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Managing mastitis in dairy

cattle for improved

production of quality milk:
Current status in India
Reena Mukherjee
Senior Scientist
Division of Medicine
Indian Veterinary Research Institute
• Largest population of dairy animals:
Cattle- 185.18 million
Buffalo- 97.92 million
• Highest milk production- 88 million
• Dairying-a promising enterprise.
• Animal health and milk quality require
• Mastitis is the most common disease of
lactating herd.
• Mastitic milk and treatment pose biggest
hurdle in clean milk production.
• Clean milk means:
Milk with low somatic cell count
Milk with low bacterial count
Preferably free from hazardous residue
Bovine Mastitis
• Inflammation of mammary gland
• Most commonly inflicted by pathogenic
microorganism in immuno-compromised
• Inflammation mediators cause loss of
secretory epithelium.
• Animal bound and environmental
pathogens perpetuate in the dairy
Mastitis and economic losses
• Next to FMD, economically most
devastating disease in India.
• Affected quarters show 30% less
productivity and cow looses about 15%
• Prevention and control of mastitis is
warranted in post WTO scenario, to
export good quality dairy products.
Prevention and control of
Mastitis is tackled mainly by
 Prevention
i. Hygiene ii. Vaccination
 Conservative and supportive therapy
Treatment with antibiotics
Supportive therapy with Vitamins
and trace minerals

• Implementation of Hazard Analysis

Critical Control Point (HACCP) and ISO
certification of dairies.
• Correct milking time
• Optimum working of milking machine
• Segregation of infected animals.
• Milking the infected animals in last
• Mapping of pathogens and
Antibacterial Sensitivity Test
Prevention of contamination at
farm level
• Mastitis control program should be maintained by
qualified professionals/ Veterinarians.
• Strict measures should be taken for-
 Cleaning of milk biers after each milking and
should be kept dry.
 Animal sheds should be washed with clean water
and disinfectants.
 Cleaning of animals
 Washing of teats and milkers’ hands with
antiseptics before milking
 Milkers should be free from any contagious
 Cleaning of milk storage tanks
 Drying and proper placement of milk storage
Conventional vs. Alternative therapy
• Currently antibiotics are the only proven
method of mastitis therapy.
• Most of the antibiotics are inefficacious and
contaminate the milk.
• Alternative approaches to the treatment are
gaining importance globally to reduce the
human health hazard.
• The newer moieties are cytokines, bacterial
enzymes, bioresponse modifiers, vitamins and
trace elements, medicinal herbs and
homeopathic medicines.
Agencies working for Mastitis
• Holistic approach needed for
prevention of disease for clean milk
• Agencies working are
 Research organizations
 Academic Institutions
 Dairy Development Organizations
 Dairy co-operatives
 Pharmaceutical Companies
 Private dairies
Research Institutions
 Two bodies of Indian Council of Agricultural
 Indian Veterinary Research Institute-
Working on alternative system of Medicine
namely Medicinal herbs and bacterial adjuvant
& training farmers for mastitis control through
Extension activities
 National Dairy Research Institute-
Working on immunomodulation of mammary
• Department of Biotechnology (Ministry of
Science & Technology)- Working on Medicinal
herbs and pathogen specific bacteriophages
Dairy Development Organizations
 National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)-
Apex organization for Dairy Development in India
: engaged in state of art research and training
activities towards ensuring mastitis free milk
Joint project works on clean milk production in
the villages of Rajasthan state to create
“Nationwide database on Milk Quality
Parameters” in 20 milk Unions.
State Dairy Cooperatives
 15 State Dairy Cooperative Federations-
• Organized milk collection
• Facilitate to produce quality milk to meet international
standards particularly focusing on-ISO-9000-2000,
ISO,HACCP certification & maintenance of the dairy
• Milk is processed and marketing of liquid milk by the 170
Milk producers’ Cooperative Unions in the country: these
milk Unions assure quality milk production.
• incentives are given to the farmers for clean milk
All Women Dairy Cooperatives
in India
• Ministry of Human Resource
Development, Government of India:
Sponsor All Women Dairy Cooperative
Societies in different states
• Women are trained for clean milk
production through Support to
Training and Employment Programme
for Women (STEP)
State Department of Animal Husbandry
(SDAH) & Private agencies
• SDAH – key stakeholders for livestock
development activities, the agency also
organize training programme on clean milk
• Contract farming in livestock sector is
increasingly being taken by Private agencies
• Several private dairies sell their products
by brand names and top priority is given to
the management of Mastitis to procure high
quality milk.
• Research and Development agencies, cooperatives,
government and private sector agencies and farmers are
increasingly paying attention to mastitis management for
clean milk production.
• Mastitis prevention and control is one among the top
priorities being attended in best possible ways impacting
positively towards mastitis free clean milk production in
• India is marching ahead with quality improvement
programme in agricultural sector and dairy industry is
attracting maximum attention on quality front.