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NEBOSH

International
General Certificate
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 1
860409

Licence details
RMS Publishing Limited
Victoria House, Lower High Street, Stourbridge DY8 1TA
ACT Associates Limited.
First Edition September 2007.
All rights reserved. No part of this presentation may be stored in a retrieval system, reproduced, or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the Publishers.
This presentation may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form other than that in which it is published,
without the prior consent of the Publishers.
This presentation may not be reproduced in any form without prior consent of the Publishers other than a single copy thumbnail handout for
immediate use by the tutor.
Whilst every effort is made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the information contained herein, RMS/ACT can bear no liability for any
omission or error.

Issued to: Strabag


Single Licence
Licence No: 860409

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 2
860409

NEBOSH
International
General Certificate
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 3
860409

Unit IGC2
Control of
International
workplace hazards
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 4
860409

Element 4
Electrical - hazards
and control
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 5
860409

Electrical hazards and control

Learning outcomes
4.1

4.2

Identify the hazards and evaluate the


consequential risks from the use of electricity
in the workplace
Describe the control measures that should be
taken when working with electrical systems
or using electrical equipment

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 6
860409

Electrical hazards and control

Contents of element
4.1
4.2

Hazards and risks associated with


electricity at work
Control measures

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 7
860409

Electrical hazards and control

Contents of element
4.1
4.2

Hazards and risks associated with


electricity at work
Control measures

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 8
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity

If misused can be very dangerous and often fatal


Has a major danger
Sight, hearing and smell will not detect electricity
Contact with exposed conductors 240V can be lethal
Number of electrical notifiable accidents is small
10-20 reported fatalities each year so severity is high
Accident often caused by complacency not ignorance

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 9
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity

Basic circuitry
Current - flow of electrons through a conductor
Current flows due to differences in electrical pressure
Differences are measured in volts
Direct current (DC)
Alternating current (AC)
Resistance, inductance or capacitance
Impedance measured in ohms

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 10
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
A basic electrical circuit

Source: RMS Publishing

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 11
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
Relationship between voltage, current and resistance
Electrical pressure = Volts (V)
Current = Amperes or Milliamperes (I)
Resistance = OHMS (R)
V=IxR

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 12
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
An electric circuit under fault conditions showing
resistances in the path of a fault current

Source: R. Gilmour.

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 13
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
Relationship between voltage, current and resistance
By Ohms law;
Current

Voltage
Resistance

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 14
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Hazards of electricity

Shock
Electrical burns
Electrical fires
Explosions
Secondary injuries

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 15
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effects on the body


Effects of current flowing in the human body
CURRENT (mA)

LENGTH OF TIME

LIKELY EFECTS

0-1

Not critical

Threshold of feeling. Undetected by person.

1-15

Not critical

Threshold of cramp. Independent loosening of the


hands no longer possible.

15-30

Minutes

Cramp-like pulling together of the arms, breathing


difficult. Limit of tolerance.

30-50

Seconds to minutes

Strong cramp like effects, loss of consciousness due


to restricted breathing. Longer time may lead to
fibrillation.

50-500

Less than one heart period


(750 mS)

No fibrillation. Strong shock effects.

Greater
period

Fibrillation. Loss of consciousness. Burn marks.

Over 500

than

one

heart

Less than one heart period

Fibrillation. Loss of consciousness. Burn marks.


Source: RMS Publishing

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 16
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body

Factors influencing severity


Voltage
Frequency
Duration
Resistance
Current path

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 17
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body


First aid treatment for electric shock
In case of electrical shock:
Do
Switch off or remove the plug
No remaining connection to the supply
Assess the situation
Call for qualified support
If safe, check the casualtys response

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 18
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body


First aid treatment for electric shock
In case of electrical shock:
Check
A - Airway
Is it open?
B - Breathing
Is the casualty breathing normally?
C - Circulation Does the casualty have a normal
pulse?

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 19
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body


First aid treatment for electric shock
In case of electrical shock:
Action
CPR
Recovery position
Keep the casualty under observation

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 20
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body


First aid treatment for electric shock
In case of electrical shock:
Do not
Do not go near the casualty until the electricity supply is
proven to be off
Do not delay
Do not wait

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 21
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electrical burns
Direct
Electricity passing through the body
Burns to the skin and tissue
Indirect
Short circuit contacts
Hot parts
Molten materials
Fire

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 22
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electrical fires
Common causes
Wiring with defects such as insulation failure
Overheating of cables
Incorrect fuse rating
Poor connections

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 23
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Portable electric equipment


Conditions and practices likely to lead to accidents
Unsuitable equipment
Inadequate maintenance
Use of defective apparatus

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 24
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Secondary hazards
Injury results from the flow of electricity through the bodys
nerves, muscles and organs and causes abnormal function
to occur
Muscular spasm may be severe
Injuries may result from dislocation, impact with surrounding
objects or fall from a height
A tool may be dropped causing such injuries as burns or
impact injury to the user or others near by

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 25
860409

Electrical hazards and control

Contents of element
4.1
4.2

Hazards and risks associated with


electricity at work
Control measures

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 26
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Selection and suitability of equipment


It is critical to ensure that all electrical equipment is
suitable
Many tools are designed and provided for use in a
domestic situation and they may not be suitable for use in
the more arduous conditions of a construction site
Part of the selection process is to determine situations
where low voltage, such as 110 volt systems, can be used
in preference to 240 volts

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 27
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Fuse
Wire melts = current breaks
Protects equipment not user
Fuse ratings may be wrong
Fuse rating calculation
Current (Amperes) = Power (watts)
Voltage (volts)

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 28
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Earthing
Conductor connected to earth
Earth is lowest point of potential
Connected to equipment casing

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 29
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Isolation
Excellent way of achieving safety for those that need to
work on or near the system
Can mean switching off and unplugging a portable
appliance at times it is not in use
Check that the isolation has been adequate and effective
before work starts - tests on the system
Ensure the isolation is secure - lock off and tag out
systems

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 30
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Reduced low voltage systems
Step down transformer (110v)
Centre tap to earth (55v shock)
Reduces effect of electric shock
Portable

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 31
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Residual Current Device (RCD)
Detects system current leaks
Response = 30mA and 30mS
Reduces effect of electric shock
Protects the user
Fixed or portable
Built in test facility

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 32
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Double insulation
2nd protective insulated layer
Not normally used with earth

Source: HSG107

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 33
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies

User checks
Formal inspection and tests
Frequency of inspection and testing
Records of inspection and testing
Advantages and limitations of Portable Appliance Testing
(PAT)

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 34
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


User checks
Damaged cable sheaths
Damaged plugs; cracked casing or bent pins
Taped or other inadequate cable joints
Outer cable insulation not secured into plugs or equipment
Faulty of ineffective switches
Burn marks or discolouration
Damaged casing
Loose parts or screws
Wet or contaminated equipment
Loose or damaged sockets or switches
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 35
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Formal inspection and tests
Portable equipment check:
Use of correctly rated fuse
Effective cord grip
Secure and correct cable terminations

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 36
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Formal inspection and tests
Fixed installations check:
Damaged or loose conduit, trunking or cabling
Missing, broken or inadequately secured covers
Loose or faulty joints
Loose earth connections
Moisture, corrosion or contamination
Burn marks or discolourisation
Open or inadequately secured panel doors
Ease of access to switches and isolators
Presence of temporary writing
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 37
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Frequency of inspection and testing
Deciding the frequency
Factors:
Type of equipment
Whether its hand held
Manufacturers recommendations
Its initial integrity and soundness
Age
Working environment
Likelihood of mechanical damage
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 38
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Frequency of inspection and testing
Deciding the frequency (continued)
Factors:
Frequency of use
Duration of use
Foreseeable use
Who uses it
Modifications or repairs
Past experience

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 39
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Records of inspection and testing
Use a checklist recording that the appropriate checks
inspections and tests have been done
Common practice to add a label to the system or part of the
system to indicate that an inspection has taken place
Personal electrical devices should be treated and tested as if
it were company property

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 40
860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Advantages and limitations of Portable Appliance Testing
(PAT)
The first level of inspection would be carried out by the
operator before the appliance is used
Second check would be supplemented by a more formal
visual inspection by an appointed person
Third strategy would include the periodic combined inspection
and testing of the appliance by a competent person

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 41
860409

Electrical hazards and control

Contents of element
4.1
4.2

Hazards and risks associated with


electricity at work
Control measures

Copyright RMS Publishing


IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 42
860409

Element 4
Electrical - hazards
and control
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 43
860409

Unit IGC2
Control of
International
workplace hazards
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 44
860409

NEBOSH
International
General Certificate
Copyright RMS Publishing
IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 45
860409