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Lecture 1

What is Research?
Attributes of Research
Types of Research?
Why Research?
How to do research?

Research Process

Motivation
Elements of Motivation

..systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical


investigation of hypothetical propositions about
the presumed relationships among natural
phenomena.. (Kerlinger, 1973, p.ll)
..the overall scheme of scientific in which
scientists engage in order to produce knowledge
(Nachmias & Nachmias, 1981, p.22)

formal, systematic, and intensive process of


carrying out a scientific method of analysis which
may lead to the development of generalizations,
principles or theories which can result in the
predictions and control of events.. (Best, 1977, p.10-12)

Research is a systematic
and organized effort to
investigate specific problem
that needs a solution

Based on other works


Replicable
Generalisable
Tied to theory
Generate new questions
Incremental
Testability
Doable

Quantitative

Qualitative

Basic (Fundamental) vs Applied Research


Scientific vs Naturalistic
Historical vs Methodological

Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge


the pursuit of new knowledge without any
assumptions about what it might lead to
essentially knowledge for its own sake
Not directly involved in the solution to a pragmatic
problem

A model of IT adoption among small-medium


enterprises
Antecedents of IT-Business alignment
A Model of ethical usage of cybercafe

Conducted when a decision must be made


about a specific real-life problem
Knowledge which is developed with a specific
objective in mind, particularly the conversion
of existing knowledge into products,
processes and technologies

The secret of success is to know something


nobody else know (Aristotle Onassis)

With INFORMATION reduces UNCERTAINTY

Think?????

Factors that contribute to user satisfaction of


information systems
Determinants of UUMs IT students
employability
Diffusion of innovation in bridging the digital
divide

Educational benefits include:


Working closely with a faculty mentor
Learning about issues, methods, and leaders in
students' chosen fields
Applying concepts learned in coursework to "real
life" situations
Sharpening problem-solving skills

Professional benefits include:

Exploring and preparing for future careers


Developing marketable skills
Enhancing professional communication skills
Collaborating with others and working effectively as
part of a team

Personal benefits include:


Growing as a critical, analytical, and independent
thinker
Meeting challenges and demonstrating the ability to
complete a project
Discovering personal interests

Motivation
The significance of the study
The why factor

Elements of Motivation

Have not been investigated before


Contribution to the body of knowledge
Problem solving
Interest to you, academia & profession
Lead to another research question!

Deductive approach
o Proceed from the general to specifics.
o Theory -- Data/facts -- Conclusion

Inductive approach
o Proceeds from the specifics and combine them to
produce a more general statement of
relationship.
o Facts/data -- Theory -- Conclusion

Generally, research comprise the process of

developing the conceptual framework and


the hypothesis for testing as well as the
design, which involves the planning of the
actual study dealing with such aspects as
the location for the study, sample
selection and data collection processes
and results of the study.

Defining a
problem
Results

Hypothesis
Construct
concepts
operational
definitions

Interpretation
of data
Analysis
of data

Data
Collection

Research
design

Literature Review

Literature Review

Refinement of
theory or
implementation

Theoretical
framework

Exploratory
Descriptive
Causal
I keep six honest serving men (they taught me

all I knew), their names are what, and why, and


when, and how, and where, and who. -- Rudyard
Kipling
What, How, Where, Who, When and Why
are the six interrogatives one need to know about
an enterprise -- John Zachman

Exploratory
Research

Descriptive
Research

Causal Research

Degree of
Problem
Definition

Unaware of Problem

Aware of Problem

Problem Clearly
Defined

Possible
Solution

Majority of IT projects
fail and we can only
speculate on the
reasons

70% of IT projects fail


due to ROI failure
within 5 years

IT success factors
such as leadership,
QoS, resources etc
influence IT project
success

Organizations tend to
lose on human capital
development in a
high mobility rate

There is a high rate


of turnover among IT
professionals in the
job market

Younger IT graduates
and males tend to shift
jobs most frequently

What task condition


influence the
leadership process in
our organization

Have the average


merger rate for
saving and loans
increased in the past
decade.

Do buyers prefer our


product in a new
package?