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# Modeling of DC Machines

Compiled By
Mr. Qamar Saeed
Thanks to
Dr. Ungku Anisa Ungku Amirulddin
Department of Electrical Power Engineering

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Outline
Introduction
Theory of Operation
Field Excitation
Separately Excited DC Motor
State-Space Modeling
Block Diagrams and Transfer Functions
Measurement of Motor Constants
References
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Introduction
DC motor in service for more than a century
Dominated variable speed applications before

## Power Electronics were introduced

Precise torque and speed control without

sophisticated electronics

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Introduction
Some limitations:
High maintenance (commutators & brushes)
Expensive
Speed limitations
Sparking
Commonly used DC motors
Separately excited
Series (mostly for traction applications)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

## DC Machine Theory of Operation

Field winding - on stator pole
if produces f
Armature winding on rotor
ia produces a
f and a mutually

perpendicular

maximum torque

## Rotor rotates clockwise

For unidirectional torque and

rotation

## each field pole

achieved using commutators
and brushes
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

## DC Machine Field Excitation

Depends on connections of field winding relative to

armature winding
Types of DC machines:
Separately Excited
Shunt Excited
Series Excited
Compounded

Permanent Magnet

## DC Machine Field Excitation

Separately Excited
Field winding separated from armature winding
Independent control of if (f ) and ia (T)

## DC Machine Field Excitation

Shunt Excited
Field winding parallel to
armature winding
Variable-voltage operation
complex

## Coupling of f (if ) and T (ia)

production

T vs characteristic almost

constant

AR = armature reaction
(as T , ia , armature flux
weakens main flux f , )

## DC Machine Field Excitation

Series Excited
Field winding in series with
armature winding
Variable-voltage operation
complex

## Coupling of f (if ) and T (ia)

production

T ia 2 since if = ia
High starting torque

avoided (T = 0, )

## DC Machine Field Excitation

Compounded
Combines best feature of
series and shunt

## Series high starting torque

Cumulative compounding
shunt and series field
strengthens each other.
Differential compounding

Long-shunt
connection

Short-shunt
connection

## shunt and series field

opposes each other.

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## DC Machine Field Excitation

Permanent Magnet
Field provided by magnets
Less heat

## No field winding resistive

losses

Compact
Armature similar to

separately excited
machine

## Cant increase flux

Risk of demagnetisation
due to armature reaction

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Ra
ia

+
va
_

Armature
circuit

va Raia La

## Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

Lf

La

Rf

if

ea

Field
circuit

vf

dia
ea
dt
Te Kia K bia

Electromagnetic torque

ea K K b

v f Rf i f Lf

di f
dt

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## Separately Excited DC Motor

Motor is connected to a

Therefore,

d
Te J
B TL
dt

where
B = viscous friction
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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DC Machine - State-Space
Modeling
DC motor dynamic equations:
dia
(1)
va Raia La
ea
dt
d
(3)
Te J
B TL
dt
Therefore,

ea K K b

Te Kia K bia

dia
R
K
1
a ia va b
dt
La
La
La

d Kb
B
1

ia TL
dt
J
J
J
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

(2)

(4)

(5)

(6)
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DC Machine - State-Space
Modeling
From (5) and (6), the dynamic equations in state-space

form:

Ra
sia L
a
s
Kb
J

1
i
La a La

B 0
J

Kb

0 v
a
T

1
L

(7)

## where s = differential operator with respect to time

This can be written compactly as:
AX BU
X

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

(8)

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DC Machine - State-Space
Modeling
Comparing (7) and (8):
X ia - - - - - state variable vector
T

U va TL - - - - - input vector
T

Ra
L
a
A
Kb
J

1
B La
0

La

B
J

Kb

1
J

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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DC Machine - State-Space
Modeling
The roots of the system are the eigen-values of matrix A
Ra
L
a
A
Kb
J

La

B
J

Kb

1 Ra B 1
1 , 2
2 La J 2

Ra B Kb 2
Ra B

La J
JLa JLa

(9)

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## DC Machine Block Diagrams

and Transfer Functions
Taking Laplace transform of (1) and (3) and neglecting initial

conditions:
V s K b s
I a s a
Ra s La

(10)

K b I a s TL s
B s J

(11)

diagram
Va(s)

TL(s)

+
-

1
Ra sLa

Ia(s)

Te(s) Kb +

Kb

1
B s J

(s)

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## DC Machine Block Diagrams

and Transfer Functions
From the block diagram, the following transfer functions can be derived:

Kb
s
G Va s
2
Va s s JLa sBLa JRa BRa K b 2

Ra s La
s
G TL s
2
TL s s JLa sBLa JRa BRa K b 2

(12)

(13)

Since the motor is a linear system, the speed response due to simultaneous

## s GVa sVa s GTL sTL s

(14)

The Laplace inverse of (14) gives the speed time response (t).
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

19

DC Machine Measurement of
Motor Constants
To analyse DC motors we need values for Ra, La and Kb
Armature Resistance Ra
DC voltage applied at armature terminals such that rated ia
flows
Vdc Vbrush Vcontact resistance
Ra
ia, rated
This gives the dc value for Ra

## expected to operate at steady state

Similar procedure can be applied to find Rf of field circuit
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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DC Machine Measurement of
Motor Constants
Armature Inductance La
Apply low AC voltage through
variac at armature terminals
Measure ia
Motor must be at standstill
(i.e. = 0 and e = 0)

La

Va

I
a

Ra 2

2f

(variac)

f = supply frequency in Hz
Ra = ac armature resistance
Similar procedure can be

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

21

DC Machine Measurement of
Motor Constants
EMF Constant Kb = K
Rated field voltage applied
and kept constant
Shaft rotated by another dc
motor up to rated speed
Voltmeter connected to
armature terminals gives
value of Ea
Get values of ea at different
speeds
Plot Ea vs.
Slope of curve = Kb
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

## EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Ea (V)

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References
Krishnan, R., Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis and

## Control, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2001.

Chapman, S. J., Electric Machinery Fundamentals, McGraw Hill,
New York, 2005.
Nik Idris, N. R., Short Course Notes on Electrical Drives,
UNITEN/UTM, 2008.
Ahmad Azli, N., Short Course Notes on Electrical Drives,
UNITEN/UTM, 2008.

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