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WRITING PARAGRAPHS

Consumers at the high end are


trading up, paying a premium
price for highly branded, luxury
products. And at the low end
they are trading down,
spending as little as possible on
basic, functional products. This
is happening all over the world
- leaving the middle in decline.
Between the two poles lies a
vast range of ordinary, boring
products that are rapidly losing
market share.

All over the world, consumer


markets are dividing into a
high end and a low end
leaving the middle in decline.
At the high end, consumers
are trading up, paying a
premium price for highly
branded, luxury products.
And at the low end, they are
trading down, spending as
little as possible on basic,
functional products. Between
the two poles lies a vast
range of ordinary, boring
products that are rapidly
losing market share.

Paragraph design
A paragraph consists of a key sentence and a
number of other sentences lending it support, i.e. TOPIC
SENTENCE
and
SUBTOPICS/SUPPORTING IDEAS .
Topic sentence provides a context and summarises
what will follow in the paragraph.
All the sentences in a paragraph should relate to
one main idea. This is called UNITY. Each sentence
must add something useful to the key, topic
sentence.

Paragraph design
The second text has MOVEMENT: the ideas flow
clearly and logically. Movement means taking the
reader from one sentence to the next in clear,
logical steps.
Achieving movement:
1. use the first sentence to mention sub-topics,
which are then picked up in sequence by further
sentences;
2. use time sequence, contrast, list of related
points (First, Second, Finally), etc.
3. use linking words

Sentence Connectors
Connectors and sequence markers are words
or phrases which show the relationship
between ideas.
The main relationships are:
Time
Logic
(cause,
contrast,
condition,
comparison and concession)
Text (addition, summary, paraphrase,
example and highlight).

TIME
A. The main words and phrases which signal time
relationships are:
Beginning
First/first of all/initially/to start with/the first step/at
the first stage
Second/secondly/the second step/at the second stage
Third/thirdly/the third step/at the third stage, etc.
Then/after that
Next/subsequently/the next step/at the next stage
Finally/the final step/at the final stage
End

LOGIC

The main words and phrases that signal logical


relationships are as follows:
Cause: therefore/ accordingly/ consequently/ as a
consequence/ as a result/ hence (formal)/ thus
(formal)/ because of this/ that's why (informal)/ so
Contrast: yet/ however/ nevertheless/ still/ but/
even so/ all the same (informal)
Conditions: then/ in that case
Comparison: similarly/ in the same way
Concession: anyway/ at any rate
Contradiction: in fact/ actually/ as a matter of fact/
indeed
Alternation: instead/alternatively

TEXTUAL RELATIONSHIPS

Addition: also/ in addition/ moreover/ furthermore/


besides/ too/ overall/ in brief/ in short
Summary: to sum up/ then/ overall/ in brief/ in short
Conclusion: in conclusion/ finally/ lastly/ to conclude
Equivalence: in other words/ that means/ namely/
that is to say
Inclusion: for example/ for instance/ say/ such as/ as
follows (written)/ e.g. (formal and written)
Highlight: in particular/ in detail/ especially/ notably/
chiefly/ mainly
Generalization: usually/ normally/ as a rule/ in
general/ for the most part/ in most cases/ on the
whole
Stating the obvious: obviously/ naturally/ of course

COHESION IN WRITING
There are two more ways of cohesion in writing.
1. a linking-back device - a way of relating to
something that has previously been mentioned in
the text in full. One of the commonest is that
repeated nouns become pronouns.
e.g. John's performance last year was above average.
HE ("he" refers to John) achieved 20% higher
results than average with existing customers.

COHESION IN WRITING
2. repetition there are two types of repetition
exact, when we repeat exactly the same words, and
parallel repetition, when we use the most
appropriate word(s) which best refers to the word
in question.
Fluoridation is the deliberate addition of a
chemical called fluoride to a town's water supplies,
in order to reduce tooth decay. Fluoride occurs
naturally in the drinking water of some towns

4Cs
Try to remember the 4Cs when writing your essay:
Clear writing and expression of ideas (easy to
read and understand)
Comprehensive - all the main ideas and arguments
are included
Concise short and precise (no unnecessary
repetition)
Correct accurate, both in content and in language
use

KEY TO CORRECTION SYMBOLS


Agreement of subject and verb, or adjective
and noun
e.g. The boy walk to school./They are goods dogs.
A

N
Number (Singular or Plural)
e.g. It is one of the best hotel there.
T
Tense
e.g. The earth had an atmosphere around it.
Sp
Spelling
e.g. The library was pieceful and quite.
WO Word Order (Subject, Verb, Object, Manner, Place, Time)
e.g. The earth is the planet third from the sun./We went
yesterday to the store.

KEY TO CORRECTION SYMBOLS


F (VF)
Grammatical form of the word (verb, etc)
e.g. I was interesting in that book. / The man ran slow. / They
studies science in the morning.
WW
Wrong Word
e.g. Don't do the plans for tomorrow. / He raised suddenly to his
feet.
P
Punctuation
e.g. bring the book on Monday / I am studying Economics at the
university of belgrade / he was very tired therefore he went to
bed
X
Unnecessary Word
e.g. Good grades they are hard to get. / The earth it is the third
planet from the sun.

KEY TO CORRECTION SYMBOLS


Ref.
Reference
e.g. John brought her to their house. It is beautiful.
/?/
Sentence is too complicated, unclear or
incomplete.

//
Parallelism
e.g. It is important to study and sleeping enough.
/
Wrong Joining
e.g. I go to the university everyday.
Wrong Separation
e.g. I like to eat every thing.

KEY TO CORRECTION SYMBOLS


Missing Word (article, preposition, etc)
e.g. We listen music when we feel like it./We went to hotel on
Fifth Avenue.
Wph
Wrong phrase, wrong way to say this.
e.g. We shall study the part played by the appropriate
monetary institutions in securing the capital needed.

Log Illogical
e.g. Glass is breakable. Thus, it is usually painted blue.
No
Untruth
e.g. A franchisee receives the royalty fee from a franchiser.
SC Sentence Construction (grammatically wrong, a
number of grammatical problems within the sentence).

The Golden Rules of Writing


WRITE SIMPLY and BRIEFLY because this will
make life easier for your reader, who should
always be the centre of your attention. And WRITE
QUICKLY because your time is valuable, and you do
not want to spend any more time writing than is
absolutely necessary.