage, calculate the following: (a) The
firing angle, (b) The rectfication effeciency (c) PIV of the thyristors.

3 3 Vm
3 3
2
Vdc
cos
*
* 380 cos 400V .

R
3
Vdc 400
o
Then 38.79 , I dc

40 A
R
10
From (3.84) the rms value of the output voltage is:
Vrms 3 Vm

1 3 3


cos 2 412.412 V
4
2

Vrms 412.412
Then, Vrms 412.412 V Then, I rms

41.24 A
R
10
Vdc * I dc
400 * 40
Then,
*100
*100 94.07%
Vrms * I rms
412.4 * 41.24
The PIV= 3 Vm=537.4V

.Example 11 Solve the previous example if the required dc voltage is 150V


Solution: From (3.81) the average voltage is :
3 3*
Vdc

2
* 380
3
1 cos / 3 150V

73o

It is not acceptable result because the above equation valid only for

60

Then we have to use the (3.85) to get.

Vdc

3 3 Vm
cos

I dc

Vdc 150

15 A
R
10

3 3*

2
* 380
3
cos 150V

75.05o

:From (3.88) the rms value of the output voltage is


Vrms 3Vm 1
I rms

3

2

* 380 *
2 cos 2 3 *
4
6
3

Vrms 198.075

19.8075 A
R
10

=The PIV

Vm=537.4V

cos 2 * 75.05 30
2 * 75.05 *
4
180

Vdc * I dc
150 *15
*100
*100 57.35 %
Vrms * I rms
198.075 *19.81

Vrms 198.075 V

Three Phase Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With pure DC Load Current

> 60o

2 LS I o
u cos cos

VLL

Vdc

actual

Vdc

2 I o2
IS

without sourceinduc tan ce

u
3 6

Vrd

3 2

VLL cos 6 fLs I o

2 6 Io u
I S1
sin
u
2

2 6 Io u
u
sin
2 3 * sin
I S1
u
u
u
u
2
2

pf
cos
cos
cos
2
IS
2
2
2

u
2Io u
u

3 6
3 6

Inverter Mode of Operation