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Modeling of DC Machines

Compiled By
Mr. Qamar Saeed
Thanks to
Dr. Ungku Anisa Ungku Amirulddin
Department of Electrical Power Engineering

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Outline
Introduction
Theory of Operation
Field Excitation
Separately Excited DC Motor
State-Space Modeling
Block Diagrams and Transfer Functions
Measurement of Motor Constants
References
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Introduction
DC motor in service for more than a century
Dominated variable speed applications before

Power Electronics were introduced


Advantage:
Precise torque and speed control without

sophisticated electronics

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

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Introduction
Some limitations:
High maintenance (commutators & brushes)
Expensive
Speed limitations
Sparking
Commonly used DC motors
Separately excited
Series (mostly for traction applications)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

DC Machine Theory of Operation


Field winding - on stator pole
if produces f
Armature winding on rotor
ia produces a
f and a mutually

perpendicular

maximum torque

Rotor rotates clockwise


For unidirectional torque and

rotation

ia must be same polarity under

each field pole


achieved using commutators
and brushes
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

DC Machine Field Excitation


Depends on connections of field winding relative to

armature winding
Types of DC machines:
Separately Excited
Shunt Excited
Series Excited
Compounded

Permanent Magnet

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

DC Machine Field Excitation


Separately Excited
Field winding separated from armature winding
Independent control of if (f ) and ia (T)

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

DC Machine Field Excitation


Shunt Excited
Field winding parallel to
armature winding
Variable-voltage operation
complex

Coupling of f (if ) and T (ia)


production

T vs characteristic almost

constant

AR = armature reaction
(as T , ia , armature flux
weakens main flux f , )

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

DC Machine Field Excitation


Series Excited
Field winding in series with
armature winding
Variable-voltage operation
complex

Coupling of f (if ) and T (ia)


production

T ia 2 since if = ia
High starting torque
No load operation must be

avoided (T = 0, )

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

DC Machine Field Excitation


Compounded
Combines best feature of
series and shunt

Series high starting torque


Shunt no load operation

Cumulative compounding
shunt and series field
strengthens each other.
Differential compounding

Long-shunt
connection

Short-shunt
connection

shunt and series field


opposes each other.

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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DC Machine Field Excitation


Permanent Magnet
Field provided by magnets
Less heat

No field winding resistive


losses

Compact
Armature similar to

separately excited
machine
Disadvantages:

Cant increase flux


Risk of demagnetisation
due to armature reaction

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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Separately Excited DC Machine


Ra
ia

+
va
_

Armature
circuit

va Raia La

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

Lf

La

Rf

if

ea

Field
circuit

vf

dia
ea
dt
Te Kia K bia

Electromagnetic torque

ea K K b

Armature back e.m.f.

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v f Rf i f Lf

di f
dt

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Separately Excited DC Motor


Motor is connected to a

load.
Therefore,

d
Te J
B TL
dt

where
TL= load torque
J = load inertia (kg/m2)
B = viscous friction
coefficient (Nm/rad/s)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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DC Machine - State-Space
Modeling
DC motor dynamic equations:
dia
(1)
va Raia La
ea
dt
d
(3)
Te J
B TL
dt
Therefore,

ea K K b

Te Kia K bia

dia
R
K
1
a ia va b
dt
La
La
La

d Kb
B
1

ia TL
dt
J
J
J
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

(2)

(4)

(5)

(6)
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DC Machine - State-Space
Modeling
From (5) and (6), the dynamic equations in state-space

form:

Ra
sia L
a
s
Kb
J

1
i
La a La

B 0
J

Kb

0 v
a
T

1
L

(7)

where s = differential operator with respect to time


This can be written compactly as:
AX BU
X

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

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(8)

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DC Machine - State-Space
Modeling
Comparing (7) and (8):
X ia - - - - - state variable vector
T

U va TL - - - - - input vector
T

Ra
L
a
A
Kb
J

1
B La
0

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

La

B
J

Kb

1
J

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DC Machine - State-Space
Modeling
The roots of the system are the eigen-values of matrix A
Ra
L
a
A
Kb
J

La

B
J

Kb

1 Ra B 1
1 , 2
2 La J 2

Ra B Kb 2
Ra B

La J
JLa JLa

(9)

1 and 2 always have negative real part, i.e. motor is

stable on open-loop operation.

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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DC Machine Block Diagrams


and Transfer Functions
Taking Laplace transform of (1) and (3) and neglecting initial

conditions:
V s K b s
I a s a
Ra s La

(10)

K b I a s TL s
B s J

(11)

These relationships can be represented in the following block

diagram
Va(s)

TL(s)

+
-

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

1
Ra sLa

Ia(s)

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Te(s) Kb +

Kb

1
B s J

(s)

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DC Machine Block Diagrams


and Transfer Functions
From the block diagram, the following transfer functions can be derived:

Kb
s
G Va s
2
Va s s JLa sBLa JRa BRa K b 2

Ra s La
s
G TL s
2
TL s s JLa sBLa JRa BRa K b 2

(12)

(13)

Since the motor is a linear system, the speed response due to simultaneous

Va input and TL disturbance is:

s GVa sVa s GTL sTL s

(14)

The Laplace inverse of (14) gives the speed time response (t).
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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DC Machine Measurement of
Motor Constants
To analyse DC motors we need values for Ra, La and Kb
Armature Resistance Ra
DC voltage applied at armature terminals such that rated ia
flows
Vdc Vbrush Vcontact resistance
Ra
ia, rated
This gives the dc value for Ra

Need to also correct for temperature at which motor is

expected to operate at steady state


Similar procedure can be applied to find Rf of field circuit
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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DC Machine Measurement of
Motor Constants
Armature Inductance La
Apply low AC voltage through
variac at armature terminals
Measure ia
Motor must be at standstill
(i.e. = 0 and e = 0)

La

Va

I
a

Ra 2

2f

(variac)

f = supply frequency in Hz
Ra = ac armature resistance
Similar procedure can be

applied to find Lf of field circuit

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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DC Machine Measurement of
Motor Constants
EMF Constant Kb = K
Rated field voltage applied
and kept constant
Shaft rotated by another dc
motor up to rated speed
Voltmeter connected to
armature terminals gives
value of Ea
Get values of ea at different
speeds
Plot Ea vs.
Slope of curve = Kb
Units of Kb = [V/rads-1]
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Ea (V)

(rad/s)

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References
Krishnan, R., Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis and

Control, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2001.


Chapman, S. J., Electric Machinery Fundamentals, McGraw Hill,
New York, 2005.
Nik Idris, N. R., Short Course Notes on Electrical Drives,
UNITEN/UTM, 2008.
Ahmad Azli, N., Short Course Notes on Electrical Drives,
UNITEN/UTM, 2008.

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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