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University of San Carlos

Department of Political Science

Philippine Government & Constitution

Philippines as a State



The Filipino

Art. IV. Citizenship

- is a term denoting membership of a citizen in a political
society, which membership implies, reciprocally, a duty
of allegiance on the part of the member and duty of
protection on the part of the State

- Citizen is a member of a democratic community who

enjoys full civil and political rights, and is accorded
protection inside and outside the territory of the State.

Nationality and Nationals

- Nationals embrace all those who owe allegiance
to the state.
- Covers all citizens and non-citizens but owe
allegiance to the state.
- "All citizens are nationals of s state but not all
nationals are citizens of a state."

Subjects and Aliens

- In a monarchial state, citizens are called subjects.

- Aliens are citizens of a country who is residing in

or passing through another country. "Foreigner"
- Not given FULL rights but enjoys protection to his
person and property.

Ways of Acquiring
Involuntary method- by birth, because of blood
relationship or place of birth
Voluntary method- by naturalization
The two modes of acquiring citizenship correspond
to the 2 kinds of citizens - natural-born and
naturalized citizens

Basic Principles on
Jus Sanguinis- blood relationship
(Ex. Phil and US)

Jus Soli - place of birth

(Ex. US)

Who are Filipino

Sec. 1
The following are citizens of the Philippines:
(1) Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this
Constitution (Feb. 2, 1987)
(2) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines; (Jus

(3) Those born before January 17, 1973 (Ratification of the 1973 Consitution),
of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of
majority; and
(4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

An act of formally adopting a foreigner into the political
body of the state, clothing him with the rights and privileges
of citizenship.
Generally implies the renunciation of the former citizenship
but this is not the case under Philippine laws (RA 9225).
Acquired either by judgment of court or by direct act of
Congress or by administrative proceedings.

Am I Natural-Born
Sec. 2.
Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the
Philippines from birth without to perform any act to acquire
or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect
Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3),
Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens.

Kinds of Citizens under the

Natural-born citizens

Citizens at the time of the adoption of the new

Citizens through election

Naturalized citizens
Only NATURAL-BORN citizens have FULL political

Filipino for Life?

Sec. 3.
Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.
Ways of Acquiring or Losing Citizenship

Ways of Reacquiring Citizenship

By Naturalization
By Repatriation
By Direct Act of Congress

Marriage of a Citizen to
an Alien
Sec. 4.
Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall
retain their citizenship, unless, by their act or omission
they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it.

Dual Allegiance vs. Dual

Sec. 5.

Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and

shall be dealt with by law.
What is prohibited is dual allegiance and not dual citizenship!
Why? Because we have no control over the laws of other

For every right there must

be a corresponding duty

Duties and obligations of

To be loyal to the republic
To love and defend the country

To contribute to the development and welfare of the state

To uphold the constitution and obey the laws
To exercise rights responsibly and with due regard for the rights of
To engage in gainful work
To register and vote

The little hero in all of us!

12 "little things"
every filipino can do to help our country

Follow traffic rules

Whenever you buy or pay for anything ask for an official receipt
Do not buy smuggled goods. Buy local. Buy Filipino
When you talk to others, especially to foreigners, speak positively of our race and our country
Respect your traffic enforcer, soldier and other public servants
Do not litter. Dispose your garbage properly. Segregate. Recycle. Conserve
Support your church (charitable or civic organizations)
During elections, do your solemn duty
Pay your employees well
Pay your taxes
Adopt a scholar or adopt a poor child
Be a good parent

Progress = good
governance +
responsible citizenship


De leon, H. (2014). Textbook on the Philippine

Constitution. Philippines: Rex Bookstore. Pp 3237.