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Competency-based

HR Management

Contents
1. Framework for Building Competency-based HR
Management System

2. Developing Competency Model


3. Competency-based Interview Method
4. Competency-based Career Planning
5. Competency-based Training & Development
6. Competency-based Performance Management
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Competency-based HR
Management : A Framework

HR Management Framework
based on Competency
The

Competency based People Strategy

Recruitment &
Selection

BUSINESS
STRATEGY

Training &
Development

Performance
Management

COMPETENCY
FRAMEWORK

Reward
Management

Career
Management

BUSINESS
RESULTS

competency
framework
will be the
basis for all
HR functions
and serve as
the "linkage"
between
individual
performance
and business
results

Definition of Competency

Competency

A combination of skills, job attitude, and


knowledge which is reflected in job
behavior that can be observed,
measured and evaluated.

Competency is a determining factor for


successful performance

The focus of competency is behavior


which is an application of skills, job
attitude and knowledge.

Definition of Competency
Skill
Job Attitude
Knowledge
Competency

Observable Behavior

Job Performance
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Competency and Job Description

Job description looks at what, whereas competency model


focuses on how.

Traditional job description analysis looks at elements of the


jobs and defines the job into sequences of tasks necessary
to perform the job

Competency studies the people who do the job well, and


defines the job in terms of the characteristics and

behaviors of these people.

Types of Competency
Managerial competency (soft competency)
This type of competency relates to the ability to manage job and
develop an interaction with other persons. For example : problem
solving, leadership, communication, etc.
Functional competency (hard competency)
This type of competency relates to the functional capacity of work.
It mainly deals with the technical aspect of the job. For example :
market research, financial analysis, electrical engineering, etc.

Competency Identification Process


Clarify
Organizational
Strategy and
Context

Competency
Identification

Analyze Work Role and


Process

Generate
Competency
Models

Gather Data through


Behavior Event Interview

Validate,
Refine and
Implement

and Focus Group

Conduct Benchmark
Study
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Examples of Competency
DEFINITION

AdaptabilityMaintaining effectiveness when priorities change and new


tasks are encountered, and when dealing with individuals who have different
views and approaches. Effectively performing in different environments,
cultures, and locations, and when working with different technologies and
levels of individuals.

KEY BEHAVIOR

Seeking understandingMakes efforts to better understand changes in


the environment; actively seeks

information or attempts to understand nature of individual differences, logic,


or basis for change in tasks and situations.

Embracing changeApproaches change or newness with a positive


orientation; views change or newness as a learning or growth opportunity.

Making accommodationsMakes accommodations in approach, attitudes,


or behaviors in response to changing environmental requirements.
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Examples of Competency
DEFINITION
Analysis/Problem AssessmentSecuring relevant information and identifying key
issues and relationships from a base of information; relating and comparing data
from different sources; identifying cause-effect relationships.
KEY BEHAVIOR

Identifying issues and problemsRecognizing major issues; identifying key facts,


trends, and issues; separating relevant from irrelevant data.

Seeking informationIdentifying/Recognizing information gaps or the need for


additional information; obtaining information by clearly describing what needs to be
known and the means to obtain it; questioning clearly and specifically to verify facts and
obtain the necessary information.

Seeing relationshipsOrganizing information and data to identify/explain trends,


problems, and their causes; comparing, contrasting, and combining information; seeing
associations between seemingly independent problems or events to recognize trends,
problems, and possible cause-effect relationships.

Performing data analysisOrganizing and manipulating quantitative data to


identify/explain trends, problems, and their causes.

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Benefits of Using Competency Model


For Managers, the benefits are:

Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease


of the hiring and selection process.

Clarify standards of excellence for easier communication of


performance expectations to direct reports.

Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the


manager and employee about performance, development, and
career-related issues.

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Benefits of Using Competency Model


For Employees, the benefits are:

Identify the success criteria (i.e., behavioral standards of


performance excellence) required to be successful in their role.

Support a more specific and objective assessment of their

strengths and specify targeted areas for professional


development.

Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their

skills.

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Key Characteristics of Successful


Implementation
1. Alignment: Competencies impact systems that actively support
the organizations vision, strategy, and key capabilities.
2. Integration: Competency initiatives that produce the most
significant change are applied systemically across a range of HR
development processes.
3. Distribution: Competency standards alone produce little effect.

They must be actively and relentlessly communicated and


installed with users.

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Key Characteristics of Successful


Implementation
4. Self-Directed Application: Competency systems frequently fail
because they are too complex or require an unsustainable level of
sponsorship or program support. Implementations that work best
focus on the development of tools that can produce results for
users with relatively little ongoing support.
5. Acculturation: In competency systems that work, they become
part of the culture and the mindset of leaders through repeated
application and refinement over a significant period of time.

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Competency-based
Interview for Selection

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Types of Interview

Conventional Interview

Competency-based Interview

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Conventional Interview

Unstructured :

Is a type of interview where the questions are not


designed systematically and not properly structured.

There is no standard format to follow, therefore the


process of interviewing can go in any direction.

Is seldom equipped with formal guidelines regarding

the system of rating/scoring the interview.

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Conventional Interview

Has low reliability and validity there is no accuracy


in predicting performance

Susceptible to bias and subjectivity (gut feeling)

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Competency-based Interview (CBI)

Is a structured type of interview. The questions are focused


on disclosing examples of behavior in the past.

The process of interview is intended to disclose


specifically and in detail examples of behavior in the past.

Is designed based on the principle : past behavior predicts


future behavior (Candidates are most likely to repeat these
behaviors in similar situations in the future).

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Competency-based Interview

Has a high level of validity and reliability.

Equipped with a standard scoring system which


refers to behavior indicators

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Approach in Competency-based Interview

S What was the Situation in which you were


involved?

T What was the Task you needed to accomplish?


A What Action(s) did you take?
R What Results did you achieve?
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Approach in Competency-based Interview


Situation
Can you explain the situation?
Where and when did the situation happen?
What events led up to it?
Who was involved in the situation (work colleagues,
supervisor, customers)?

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Approach in Competency-based Interview


Tasks/Actions
What tasks were you supposed to do at that time?
What did you actually do at that time?
How did you do it?
What specific steps did you take?
Who was involved?

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Approach in Competency-based Interview


Results
What was the outcome?
Can you tell me the results of taking such action?
What specific outcome was produced by your
action?

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Sample Questions in CBI


Competency

Sample Question

Persistence

In the process of selling, we are sometimes not


successful in securing a new transaction. Can you
tell me about one or two situations where you
repeatedly failed to get a new client?
What specific steps did you take? What was the
result?

Influencing Others

Can you describe one or two cases in your effort to


obtain new customers? What did you do? What was
the result?

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Sample Questions in CBI


Competency

Sample Question

Interpersonal
Understanding

Can you tell me about a situation where you faced


a client who was disappointed with your product?
What was the situation like? What specific steps
did you take? What was the result?

Planning &
Organizing

In working, we often face a number of priorities


that must be tackled at the same time. Can you tell
me about one or two actual cases where you had
to face such a situation? What did you do? What
was the consequence?

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Bias in the Interview Process

First
Impressions

An interviewer might make a snap judgement


about someone based on their first impression
- positive or negative - that clouds the entire
interview.
For example, letting the fact that the candidate
is wearing out-of-the-ordinary clothing or has a
heavy regional accent take precedence over
the applicant's knowledge, skills, or abilities.

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Bias in the Interview Process

Halo
Effect

The "halo" effect occurs when an interviewer


allows one strong point about the candidate to
overshadow or have an effect on everything
else.
For instance, knowing someone went to a
particular university might be looked upon
favorably. Everything the applicant says during
the interview is seen in this light.

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Bias in the Interview Process

Contrast
Effect

Strong(er) candidates who interview after


weak(er) ones may appear more qualified than
they are because of the contrast between the
two.
Note taking during the interview and a
reasonable period of time between interviews
may alleviate this.

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Competency-based
Career Planning

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Career Planning Flow


Career Planning
System

Career Path
Design
Analysis of Employees
Future Plan
Implementation of
Development Program

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Defining Career Path


What Is
Career
Path?

Career Path is a series of positions that one


must go through in order to achieve a certain
position in the company.
The path is based on the position competency
profile that an employee must have to be able to
hold a certain position.

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Defining Career Path


Analyzing a
position or job
based on the
competency
required

Competency
profile
(Functional and
Managerial
Competency)
Per Position

Categorizing the
positions that
require similar
competencies
into one job
family

Categorizing the
positions into a
Job Family

Identifying
career paths
based on the job
family

Career Path :
Vertical, Lateral
and Diagonal
Mandatory
training

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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Assessing Employee Career Plan


Employee
Career Needs

Organization
Career Needs
Match?

Assessment of the
career type of the
employee

Assessment of the
employee
competency level
(for example through
assessment center)

Assessment of the
competency profile
required by the
position

Assessment of the
organizations need
of manpower
planning

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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Employee Development Program


Employee
Career Needs

Organization
Career Needs
Match?

Development Programs and Interventions


Special Assignment

Apprenticeship in
Other Company

Training/Workshop

Executive
Development Program

On the Job
Development

Presentation
Assignment

Mentoring

Job Enrichment

Desk Study

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Competency-based
Training & Development

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Competency-based Training Framework


Current
competency
level of the
employee

Competency
Gap

Competency
Assessment

Required
competency
level for certain
position

Training and
Development
Program

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Competency Profile Per Position

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Competency Profile Per Position

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Training Matrix for Competency Development


Training Title

V = compulsory training

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Competency-based
Performance Management

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Individual Performance Element

Individual Performance
elements
has two main
categories:

1. Performance Results: Hard or


quantitative aspects of
performance (result)

2. Competencies: It represents
soft or qualitative aspects of
performance (process)

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Individual Performance Element


1. Performance Results Score

Overall Score
2. Competencies Score

Will determine the employees


career movement, and also
the reward to be earned

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Element # 1 : Performance Results

Target should be measurable and specific


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Element # 2 : Competencies
Competency : Collaboration
Basic

Intermediate

Advanced

Expert

Actively listens, and clarifies


understanding where required, in
order to learn from others.

Actively listens, and clarifies


understanding where required, in
order to learn from others.

Actively listens, and clarifies


understanding where required, in
order to learn from others.

Actively listens, and clarifies understanding


where required, in order to learn from others.

Empathise with audience and


formulates messages accordingly.

Empathise with audience and


formulates messages accordingly.

Empathise with audience and


formulates messages accordingly.

Empathise with audience and formulates


messages accordingly.

Shares resources and information.

Shares resources and information.

Shares resources and information.

Shares resources and information.

Responds promptly to other team


members needs.

Balances complementary strengths


in teams and seeks diverse
contributions and perspectives.

Actively builds internal and external


networks.

Builds internal and external networks and uses


them to efficiently to create value.

Involves teams in decisions that


effect them.

Uses cross functional teams to draw


upon skills and knowledge
throughout the organization.

Uses cross functional teams to draw upon


skills and knowledge throughout the
organization.

Encourages co-operation rather than


competition within the team and with
key stakeholders.

Builds and maintains relationships


across The company.

Drives and leads key relationship groups


across The company.
Manages alliance relationships through
complex issues such as points of competing
interest.
Ensures events and systems, eg IT, for
collaboration are in place and used.
Draws upon the full range of relationships
(internal, external, cross The company) at
critical points in marketing and negotiations.

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Assessing Competency through


Assessment Center
Assessment Center Characteristics:

A standardized evaluation of behavior based on multiple inputs.

Multiple trained observers and techniques are used.

Judgments about behaviors are made, in major part, from


specifically developed assessment simulations.

These judgments are pooled in a meeting among the assessors


or by a statistical integration process

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Types of Test in Assessment Center


In-Basket
Exercise

Role
Simulation

In-trays or in-baskets involve working from the


contents of a managers in-tray, which typically
consists of letters, memos and background
information. You may be asked to deal with
paperwork and make decisions, balancing the
volume of work against a tight schedule.

In a role play, you are given a particular role to


assume for a certain task. The task will involve
dealing with a role player in a certain way, and
there will be an assessor watching the role play.

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Types of Test in Assessment Center


Presentation

Fact-Finding
Exercise

You may be required to make a formal presentation to


a number of assessors. In some cases this will mean
preparing a presentation in advance on a given topic.
In other cases, you may be asked to interpret and
analyse given information, and present a case to
support a decision.

In a fact-finding exercise, you may be asked to


reach a decision starting from only partial
knowledge. Your task is to decide what additional
information you need to make the decision, and
sometimes also to question the assessor to obtain
this information.
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Types of Test in Assessment Center


Group
Discussion

Group exercises are timed discussions, where a


group of participants work together to tackle a
work-related problem. Sometimes you are given a
particular role within a team, for example sales
manager or personnel manager. Other times there
will be no roles allocated. You are observed by
assessors, who are not looking for right or wrong
answers, but for how you interact with your
colleagues in the team.

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Competency Assessment and Rating

Results of
Observation
Through the
Assessment Center

Competency Score

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Recommended Further Readings


1.

Paul Green, Building Robust Competency, John Wiley and Sons

2.

David Dubois, Competency-based HR Management, Black Publishing

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