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Managing mastitis in dairy

cattle for improved


production of quality milk:
Current status in India
Reena Mukherjee
Senior Scientist
Division of Medicine
Indian Veterinary Research Institute
INDIA
Introduction
• Largest population of dairy animals:
Cattle- 185.18 million
Buffalo- 97.92 million
• Highest milk production- 88 million
ton/annum
• Dairying-a promising enterprise.
• Animal health and milk quality require
attention.
Cont..
• Mastitis is the most common disease of
lactating herd.
• Mastitic milk and treatment pose biggest
hurdle in clean milk production.
• Clean milk means:
Milk with low somatic cell count
Milk with low bacterial count
Preferably free from hazardous residue
Bovine Mastitis
• Inflammation of mammary gland
• Most commonly inflicted by pathogenic
microorganism in immuno-compromised
animals.
• Inflammation mediators cause loss of
secretory epithelium.
• Animal bound and environmental
pathogens perpetuate in the dairy
environment.
Mastitis and economic losses
• Next to FMD, economically most
devastating disease in India.
• Affected quarters show 30% less
productivity and cow looses about 15%
production.
• Prevention and control of mastitis is
warranted in post WTO scenario, to
export good quality dairy products.
Prevention and control of
mastitis
Mastitis is tackled mainly by
 Prevention
i. Hygiene ii. Vaccination
 Conservative and supportive therapy
Treatment with antibiotics
Supportive therapy with Vitamins
and trace minerals
Hygiene

• Implementation of Hazard Analysis


Critical Control Point (HACCP) and ISO
certification of dairies.
• Correct milking time
• Optimum working of milking machine
• Segregation of infected animals.
• Milking the infected animals in last
• Mapping of pathogens and
Antibacterial Sensitivity Test
Prevention of contamination at
farm level
• Mastitis control program should be maintained by
qualified professionals/ Veterinarians.
• Strict measures should be taken for-
 Cleaning of milk biers after each milking and
should be kept dry.
 Animal sheds should be washed with clean water
and disinfectants.
Cont..
 Cleaning of animals
 Washing of teats and milkers’ hands with
antiseptics before milking
 Milkers should be free from any contagious
disease
 Cleaning of milk storage tanks
 Drying and proper placement of milk storage
tanks
Conventional vs. Alternative therapy
• Currently antibiotics are the only proven
method of mastitis therapy.
• Most of the antibiotics are inefficacious and
contaminate the milk.
• Alternative approaches to the treatment are
gaining importance globally to reduce the
human health hazard.
• The newer moieties are cytokines, bacterial
enzymes, bioresponse modifiers, vitamins and
trace elements, medicinal herbs and
homeopathic medicines.
Agencies working for Mastitis
management
• Holistic approach needed for
prevention of disease for clean milk
production
• Agencies working are
 Research organizations
 Academic Institutions
 Dairy Development Organizations
 Dairy co-operatives
 Pharmaceutical Companies
 Private dairies
Research Institutions
 Two bodies of Indian Council of Agricultural
Research
 Indian Veterinary Research Institute-
Working on alternative system of Medicine
namely Medicinal herbs and bacterial adjuvant
& training farmers for mastitis control through
Extension activities
 National Dairy Research Institute-
Working on immunomodulation of mammary
gland
• Department of Biotechnology (Ministry of
Science & Technology)- Working on Medicinal
herbs and pathogen specific bacteriophages
Dairy Development Organizations
 National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)-
Apex organization for Dairy Development in India
: engaged in state of art research and training
activities towards ensuring mastitis free milk
 UNICEF-NDDB
Joint project works on clean milk production in
the villages of Rajasthan state to create
“Nationwide database on Milk Quality
Parameters” in 20 milk Unions.
State Dairy Cooperatives
 15 State Dairy Cooperative Federations-
• Organized milk collection
• Facilitate to produce quality milk to meet international
standards particularly focusing on-ISO-9000-2000,
ISO,HACCP certification & maintenance of the dairy
plants.
• Milk is processed and marketing of liquid milk by the 170
Milk producers’ Cooperative Unions in the country: these
milk Unions assure quality milk production.
• incentives are given to the farmers for clean milk
production.
All Women Dairy Cooperatives
in India
• Ministry of Human Resource
Development, Government of India:
Sponsor All Women Dairy Cooperative
Societies in different states
• Women are trained for clean milk
production through Support to
Training and Employment Programme
for Women (STEP)
State Department of Animal Husbandry
(SDAH) & Private agencies
• SDAH – key stakeholders for livestock
development activities, the agency also
organize training programme on clean milk
production
• Contract farming in livestock sector is
increasingly being taken by Private agencies
• Several private dairies sell their products
by brand names and top priority is given to
the management of Mastitis to procure high
quality milk.
Conclusion
• Research and Development agencies, cooperatives,
government and private sector agencies and farmers are
increasingly paying attention to mastitis management for
clean milk production.
• Mastitis prevention and control is one among the top
priorities being attended in best possible ways impacting
positively towards mastitis free clean milk production in
India.
• India is marching ahead with quality improvement
programme in agricultural sector and dairy industry is
attracting maximum attention on quality front.
THANKS