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DC MOTOR DRIVES

(MEP 1422)

Dr. Nik Rumzi Nik Idris


Department of Energy Conversion
FKE, UTM

Contents
Introduction
Trends in DC drives
Principles of DC motor drives
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phase-controlled Rectifier
DC-DC converter (Switch-mode)
Modeling of DC motor
Closed-loop speed control
Cascade Control Structure
Closed-loop speed control - an example
Torque loop
Speed loop
Summary

INTRODUCTION
DC DRIVES: Electric drives that use DC motors
as the prime movers
DC motor: industry workhorse for decades
Dominates variable speed applications before
PE converters were introduced
Will AC drive replaces DC drive ?
Predicted 30 years ago
DC strong presence easy control huge numbers
AC will eventually replace DC at a slow rate

Introduction

DC Motors
Advantage: Precise torque and speed control
without sophisticated electronics
Several limitations:
Regular Maintenance

Expensive

Heavy

Speed limitations

Sparking

Introduction

DC Motors - 2 pole
Rotor

Stator

Introduction

DC Motors - 2 pole
Armature reaction
Armature mmf produces
flux which distorts main
flux produce by field
X

X
X
X
X

Mechanical commutator to maintain armature current direction

Introduction

Armature reaction

Flux at one side of the pole may saturate

Zero flux region shifted


Flux saturation, effective flux per pole decreases

Armature mmf distorts field flux


Large machine employs compensation windings and interpoles

Introduction
Ra
+

Lf

La
ia

Rf
if

Vt

ea

Vf

di a
v t R a ia L
ea
dt

v f R f if L

Te k t i a

Electric torque

ea k E

Armature back e.m.f.

di f
dt

Introduction
Armature circuit:

Vt R a i a L

di a
ea
dt

In steady state,

Vt R a Ia Ea
Therefore steady state speed is given by,

Vt
R a Te

k T k T 2
Three possible methods of speed control:
Field flux
Armature voltage Vt
Armature resistance Ra

Introduction

Vt
kT

Vt
R T
a e2
k T k T
Varying Vt

TL

Vt

Te
Requires variable DC supply

Introduction

Vt
kT

Vt
R T
a e2
k T k T
Varying Vt

TL

Vt

Te
Requires variable DC supply

Introduction
Vt (k T )

R a Te
k T
Varying Vt

TL

Constant TL

Te
Requires variable DC supply

Introduction
Vt (k T )
Vt

R a Te
k T

Vt (k T ) Ia R a

Vt,rate d

Varying Vt
Constant TL

Ia R a

base

Introduction

Vt
R T
a e2
k T k T
Varying Ra

Vt
kT

TL

Ra

Te
Simple control
Losses in external resistor

Introduction

Vt
kT

Vt
R T
a e2
k T k T
Varying

TL

Te
Not possible for PM motor
Maximum torque capability reduces

Introduction
Armature voltage control : retain maximum torque capability

Field flux control (i.e. flux reduced) : reduce maximum torque capability
For wide range of speed control
0 to base armature voltage, above base field flux reduction
Armature voltage control
Field flux control

Te
Maximum
Torque capability

base

Introduction

Te
Maximum
Torque capability

base

Introduction

P Te

Constant torque

Constant power

Pmax

base
0 to base armature voltage,
P = EaIa,max = kaIa,max

above base field flux reduction


Pmax = EaIa,max = kabaseIa,max
1/

MODELING OF CONVERTERS
AND DC MOTOR
POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS
Used to obtain variable armature voltage

Efficient
Ideal : lossless
Phase-controlled rectifiers (AC DC)
DC-DC switch-mode converters(DC DC)

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (ACDC)


ia

+
3-phase
supply

Vt

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier
3phase
supply

+
3-phase
supply

Vt

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier
R1

F1
3-phase
supply
+

Va

F2

R2

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)


Firing circuit firing angle control
Establish relation between vc and Vt
+
iref

+
-

current
controller

vc

firing
circuit

controlled
rectifier Vt

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)


Firing angle control

linear firing angle control

vt
vc

180

Va

vc
180
vt

2Vm
cos c 180

vt

Cosine-wave crossing control

v c vs cos
2Vm v c
Va
vs

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)


Steady state: linear gain amplifier
Cosine wavecrossing method
Transient: sampler with zero order hold
converter
T
GH(s)

T 10 ms for 1-phase 50 Hz system


3.33 ms for 3-phase 50 Hz system

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)


400
200
0

Output
voltage

-200
-400
0.3

0.31

0.32

0.33

0.34

0.35

0.36

Control
signal

Td
10
5

Cosine-wave
crossing

0
-5
-10
0.3

0.31

0.32

0.33

0.34

0.35

0.36

Td Delay in average output voltage generation


0 10 ms for 50 Hz single phase system

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)

Model simplified to linear gain if bandwidth


(e.g. current loop) much lower than sampling
frequency
Low bandwidth limited applications
Low frequency voltage ripple high current
ripple undesirable

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switchmode converters

T1

+
Vt
-

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switchmode converters

T1

D1

T2

+
Vt
D2 -

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Q1 T1 and D2
Q2 D1 and T2

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switchmode converters

T1

T4

D1

D3

+ Vt -

D4

D2

T3

T2

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switchmode converters
Switching at high frequency
Reduces current ripple
Increases control bandwidth

Suitable for high performance applications

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switchmode converters - modeling


+
Vdc

Vdc

vtri
q

vc
1
q
0

when vc > vtri, upper switch ON


when vc < vtri, lower switch ON

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switchmode converters averaged model


Ttri

vc

q
d

Vdc

Vt

1
d
Ttri

1
Vt
Ttri

t Ttri

dTtri

t on
qdt
Ttri
Vdc dt dVdc

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switchmode converters averaged model


d
1
0.5
0

vc

-Vtri,p

Vtri,p

d 0.5

vc
2Vtri,p

Vt 0.5Vdc

Vdc
vc
2Vtri,p

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

Switchmode converters small signal model

Vdc
Vt ( s)
v c ( s)
2Vtri,p

2-quadrant converter

Vdc
Vt ( s)
v c ( s)
Vtri,p

4-quadrant converter

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet


v t ia R a L a

di a
ea
dt

Te = kt ia

dm
Te Tl J
dt
e e = kt

Extract the dc and ac components by introducing small


perturbations in Vt, ia, ea, Te, TL and m
ac components
~
d
i
~
~
v t ia R a L a a ~
ea
dt

~
~
Te k E ( ia )

dc components
Vt Ia R a Ea
Te k EIa

~
~)
ee k E (

Ee k E

~)
d(
~
~
~
Te TL B J
dt

Te TL B()

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

DC motor small signal model


Perform Laplace Transformation on ac components
~
d
i
~
~
v t ia R a L a a ~
ea
dt

Vt(s) = Ia(s)Ra + LasIa + Ea(s)

~
~
Te k E ( ia )

Te(s) = kEIa(s)

~
~)
ee k E (

Ea(s) = kE(s)

~)
d(
~
~
~
Te TL B J
dt

Te(s) = TL(s) + B(s) + sJ(s)

Modeling of Converters and DC motor

DC motor small signal model

Tl (s)

Va (s)
+
-

1
R a sL a

Ia (s)

kT

Te (s)

1
B sJ

kE

(s )

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL


Cascade control structure
* +

position
controller
* +

speed
controller
T* +

torque
controller

converter
Motor

tacho
kT

1/s

The control variable of inner loop (e.g. torque) can be


limited by limiting its reference value

It is flexible outer loop can be readily added or removed


depending on the control requirements

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Design procedure in cascade control structure

Inner loop (current or torque loop) the fastest


largest bandwidth

The outer most loop (position loop) the slowest


smallest bandwidth

Design starts from torque loop proceed towards


outer loops

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Closed-loop speed control an example


OBJECTIVES:

Fast response large bandwidth

Minimum overshoot
good phase margin (>65o)

BODE PLOTS

Zero steady state error very large DC gain

METHOD

Obtain linear small signal model

Design controllers based on linear small signal model

Perform large signal simulation for controllers verification

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Closed-loop speed control an example


Permanent magnet motors parameters
Ra = 2

La = 5.2 mH

B = 1 x104 kg.m2/sec

J = 152 x 106 kg.m2

ke = 0.1
V/(rad/s)

kt = 0.1
Nm/A

Vd = 60 V

Vtri = 5 V

fs = 33
kHz
PI controllers

Switching signals from comparison


of vc and triangular waveform

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Torque controller design


vtri

Torque
controller

Tc

Vdc

kt

DC motor
Tl (s)

Converter

Te (s)

Torque
controller

+
-

Vdc
Vtri,peak

Ia (s)
1
R a sL a

Va (s)

kT

Te (s)

kE

1
B sJ

(s )

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Torque controller design


Open-loop gain

Bode Diagram
From: Input Point To: Output Point

150

kpT= 90

Magnitude (dB)

100

compensated

kiT= 18000

50

-50
90

Phase (deg)

45

compensated

-45

-90
-2

10

-1

10

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

10

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Speed controller design


Assume torque loop unity gain for speed bandwidth << Torque bandwidth

T*
Speed
controller

Torque loop

1
B sJ

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Speed controller
Open-loop gain

Bode Diagram
From: Input Point To: Output Point

150

Magnitude (dB)

100

kps= 0.2

50

compensated

-50
0

Phase (deg)

-45

-90
-135

compensated

-180
-2

10

-1

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

10

10

10

kis= 0.14

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL

Large Signal Simulation results


40
20

Speed

0
-20
-40

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

2
1

Torque

0
-1
-2

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL DESIGN EXAMPLE

SUMMARY
Speed control by: armature voltage (0 b) and field flux (b)
Power electronics converters to obtain variable armature voltage
Phase controlled rectifier small bandwidth large ripple
Switch-mode DC-DC converter large bandwidth small ripple
Controller design based on linear small signal model
Power converters - averaged model
DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet
Closed-loop speed control design based on Bode plots
Verify with large signal simulation