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# Thyristor Converters or Controlled Converters

## :-The controlled rectifier circuit is divided into three main circuits

Power Circuit

Control Circuit

Triggering circuit

## The commutation of thyristor is

Natural Commutation

Forced Commutation

Vdc

Vm
Vm
1

Vm sin(t ) dt
( cos cos( ))
(1 cos )
2
2
2

Vdm Vm /

Vrms

1
Vm 1
sin(2 )
2
Vm sin( t ) d t

2
2
2

## Example 1 In the rectifier shown in Fig.3.1 it has a load of R=15 and,

Vs=220 sin 314 t and unity transformer ratio. If it is required to obtain an
average output voltage of 70% of the maximum possible output voltage,
calculate:- (a) The firing angle, (b) The efficiency, (c) Ripple factor (d)
Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of the thyristor

Vdc
Vn
0.5 (1 cos ) 0.7
Vdm
Vdc 49.02
Vm
I dc

3.268 A
Vdc 0.7 * Vdm 0.7 *
49.02 V
R
15

Vm 1
sin( 2 )
o
=66.42
, Vrms=95.1217V
Vrms

2
2

, Irms=95.122/15=6.34145A

Pdc
Vdc * I dc
49.02 * 3.268

26.56%
Pac Vrms * I rms 95.121 * 6.34145

Vrms 95.121

FF

1.94
Vdc
49.02 2 2
Vac
RF
FF 2 1 1.94 2 1 1.6624
Vdc

The PIV is Vm

Vdc

Vm
Vm
1
Vm sin( t ) d t
( cos cos( ))
(1 cos )

Vdc
Vn
0.5 (1 cos )
Vdm
Vrms

Vm sin( t )

Vm
d t
2

sin( 2 )

2

## Example 4 The rectifier shown in Fig.3.8 has load of

R=15 and, Vs=220 sin 314 t and unity transformer
ratio. If it is required to obtain an average output voltage
of 70 % of the maximum possible output voltage,
calculate:- (a) The delay angle, (b) The efficiency, (c)
The ripple factor (d) The peak inverse voltage (PIV) of
the thyristor.

Vdc
Vn
0.5 (1 cos ) 0.7
Vdm

I dc

then, =66.42o
2 Vm
0.7 *
98.04 V

Vm
Vdc 98.04

6.536 A Vrms
R
15
2

sin(2 )

2

## at =66.42o Vrms=134.638 V. Then, Irms=134.638/15=8.976 A

Pdc
V *I
98.04 * 6.536
dc dc
53.04%
Pac Vrms * I rms 134.638 * 8.976

Vrms 134.638
FF

1.3733
Vdc
98.04

Vac
2
2
RF
FF 1 1.3733 1 0.9413
Vdc

The PIV is 2 Vm

## Fig.3.11 Single-phase fully controlled rectifier bridge with resistive load.

Vdc

Vm
Vm
1
cos cos( ) (1 cos )

Vm sin( t ) d t

Vrms

Vm sin( t )

Vm
d t
2

sin( 2 )

2

## Example 5 The rectifier shown in Fig.3.11 has load of R=15

and, Vs=220 sin 314 t and unity transformer ratio. If it is required
to obtain an average output voltage of 70% of the maximum
possible output voltage, calculate:- (a) The delay angle , (b) The
efficiency, (c) Ripple factor of output voltage(d) The peak inverse
voltage (PIV) of one thyristor.

Vdc
Vn
0.5 (1 cos ) 0.7 , then, =66.42o
Vdm
Vm 220 , then, Vdc 0.7 *Vdm

2 Vm
0.7 *
98.04 V

Vdc 98.04
I dc

6.536 A
R
15
Vm
sin( 2 )
Vrms

2
2

## =66.42o Vrms=134.638 V. Then, Irms=134.638/15=8.976 A

Pdc
Vdc * I dc
98.04 * 6.536

53.04%
Pac Vrms * I rms
134.638 * 8.976
Vrms 134.638
FF

1.3733
Vdc
98.04

Vac
2
2
RF
FF 1 1.3733 1 0.9413
Vdc
The PIV is Vm

Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With RL Load In Continuous Conduction Mode

## Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With pure DC Load

i (t )

4 Io
1
1
1
1
* (sin t sin 3t sin 5t sin 7t sin 9t ..........)

3
5
7
9

Vdc

2Vm
Vm sin(t ) dt
cos

## Vn Vdc / Vdm cos

Vrms

Vm sin( t )

Vm
d t
2

Vm
(1 cos(2 t ) d t 2

## Example 6 The rectifier shown in Fig.3.14 has pure DC load

current of 50 A and, Vs=220 sin 314 t and unity transformer ratio.
If it is required to obtain an average output voltage of 70% of the
maximum possible output voltage, calculate:- (a) The delay
angle , (b) The efficiency, (c) Ripple factor (d) The peak inverse
voltage (PIV) of the thyristor and (e) Input displacement factor.

Vdc
Vn
cos 0.7
Vdm

o

Pdc
Vdc * I dc

## Pac Vrms * I rms

98.04 * 50

63.02%
155.563 * 50

Vrms 155.563
The PIV is Vm
FF

1.587
Vdc
98.04
Vac
RF
FF 2 1 1.37332 1 1.23195
Vdc

cos 0.7
Input displacement factor.

Single Phase Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With Source Inductance

2Ls
u cos cos

Vm

Vrd
Vdc

4 Ls I o

4 fLs I o
2

actual

Is

Vdc

2
2I o

2 3

I s1
u

p. f
cos
Is
2

Vrd

2Vm

cos 4 fLs I o

8I o
u
I S1
* sin
2
2 u

## .Fig.3.27 SCR inverter with a DC voltage source

2
E d Vd Vdo cos Ls I d

## Fig.3.31 Three phase half wave controlled rectifier.

30

30
3

Vdc

5 / 6

3 3 Vm
Vm sin t d t 2 cos 0.827Vm cos
/ 6

## VLL cos 0.675VLL cos

2
I dc

3 3 Vm
0.827 * Vm

cos
cos
2 * *R
R

Vrms
I rms

2
3 Vm

5 / 6

Vm sin t

d t 3 Vm

/ 6

1
3

cos 2
6 8

Ir IS

1
3

cos 2
6 8

I rms

Vm

R
3

1
3

cos 2
6 8

> 30

> 30
3
Vdc
2

I dc

Vm sin t dt

/ 6

3 Vm
2

0.4775Vm 1 cos
6

6

1 cos

3 Vm

1 cos

2 R
6

Vrms

I rms

3
5

1
2

Vm sin t d t 3 Vm

sin( / 3 2 )

2 / 6
24 4 8

3 Vm

Ir IS

5
1

sin( / 3 2 )
24 4 8

I rms

Vm

R
3

5
1

sin( / 3 2 )
24 4 8

## Example 7 Three-phase half-wave controlled rectfier is connected to 380 V

three phase supply via delta-way 380/460V transformer. The load of the
rectfier is pure resistance of 5 . The delay angle 25o . Calculate: The
rectfication effeciency (b) PIV of thyristors

3
3
VLL cos
460 cos 25 281.5V
2
2
Vdc 281.5

56.3 A
1
3
R
5

Vdc
I dc

Vrms 2 VLL *

6 8

cos 2

1
3
2 * 460 *

cos 2 * 25 298.8 V
6 8

I rms

Vrms 298.8

59.76 A
R
5

Vdc I dc

*100 88.75%
Vrms I rms

Vdc

3 Vm

I dc

cos

2
* 460
3

1 cos 179.33 V

2
6 3

Vdc 179.33

35.87 A
R
5

## From (3.65) we can calculate Vrms as following:

5
1

sin( / 3 2 ) 230V
24 4 8
Vrms 230

46 A
R
5

Vrms 3 Vm

I rms

Vdc I dc

*100 60.79 %
Vrms I rms
PIV 2 VLL 2 * 460 650.54 V

## Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier With DC Load Current

Fig.3.36 Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier With DC Load Current

t=0

bn

2 / 3

I dc sin( n t ) d t

2 I dc
2n
1

cos

n
3

2 I dc 3
Then, bn
*
n 2
And

bn 0

3I dc
i p (t )

THD

THD

for n=1,2,4,5,7,8,10,..

For n=3,6,9,12

1
1
1
1

sin

sin
2

sin
4

sin
5

sin
7

......

2
4
5
7

I 2p I 2p1

3I dc
I p1
2

2
Ip
* I dc
3

I 2p1

2 2
9 2
I dc
I dc
2
3
2
68 %
9 2
I
2 dc
2

1
THD
2

1

4

1

5

1

7

1

8

10

11

13

14

.... 68 %

## Example 9 Three phase half wave controlled rectfier is connected to

380 V three phase supply via delta-way 380/460V transformer. The load
of the rectfier draws 100 A pure DC current. The delay angle, 30 o .
Calculate: (a) THD of primary current. (b) Input power factor.
the peak value of primary current is 100 *

2
121.05 *
98.84 A
3

I P, rms

460
121.05 A .
380

3I dc 3 *121.05
I P1

81.74 A
2
2

THD I P
P. f

I P, rms

I P1

I P1
I P, rms

98.84
1 *100

81.74

1 *100 67.98 %

81.74

* cos
* cos 0.414 Lagging
6 98.84

6 6

Three Phase Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With Resistive Load

60

Vdc

Vdm

/ 2

/ 6

3 3 Vm

3 Vm sin( t ) d t
cos
6

3 3 Vm

Vrms

/ 2

3 Vm sin( t 6 )
/ 6

d t 3 Vm

1 3 3

cos 2
2
4

60 o

Vdc

5 / 6

/ 6

3 3 Vm

1 cos / 3
3 Vm sin( t ) d t
6

Vdm

3 3 Vm

Vrms

/ 6

5 / 6

Vdc
Vn
1 cos / 3
Vdm

V
sin(

)
m
6

d t 3Vm 1

2 cos 2
4
6

## Example 10 Three-phase full-wave controlled rectifier is connected to

380 V, 50 Hz supply to feed a load of 10 pure resistance. If it is
required to get 400 V DC output voltage, calculate the following: (a) The
firing angle, (b) The rectfication effeciency (c) PIV of the thyristors.

3 3 Vm
3 3
2
Vdc
cos
*
* 380 cos 400V .

R
3
Vdc 400
o
Then 38.79 , I dc

40 A
R
10
From (3.84) the rms value of the output voltage is:
Vrms 3 Vm

1 3 3

cos 2 412.412 V
4
2

Vrms 412.412
Then, Vrms 412.412 V Then, I rms

41.24 A
R
10
Vdc * I dc
400 * 40
Then,
*100
*100 94.07%
Vrms * I rms
412.4 * 41.24
The PIV= 3 Vm=537.4V

## .Example 11 Solve the previous example if the required dc voltage is 150V

Solution: From (3.81) the average voltage is :
3 3*
Vdc

2
* 380
3
1 cos / 3 150V

73o

It is not acceptable result because the above equation valid only for

60

Vdc

3 3 Vm
cos

I dc

Vdc 150

15 A
R
10

3 3*

2
* 380
3
cos 150V

75.05o

## :From (3.88) the rms value of the output voltage is

Vrms 3Vm 1
I rms

3

2

* 380 *
2 cos 2 3 *
4
6
3

Vrms 198.075

19.8075 A
R
10

=The PIV

Vm=537.4V

cos 2 * 75.05 30
2 * 75.05 *
4
180

Vdc * I dc
150 *15
*100
*100 57.35 %
Vrms * I rms
198.075 *19.81

Vrms 198.075 V

Three Phase Full Wave Fully Controlled Rectifier With pure DC Load Current

> 60o

2 LS I o
u cos cos

VLL

Vdc

actual

Vdc

2 I o2
IS

u
3 6

Vrd

3 2

2 6 Io u
I S1
sin
u
2

2 6 Io u
u
sin
2 3 * sin
I S1
u
u
u
u
2
2

pf
cos
cos
cos
2
IS
2
2
2

u
2Io u
u

3 6
3 6