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Trusses

Date : 20th May 2012


Name Of Professor : Mr. Sanjay
Subject : Building Construction III

Submitted By : Fairuz , Barch/8008/10

Truss & Its Characteristics:


A truss

is a structure comprising
one or more triangular units .
A triangle

is the simplest geometric


figure that will not change shape
when the lengths of the sides are
fixed.[
It

is constructed with straight


members

Nodes
Triangular
unit

Ends

are connected at joints


referred to as nodes.
External

forces and reactions to


those forces are considered to act
only at the nodes

Hinges
Force acting on the members can
either be tensile or compressive.

Moments

are excluded because all


the joints in a truss are treated
as Hinges or Revolute.

Straight
Members

Truss & Its Component:

Heel - The point on the truss where the top and bottom chords intersect
Slope - The vertical rise in inches for every 12 inches of horizontal run.
Panel Length - The horizontal distance between the centerlines of two consecutive panel points
along the top or bottom chord.
Peak - The point on the truss where the sloped chords meet.
Top Chord - Horizontal distance between the centerlines of two consecutive panel points along
the top or bottom chord.
Continuous Lateral Brace - Members installed at right angles to a chord or web member of a
truss to provide stability to the truss. All lateral braces must be stabilized.
Overall Height - Vertical distance between bearing and the uppermost point of the peak.

Truss & Its Component:

Wedge - The triangular piece of lumber inserted between the top and bottom chords, usually to
allow the truss to cantilever.
Bottom Chord - The incline or horizontal member that establishes the bottom of a truss,
usually carrying combined tension and bending stress.
Splice - The location at which two chord members are joined together to form a single member.
It may occur at a panel point or between panel points.
Panel Point - Also called a joint, it's the location on a truss where the web members and top or
bottom chords intersect and are connected by metal connector plates.
Web - The members that join the top and bottom chords to form the triangular patterns typical
of trusses.

Truss & Its Component:

Bearing - Structural support, usually a beam or a wall that is designed by the designer to carry
the truss reaction loads to the foundation.
Overhang - Extension of the top chord of a truss beyond the outside of the bearing support.
Span - The horizontal distance between the outside edges of the exterior bearing supports, or
the bottom chord length, whichever is greater.
Bottom Chord Length - Usually the same as the span.
Cantilever - The part of the truss that extends beyond its support, not the same as an overhang.
Truss Plate Are plates which are used to connect the members together in the truss
manufacturing process.

Analysis Of Truss:
There are 4 main assumptions
made in the analysis of Truss
system :
Truss

members are connected


together at their ends

Truss are connected together


by frictionless pins

Truss structure is loaded only


at joints.

Weight of the truss members


may be neglected.

Different Types Of Trusses:

Flat Truss

Queen Post Truss

Bowstring Truss

Lenticular Truss

King Post Truss

Town Lattice Truss

Parallel Chord Truss:

Also known as Flat truss

Has parallel top chord


and bottom chord.

The

top and bottom


chord must be correctly
positioned during
installation to ensure
structural integrity is
maintained.
Are

usually designed to
be supported at the ends
only
Often used for floor
construction.

Bowstring Truss:
Also

known as
Crescent Truss
Is

a truss consisting
of curved top chord
meeting bottom chord
at each end.
Has diagonal loadbearing members.

Often confused
with tied arch bridges

King Post Truss:


A king

post is also known


as crown post truss
It

is the simplest form of


truss .
Is used for simple roof
trusses and short-span
bridges.

Truss consists of two


diagonal members that meet
at the apex of the truss,.

Consists

of one horizontal
beam that ties the bottom
end of the diagonals together
The

king post connects the


apex to the horizontal beam
below.

Queen Post Truss:


Is similar to a king post
truss

Is used for simple roof


trusses and short-span
bridges.

Is a supporting post
designed to span longer
openings than a king post.

A king

post uses one


central supporting post,
whereas the queen post uses
two.

Lenticular Truss:
A lenticular

truss bridge
includes a lens-shape
truss.
It has trusses between
an upper arch & lower
arch.

Upper curves up and


then down to end points
while lower arch curves
down and then up to meet
at the same end points.
where the arches extend
above and below the
roadbed.

Mainly

used in the
construction of stadium.

Town Lattice Truss:


Was an alternative to
heavy-timber bridges.

Truss

consists of parallel
top chord & bottom chord
Consists of planks
which are arranged
diagonally with short
spaces in between them.

Treenails, or wooden
pins, connect the bridge's
timbers at each
intersection of the truss
system.

Mainly

used in the
construction of bridges

Advantages Of Truss :

Are Cost effective.

Can be installed quickly even without heavy equipment to


lift it into place.

Unique properties of a triangular object allow trusses to


span across longer distances.

A triangular truss maintains its shape, preventing shift and


sag. Thus giving stability to the structure.

The shape of a triangle allows all of the weight applied to the


sides to be redistributed down and away from the center.

THANK YOU