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Preparation WPS (Welding Procedure Specification)

2008.

Preparation WPS
WPS (Welding Procedure Specification) Preparation
WPS is prepared according to ASME Sect. & based on PQR.
There is not required preparing PQR when it is prequalified by AWS.
The completed WPS shall describe all of the essential, nonessential, and , when
required, supplementary essential variables for each welding process used in wps.

1) Applicable Code
Record the applicable code that are ASME , , , , ASME/ANSI B31.1,
AWS D1.1, TRD 201, etc.

2) WPS NO (Specification No )
It is given the serial no according to applicable code, welding process,
material specification.
) A M 0101 001
A : classification of applicable code
- A : ASME(I, III, VIII, ASME/ANSI B31.1) W : AWS (D1.1, D14.1) X : TRD 201

Preparation WPS
M : classification of welding process (ex. TM, TMA ..)
- A : SAW F : FCAW G : GMAW M : SMAW
T : GTAW
S : STUD TF : GTAW + FCAW TM : GTAW + SMAW MA : SMAW + SAW
0101 : given the P-No of combined material (for example : P-No.1 + P-No.1 = 0101)
- ASME, ASME/ANSI: write P-No classified in QW-422
- AWS D1.1: write group no of material classified in Table 3.1.
- Writes Z0Z0 when it doesnt classified in P-No.
001 : serial no

3) Date
Writes its date when WPS is issued with first. (for example : Jul, 06. 1995)

4) Rev. No. (Revision No.)


Write Revision No. of WPS (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,A,B,C,D)

Preparation WPS
5) Date
write its the date when WPS is revised

6) Relation number of this PQR (Supporting PQR No.)


Specified Supporting PQR No.
If there are satisfied essential variable by a PQRs standard, It is possible that

prepared
other various WPS.(ASME IX QW-200.2 f)

7) Welding Process
Write in a blank of Welding Process

8) Type of joint
Write a Welding Process Type
Manual : GTAW, SMAW

Semiautomatic : FCAW, GMAW, STUD

Auto : Orbital GTAW

Machine : SAW

Preparation WPS

Joints(QW-402)
9) Joints
Write the type of Joints(for example : Single-V, Double-V, Fillet , etc)
Sketch of joint figure
ASME
- Groove
Write Square-, Single-, Double-, Single Bevel-, Double Bevel-, Single U-,
Double U-, Single J-, Double J-, etc
But various forms of Groove Write - Groove
- Fillet : Write Fillet
- Composition : Grooves & Fillets
AWS
AWS D1.1 Figure 2.4, 2.5 division Butt, T, Corner and addition Joint Designation.
ex) Butt Single bevel Groove (B-U4a)
TRD 201
- Groove : Butt (Square, Single V-) Groove
- Fillet : Fillet

Preparation WPS
10) Root Gap (mm)
Choice the proper size to maintenance the soundness of back bead
(Generally, Max.5mm)

11) Retainer
it is frame that progressed Back Bead.
Write None or Yes

12) Backing
When backing is used, it shall describe information in detail.
(for example : Base Metal, Weld Metal, Ceramic Bar, etc)

Preparation WPS

BASE METAL (QW-403)


13) P-NO : According to QW-422 in ASME
To reduce the number of welding procedure qualifications required, base metals have
been
assigned P-Numbers. These assignments are based essentially on comparable base
metal
characteristics, such as composition, weld ability, and mechanical properties)

14) Gr-NO : According to QW-422 in ASME


To reduce the number of welding procedure qualification required, base metals which
have
specified impact test requirements, have been assigned group number within PNumbers)

15) Spec. & Grade


When required, it will be written.
- generally, write the chemical composition, thickness limitation required in order to
except

heat treatment specified in PW-39 of ASME.

Preparation WPS
Fillet : UNLIMITED
- AWS : apply D1.1 Prequalified Joint thick range.
If it is accomplished PQ Test, Apply Table 5.1, 5.2, 5.3
- TRD 201 : Annex 3.3.1, 3.3.2
- ASME : Apply IX QW403.6 ~ 14 or QW451
If it is not operated PWHT, Apply thick restriction depend on exemption PWHT

by Note of Code of PWHT

17) Range of pipe (or tube) diameter


When performed the heat treatment: record with Unlimited
When didnt perform the heat treatment: write the maximum outside diameter

specified for
exempt heat treatment in ASME (PW-39), ASME (UCS-56), and ASME/ANSI
B31.1
(TABLE 132).
AWS : write Unlimited (have no limitation).

18) Max. Thick per Pass(mm)


- ASME: Limited as Max. 12.7mm for SMAW, SAW, GMAW, FCAW, FSW, EGW in
QW-403.9 of ASME .

- AWS D1.1 : Limited according to Table 3.7 of Chapter 3.

Preparation WPS

Position (QW-405)
19) Position
ASME - Write as All because position is non-essential variable in QW-405.1
AWS D1.1 - Prequalified Joint: Applied the position specified in Figure 3.3, and 3.4.
- Qualified Joint: Applied Table 4.1
Groove welding required toughness
Vertical-Up All Position Cover
Stringer Bead - Weave Bead not Cover
OVERLAY position

PQR

WPS

PQR

WPS

V(UP)

F, V

H, V, OH

ALL

F, H

5G

F, V, OH

OH

F, OH

6G

ALL

Preparation WPS
20) Progression of vertical Position
When welded with vertical position: Write either UP or DOWN.
When welded without vertical position: Write N/A.
When welded with Orbital welding: write both UP and DOWN.

Preheat (QW-406)
Selected the proper temperature according to the requirement of code like follows
and
contract.
- ASME : Appendix A-100 and PW-39
- ASME : Appendix R, Table UCS-56
- ASME/ANSI B31.1: Para. 131.4, Table 132
- AWS D1.1: Table 3.2

21) Preheat Temp. Min.


-

ASME I : PW-39 and Appendix A-100


ASME VIII : Apendix.R, Table UCS-56
ASME / ANSI B31.1 : Para.131.4, Table 132
AWS D1.1 : Table 4.3
TRD 201 : Matl Spec, Mill Maker Spec

Preparation WPS
21) Interpass Temp Max.
Max temperature of deposited weld metal before next layer welding when operated
multi
pass welding.
Generally apply below for your reference but when special situation apply code and the
terms of contract desired.
Interpass Temp Max()

C/S & LOW ALLOY
STEEL

350

AUSTENITIC SUS

177

HIGH-Ni, Cu-ALLOY

150

Allowance Temperature :
In ASME . Temp of
Allowance PQR addition 56

A turn around from welding start point is 1Pass. Second pass start point doesnt over
350 .

23) Preheat Maintenance


If it is required the preheat maintenance, holding temperature and holding time shall be
recorded on wps.
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Preparation WPS

Postweld Heat Treatment (QW-407)


24) Postweld Heat Treatment range of temperature and time.
Selected the range of temp. and time for PWHT according to applicable code and spec.
- ASME : According to the PW-39 and PW-39.3.
If it is heated for products with heavy wall thickness, it shall be followed for
rate
of heating and cooling, and temperature of loading and unloading in
accordance with the UCS-56 of ASME.
- ASME : According to table UCS-56
- ASME/ANSI B31.1 : According to table 132
- AWS D1.1 : According to Para. 5.8

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Preparation WPS

Gas (QW-408)
25) Gas
Write with the chemical symbol that is including chemical composition and flow rate.
(Refer to below table)

Process

GTAW
FCAW
GMAW

Material
Carbon,
Low alloy
S/S

Gas
Composition

Flow rate

Flow rate of
backing gas

Ar, Ar+He

8 ~ 15 L/M

4 ~ 8 L/M

9 ~ 13mm

CO2, Ar+CO2

20 ~ 25 L/M

12 ~ 20mm

CO2, Ar+CO2

20 ~ 25 L/M

12 ~ 20mm

Size of gas cup

disposition Inactivity gas : Ar, He, etc.


(There are not caused reaction other element in arc plasma.)
activity gas : CO, N, etc.
Ar
: Most effective shielding when TIG welding. Well ionization and good
stableness.
He : Not apply MIG welding because ionization potential is low.
Ar + He : 25:70, 30:70 Auto welding of low alloy. 80:20 Apply SUS TIG Welding.
Ar + CO : 70:30, 95:5 Apply carbon steel or alloy. Arc is stable and low spatter.

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Preparation WPS
Ingradients : Welding Grade 99.99 % or more
Use
Shielding Gas : Shielding for arc when welding. prevent O, N, H
Backing Gas : Use the other side of base metal. Because prevent oxidation.
Trailing Gas : Active Metal(Zr, Ti, etc.) welding.
There are shielding weld metal from the air after solidification.

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Preparation WPS

Technique (QW-410)
Process

Material

GTAW
FCAW
GMAW

Carbon,
Low alloy
S/S

Gas
Composition

Flow rate

Flow rate of
backing gas

Ar, Ar+He

8 ~ 15 L/M

4 ~ 8 L/M

9 ~ 13mm

CO2, Ar+CO2

20 ~ 25 L/M

12 ~ 20mm

CO2, Ar+CO2

20 ~ 25 L/M

12 ~ 20mm

Size of gas cup

26) Orifice gas cup size : Applied to GTAW, GMAW, and FCAW Process
(Refer to above table)

27) Contact tube to work distance : Applied to GMAW, FCAW, and SAW process
(Refer to below table)
Welding Process

Contact tube to work distance (mm)

GMAW

Short Circuit : 6 ~ 12, Spray/Globular : 13 ~ 25

FCAW

13 ~ 25

SAW

25 ~ 38
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Preparation WPS
28) Oscillation
Written the frequency and amplitude (Auto-GTAW, GMAW, FCAW, SAW,ESW
process)

29) Stringer or Weave Bead: Limited except from manual, semi-auto welding.

Stringer Bead

Weave Bead

30) Method of Cleaning


Brushing : It is brushing for cleaning the base metal and bid surface.
Base metal have milscale, paint, rust, oil, grease and slag that
effected weldability. So brushing is mandatory.

Chipping : A method of removing surface defects with a chisel.


Chipping is often used simply to remove metal, for example when
preparing a joint for welding.
Grinding : Grinding surface by a rubstone.

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Preparation WPS
31) Single or Multi. Electrode

32) Method of Back Gouging


Back Gouging : The removal of weld metal and base metal from the weld root side of a
welded joint to facilitate complete fusion and complete joint penetration on
subsequent welding from that side.
Type - Grinding, Arc Air Gouging, Chipping
Gouging : Usually done to cut a groove or bevel in a workpiece to prepare it for welding.
Gas Gouging : Uses an oxygen cutting process variation to form a bevel or groove.
Flame gouging : Uses an flame cutting process variation to form a bevel or groove.

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Preparation WPS
33) Multi or Single Pass (per side)

Filets is single pass, so


If Joint is All Grooves &
Fillets, selecting both.

Hammering process
Be used to decrease transformation. Root pass / Layer or the last layer
dont use
(but, PWHT - use)

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Preparation WPS

Fillet/Elect, Character (QW-404, 409)


35) Metal Transfer Mode for FCAW
Have the type of Spray, Globular, Short, Circuit. (usually, decided by shielding gas and
current)

36) Tungsten Electrode Type and Size


generally, used the EWTh-2, 2.4mm.
- EWTh-2 : Th 2% is included in Tungsten Electrode
- EWP : Pure Tungsten Electrode
- EWZr : Zirconium is included in Tungsten Electrode

37) Flux Type


It is written the flux type used in SAW Process. (Neutral or Active Type)

38) Supp. (Powder) Filler


In case of using it in SAW, GMAW, FCAW, PAW.

39) Layer No.


One process is written as either AS REQD or 1,2,3,,
Combination Process is written as both 1,2,3, and Remains, Bal..
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Preparation WPS
36) Tungsten Electrode Type and Size
generally, used the EWTh-2, 2.4mm.
- EWTh-2 : Th 2% is included in Tungsten Electrode
- EWP : Pure Tungsten Electrode
- EWZr : Zirconium is included in Tungsten Electrode

37) Flux Type


It is written the flux type used in SAW Process. (Neutral or Active Type)

38) Supp. (Powder) Filler


In case of using it in SAW, GMAW, FCAW, PAW.

39) Layer No.


One process is written as either AS REQD or 1,2,3,,
Combination Process is written as both 1,2,3, and Remains, Bal..

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Preparation WPS
40) F-No.
The purpose of classified F-No is to reduce the number of welding procedure
qualification
and welding performance qualification.
- ASME : According to QW-432, AWS D1.1 : N/A

F-No.1 :
F-No.2 :
F-No.3 :
F-No.4 :

Carbon steel, Low ally steel, SUS electrode. Exx2x


Titanium-coated carbon steel. Exx12, Exx13, Exx14, Exx19
Cellulose-coated carbon steel. Exx10, Exx11
Carbon steel, Low ally steel, low hydrogen electrode. Exx15, 16, 18,

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F-No.5 : Austenite, Two kind SUS steel. Exxx15, 16, 17
F-No.6 : Solid, Flux-cored, Composition ferrous electrode
P-No. : Base metal
F-No. : Welding materials
A-No. : Deposited weld metal
AWS : N/A

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Preparation WPS
41) A-No.
Assign according to chemical composition in deposited weld metal.
- ASME : Described in QW-422
- AWS D1.1 : Described in Table 3.1

42) SFA-NO.
ASME : Described in part C of ASME
AWS D1.1 : N/A

43) AWS Class


Write the class of filler metal classified in AWS Code
(ex : Wire : EB2, Flux : F9PZ-EG-B2, Brand Name : PF-200(KOBE))

44) Current/Polarity
Record AC, DCRP, DCSP
- SAW : AC or DCRP
- GTAW : DCSP (but Aluminum - AC)
- FCAW, GMAW : DCRP
- SMAW : AC or DCRP

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Preparation WPS
45) Amp. Range, Volt. Range, Speed. Range)
Process

Material

Dia.

Current

2.6

50 - 85

3.2

80 - 130

4.0

110 - 180

5.0

150 - 240

2.6

45 - 85

3.2

65 - 115

4.0

85 - 145

5.0

135 - 180

Carbon &
Low alloy

2.4/2.5

100 190

S/S

2.4/2.5

90 - 190

Carbon &
Low alloy
steel
SMAW
S/S

GTAW

Volt

Trv. speed

22 - 28

6 - 25

22 - 28

6 - 15

10 - 15

8 - 15

FCAW

Carbon &
Low alloy

1.6

210 - 350

22 - 30

30 - 60

SAW

Carbon &
Low alloy

2.4

300 - 350

27 - 34

40 - 60

4.0

500 - 550

28 35

40 - 80

Remark

Can be
changed
according to
recommenda
tion of mill
maker or
test result

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Preparation WPS
46) The others
generally, written the brand name of filler metal, etc

47) Notes
- ASME: Written about heat treatment and other needed instruction, etc
- AWS : Written about Technical Requirement.

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