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# Basic Operation on Signals

Continuous-Time Signals

## The signal is the actual physical

phenomenon that carries information, and
the function is a mathematical description
of the signal.

## Complex Exponentials & Sinusoids

Signals can be expressed in sinusoid or complex exponential.
g(t) = A cos (2t/To+)
= A cos (2fot+ )
= A cos (ot+ )

g(t) = Ae(o+jo)t
= Aeot[cos (ot) +j sin (ot)]

sinusoids

complex exponentials

## Where A is the amplitude of a sinusoid or complex exponential, To is

the real fundamental period of sinusoid, fo is real fundamental cyclic
frequency of sinusoid, o is the real fundamental radian frequency of
sinusoid, t is time and o is a real damping rate.

## In signals and systems, sinusoids are expressed in

either of two ways :
a. cyclic frequency f form - A cos (2fot+ )
b. radian frequency form - A cos (ot+ )
Sinusoids and exponentials are important in signal
and system analysis because they arise naturally in
the solutions of the differential equations.

## Singularity functions and related

functions
In the consideration of singularity functions,
we will extend, modify, and/or generalized
some basic mathematical concepts and
operation to allow us to efficiently analyze
real signals and systems.

## The Unit Step Function

1 , t 0

u t 1/ 2 , t 0
0 , t 0

Precise Graph

Commonly-Used Graph

## The Signum Function

1 , t 0

sgn t 0 , t 0 2 u t 1
1 , t 0

Precise Graph

Commonly-Used Graph

function.

## The Unit Ramp Function

t , t 0 t
ramp t
u d t u t
0 , t 0
The unit ramp function is the integral of the unit step function.
It is called the unit ramp function because for positive t, its
slope is one amplitude unit per time.

## The Rectangular Pulse Function

1/ a , t a / 2
Rectangular pulse, a t
, t a/2
0

## The Unit Step and Unit Impulse Function

As a approaches zero, g t approaches a unit

## The unit step is the integral of the unit impulse and

the unit impulse is the generalized derivative of the
unit step

## Graphical Representation of the

Impulse
The area under an impulse is called its strength or weight. It is
represented graphically by a vertical arrow. Its strength is either
written beside it or is represented by its length. An impulse with a
strength of one is called a unit impulse.

## Properties of the Impulse

The Equivalence Property

g t t t dt g t
0

## The sampling property extracts the value of a function at

a point.
The Scaling Property

a t t0

1
t t0
a
This property illustrates that the impulse is different from
ordinary mathematical functions.

## The Unit Periodic Impulse

The unit periodic impulse/impulse train is defined by

T t

t nT

, n an integer

## The Unit Rectangle Function

1 , t 1/ 2

rect t 1/ 2 , t 1/ 2 u t 1/ 2 u t 1/ 2

0
,
t

1/
2

Precise graph

Commonly-used graph

time t = +1/2.

1 t , t 1
tri t

, t 1
0

## The unit triangle is related to the unit rectangle through an

operation called convolution. It is called a unit triangle because
its height and area are both one (but its base width is not).

## The Unit Sinc Function

The unit sinc function is related to the unit rectangle function
through the Fourier transform.

sinc t

sin t

drcl t , N

sin Nt

N sin t

## The Dirichlet function is the sum of infinitely many

uniformly-spaced sinc functions.

Combinations of Functions
Sometime a single mathematical function may
completely describe a signal (ex: a sinusoid).
But often one function is not enough for an
accurate description.
Therefore, combination of function is needed to
allow versatility in the mathematical
representation of arbitrary signals.
The combination can be sums, differences,
products and/or quotients of functions.

## Shifting and Scaling Functions

Let a function be defined graphically by

and let g t 0 , t 5

1. Amplitude Scaling, gt A gt

1. Amplitude Scaling, gt A gt
(cont)

2. Time shifting, t t t0

## Shifting the function to the right or left by t0

3. Time scaling, t t / a

## Expands the function horizontally by a factor of |a|

3. Time scaling, t t / a
(cont)

## If a < 0, the function is also time inverted. The time inversion

means flipping the curve 1800 with the g axis as the rotation axis
of the flip.

t t0
g
t

A
g

4. Multiple transformations
a

simultaneously.

t t0
t t t t0
g t
A g t
A g A g

a
a

amplitude
scaling, A

t t / a

## The order of the changes is important. For example, if we

exchange the order of the time-scaling and time-shifting
operations, we get:
t t0
t

t t t0
t t / a
g t
A g t
A g t t0
A g t0 A g

a
amplitude
scaling, A

tt
Multiple transformations, gt Ag 0
a

## Differentiation and Integration

Integration and differentiation are common
signal processing operations in real systems.
The derivative of a function at any time t is
its slope at the time.
The integral of a function at any time t is
accumulated area under the function up to
that time.

Differentiation

Integration

Even Functions

Odd Functions

gt gt

gt gt

## Even and Odd Parts of Functions

The even part of a function is g e t
The odd part of a function is g o t

g t g t
2

g t g t
2

## A function whose even part is zero is odd and a function

whose odd part is zero is even.

function
Function type

Sum

Difference

Product

Quotient

Both even

Even

Even

Even

Even

Both odd

Odd

Odd

Even

Even

Neither

Odd

Odd

## Products of Even and Odd Functions

Two Even Functions

Cont
An Even Function and an Odd Function

Cont
An Even Function and an Odd Function

Cont
Two Odd Functions

## Function type and the types of

derivatives and integrals
Function type

Derivative

Integral

Even

Odd

Odd + constant

Odd

Even

Even

g t dt 2 g t dt

g t dt 0

## Signal Energy and Power

All physical activity is mediated by a transfer of energy.
No real physical system can respond to an excitation unless it has
energy.
Signal energy of a signal is defined as the area under the square
of the magnitude of the signal.
The signal energy of a signal x(t) is

Ex

x t

dt

## The units of signal energy depends on the unit of the signal.

If the signal unit is volt (V), the energy of that signal is expressed
in V2.s.

## Signal Energy and Power

Some signals have infinite signal energy. In that case
it is more convenient to deal with average signal power.
The average signal power of a signal x(t) is
T /2

2
1
Px lim
x t dt
T T
T / 2

2
1
Px x t dt
T T

## Signal Energy and Power

A signal with finite signal energy is
called an energy signal.
A signal with infinite signal energy and
finite average signal power is called a
power signal.

## Basic Operation on Signals

Discrete-Time Signals

## Sampling a Continuous-Time Signal

to Create a Discrete-Time Signal
Sampling is the acquisition of the values of a
continuous-time signal at discrete points in time
x(t) is a continuous-time signal, x[n] is a discretetime signal
x n x nTs where Ts is the time between samples

## Complex Exponentials and

Sinusoids
DT signals can be defined in a manner analogous to their continuoustime counter part
g[n] = A cos (2n/No+)
= A cos (2Fon+ )
sinusoids
= A cos (on+ )
g[n] = Aen
= Azn

complex exponentials

## Where A is the real constant (amplitude), is a real phase shifting

radians, No is a real number and Fo and o are related to No through
1/N0 = Fo = o/2 , where n is the previously defined discrete time.

DT Sinusoids
There are some important differences
between CT and DT sinusoids.
If we create a DT sinusoid by sampling CT
sinusoid, the period of the DT sinusoid may
not be readily apparent and in fact the DT
sinusoid may not even be periodic.

DT Sinusoids
4 discrete-time sinusoids

DT Sinusoids
An Aperiodic Sinusoid

## A discrete time sinusoids is not necessarily periodic

DT Sinusoids
Two DT sinusoids whose analytical expressions look different,
g1 n Acos 2 F01n

and

g 2 n A cos 2 F02 n

## F02 F01 m, where m is an integer

then (because n is discrete time and therefore an integer),
A cos 2 F01n A cos 2 F02 n

## (Example on next slide)

Sinusoids

The dash line are the CT function. The CT function are obviously
different but the DT function are not.

## The Impulse Function

1 , n 0
n
0 , n 0
The discrete-time unit impulse (also known as the Kronecker
delta function) is a function in the ordinary sense (in contrast
with the continuous-time unit impulse). It has a sampling property,

A n n x n A x n

1 , n 0
u n
0 , n 0

n
n , n 0
ramp n
u m 1
0 , n 0 m

## The Rectangle Function

1 , n N w
rect N w n
, N w 0 , N w an integer
0 , n N w

N n

n mN

## Scaling and Shifting Functions

Let g[n] be graphically defined by

gn 0 , n 15

## Scaling and Shifting Functions

1. Amplitude scaling
Amplitude scaling for discrete time function is exactly the
same as it is for continuous time function
2.

Time shifting

n n n0 , n0 an integer

3. Time compression, n Kn

K an integer > 1

4. Time expansion

n n / K, K 1

## For all n such that n / K is an integer, g n / K is defined.

For all n such that n / K is not an integer, g n / K is not defined.

## Differencing and accumulation

The operation on discrete-time signal that is
analogous to the derivative is difference.
The discrete-time counterpart of integration
is accumulation (or summation).

g n g n

g e n

g n g n
2

g n g n

g o n

g n g n
2

function
Function type

Sum

Difference

Product

Quotient

Both even

Even

Even

Even

Even

Both odd

Odd

Odd

Even

Even

Even or odd

Odd

Odd

## Products of Even and Odd

Functions
Two Even Functions

Cont
An Even Function and an Odd Function

Cont
Two Odd Functions

Functions

n N

n1

g n g 0 2 g n

g n 0

n N

Ex

x n

## Signal Energy and Power

Some signals have infinite signal energy. In that case
It is usually more convenient to deal with average signal
power. The average signal power of a signal x[n] is
2
1 N 1
Px lim
x n

N 2 N
n N

## For a periodic signal x[n] the average signal power is

2
1
Px
x n

N n N
The notation n N means the sum over any set of

## Signal Energy and Power

A signal with finite signal energy is
called an energy signal.
A signal with infinite signal energy and
finite average signal power is called a
power signal.