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Komunikasi Verbal Dalam Organisasi

First, the environment provides extensive information to an

organization through verbal communication.
Second, individuals and teams use verbal communication to
direct, manage, comprehend, and respond.
Third, verbal communication is a principal means for creating
and developing organizational intelligence. Organizational
intelligence is the memory of the system, which is
maintained through its cultural communication processes
(Kreps, 1986). This allows us to understand the
organization's cultural expectations.
Finally, knowledge, conveyed through verbal communication,
is critical to individuals and organizations (Drucker, 1993).
Verbal communication is the key means for obtaining,
transferring, utilizing, and storing the information that
underpins knowledge.


Gass and Seiter (1999) conclude: "Words are the
primary means of persuasion. They not only
affect our perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and
emotions, they create reality" (p. 144).
Language has a major impact on all individuals
and shapes their organizational reality. Verbal
communication is written and oral.

Written Communication
These include mission statements, corporate
goals and values, short- and longrange plans,
job descriptions, work orders, e-mail,
announcements, bulletins, informal notes,
house magazines and organs, annual reports,
handbooks, procedures, operation manuals,
official guidelines, regulations, codes,
contracts, performance appraisals, and
meeting agendas and minutes to name a few.

As Mitchell and Burdick (1983) put it: "In terms of the

beginning executive's career, writing is even more
important than speaking. Upper management
generally will see your written work before they ever
meet you. And to many of your business contacts, you
are what you write" (p. 131).
Organizations carefully consider the impact of their
written communication when it concerns policy and
personnel actions (Barton, 1997).
Written communication is critical to contracts (Scott &
Bain, 1987), job descriptions, business plans, work
rules, recommendations, resumes, reports, and many
other activities (Brusaw, Alreed, & Oliu, 1987).
E-mail offers important opportunities for positive or
negative exposure (Stepanek & Hamm, 1998).

Oral Communication
Oral communication is used in practically any
activity requiring coordination. For example,
interviewing, delegating, meetings,
performance appraisals, giving and receiving
orders, public statements, and instructing are
primarily verbal.

Functions of Verbal Communication

Verbal communication is used in three ways:
1. To enhance task accomplishments through
task ordering;
2. To make sense out of content with a process
3. Third, to supply the bridge between myth and
reality through narrative (Morris, 1971;
Watzlawick, Beavin, & Jackson,1967).


1. Language and Perception
2. Language, Culture, and Discrimination
3. Denotative and Connotative Meaning :the
denotative meaning is what the word literally
represents. Connotative meanings depend on
our own subjective reality much more than
do denotative meanings (Odgen & Richards,
4. Jargon

Three principles underlie semantics.
1.Meaning is in people, not words.
2. Language is representational.
3. Both observations and inferences occur when
we use verbal communication


1. Stories and Myths
2. Transmitting Values
3. Metaphors
4. Language and Management
5. Inconsistencies
6. Humor

A great deal of humor is based on paradoxes and
incongruences (Bateson, 1972; Duncan & Feisal, 1989).
Although managing and work are supposed to be
"serious business," humor provides organizational
members with a means for coping with the various
paradoxes and incongruences that are inherent in any
organized activity (Lippitt, 1982).
Sometimes laughter is the best medicine for tough
organizational situations that are steeped in tension
(Gibson, Ivancevich, & Donnelly, 1991, p. 253).
In fact, "it is less important to ask why people are
humorous in organizations than to ask why they are so
serious" (Bolman & Deal, 1991, p. 266).

Humor has numerous organizational uses.

1.It can "share messages, relieve stress,
motivate employees" (Sleeter, 1981, p. 25);
2. Make a point in a strategic manner, relay
interest, enhance group behavior (Duncan,
3. Facilitate team building (Harris & Sherblom,
4. Reduce personality conflicts and resistance to
change (McClane & Singer, 1991);
5. Unmask power relations (Dwyer, 1991);