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DISORDERS OF THE

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE TWO PICTURES


Gigantism

Dwarfism

DISORDERS OF THE PITUITARY GLAND


Gigantism- result
from
the
overproduction
of
growth hormones.
It may be treated
through radiation of
overactive
pituitary
gland or surgical
operation
of
the
cause is a tumor.
1.

2.

Dwarfism caused
by underproduction of
growth
hormones
during childhood.

A person who is less


than 1.27m (4.17 ft)
tall
is
considered
undersize.

People with dwarfism


have been less than
64cm (24 inches) tall
when fully grown.

DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND


Goiter- is the swelling of
the thyroid gland caused
by iodine deficiency. It
can be classified as
follows:
1.
Hyperthyroidism caused
by
overproduction
of
thyroxine.

This type of goiter is


characterized
by
protruding
eyeballs
,
nervousness, and weight
loss.

2.

Hypothyroidismcondition in which
thyroid gland secretes
too little thyroxine

Endemic
goiterthyroid is enlarged in
attempt to produce
more thyroxine.

DISORDER OF THE PARATHYROID GLANDS


Tetany is the result
of low level calcium in
the blood due to
deficieny
of
parathormone.
It is marked by painful
muscular
spasms,
tremor, and irregualr
muscular contractions.
It can be relieved by
injection of calcium in
the body.
1.

2.

Hyperparathyroidism- caused by over activity of


parathyroid gland that decrease of blood
phosphorus and increase calcium level.
Crystallization of calcium can cause kidney stone
and dysfunction of various organs.

DISORDERS OF THE PANCREAS


Diabetes Mellitus disease in which pancreas
produces little amount of insulin or no insulin at all.
This result in high glucose level in blood and urine.
There are two types of diabetes:

Type I diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes

Type II diabetes- caused by deficiency in insulin


production or by changes in insulin receptors on the
target cells. This form of diabetes usuallu becomes
noticeable in middle ages.

GLUCOSE METABOLISM OF PERSON WITH


DIABETES
1.

After food is digested,

2.

Glucose enters the blood


stream

3.

the pancreas cannot produce


enough insulin,

4.

Litlle or no insulin eneter the


bloodstream

5.

the body is forced to break


down fats instead of glucose
for energy,

6.

poisonous chemicals called


ketones are excreted in the
urine

7.

and
build
bloodstream

up

in

the

leading to a serious condition


that may cause coma or
death.

Hypoglycemia

caused by excess or high


insulin, or low blood sugar.
Symptoms of this include
diziniss,
nausea,
unconsciousness and it may
also lead to death.
To assist someone with this
problem, provide him/her
with some sugar by making
him/her drink softdrinks or
juices eat chocolates or
candy.

Hyperglycemia

Cause by low insulin or high


blood sugar. It can cause
nausea, rapid breathing ,
possibly leading to oxygen
deficiency, circulatory and
nervous system failure,
coma or death.

DISORDERS OF ADRENALS
Cushing Syndrome

Results from increased


activity of adrenal cortex.
Characterized by obesity,
increase blood sugar
levels and weakening of
the bones.

Treatment
involves
decreasing the secretion
of hyperactive hormones

Adisons`s disease

Caused by decreased
functional adrenal cortex.
Characterized by
weakness, abdominal
pains, fever and
hyperpigmentation.

Treatment involves
providing the body with
replacement
corticosteroid hormones
as well as dietary salt.