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WATER TREATMENT`

Prepared by: Mahdi khalife 2865


Presented to: Dr. Bassam Ryachi

INTRODUTION

Water quality is not always suitable for


the numerous activities such as: drinking,
irrigation, industry
Water should be treated before coming to
usage.
Many factors may affect the water quality.
Our concern in this research is the
potable water.

INTRODUTION

Water may be contaminated by many


sources of pollution such as: airports,
septic tanks, automobiles, industrial
facilities, mining operations, agricultural
application, watersheds
The different sources of pollution
requires a multi-stages treatment
process.

WATER TREATMENT STAGES


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

INTAKE
COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION
SEDIMENTATION (SETTLING)
FILTRATION
DISINFECTION

1. INTAKE
The intake process is simply pumping the
water under treatment from its source to
the treatment station.
The sources of water may be surface or
underground sources.

2. COAGULATION AND
FLOCCULATION
Some particles in water have the ability
to settle by themselves, while others are
not due to many reasons, such as their
small size or the existing charges
The process of coagulation and
flocculation is necessary to remove such
objects.

2. COAGULATION AND
FLOCCULATION
Types of objects in water:
1. Chemicals in solution, which are electrically charged,
dissolved and stable in water, so they dont settle
automatically.
2. Colloidal solids, they are electrically charged but
they are not dissolved in water, these particles are very
small particles and they will not settle even in years.
3. Suspended solids, they are solids of larger diameter
than colloidal, they may settle alone if left in water for a
long time.

2. COAGULATION AND
FLOCCULATION
Particles in water tends usually to have a
negative charge, so they repel each other
and they will never settle.

2. COAGULATION AND
FLOCCULATION
Coagulant chemicals tend to have positive
charge to neutralize the charges to prevent the
repulsion.
The amount of the coagulant is determined
according the Zeta potential.

2. COAGULATION AND
FLOCCULATION
The Van der waal force causes the
neutral particles to attract each other.

2. COAGULATION AND
FLOCCULATION
When enough particles attract and join
each other they floc, i.e. form bigger
particles that may settle or may be
filtered.

2. COAGULATION AND
FLOCCULATION
There are many used coagulants, but the
most commonly used are alum and ferric
sulfate.

3. SEDIMENTATION
Also called settling. It is the process of
lowering the velocity of water below the
suspension velocity so that the
suspended particles fall by gravity.
This process comes after the coagulation
and flocculation process. Or it may be at
the beginning of the treatment but not
very effective.

3. SEDIMENTATION
There are there common types of basins of
sedimentation:
1. Rectangular basin, it is composed of a large tank
where water flows horizontally. It is cheep and simple
in design and low maintenance is needed, the risk of
short circuit is low. But it occupies a large area.

3. SEDIMENTATION
2. Double deck rectangular basin: are essentially two
rectangular sedimentation basins placed one above the
other. This type of basin conserves land area, but has
higher operation and maintenance costs than a onelevel rectangular basin.

3. SEDIMENTATION
3. Square or circular sedimentation basin: water flows
horizontally, they are also known as clarifiers. This
type of basin is likely to have short-circuiting
problems.

3. SEDIMENTATION
Four zones are observed during the
settling process. The inlet zone, the
settling zone, the sludge zone and the
outlet zone.

3. SEDIMENTATION
Inlet zone: the most important points in this zone is to
distribute water and control velocity to prevent
turbulence.
Settling zone: it is a large expanse of water where
water velocity is reduced. Tube settlers increase the
settling efficiency.
Outlet zone: water speed should be also low, outlets
can control the level of water. Usually baffles are
installed to prevent floating materials from passing.
Sludge zone: the velocity should be extremely slow to
prevent re-suspension of settled solids. Sludge should
be disposed from the basin to increase the usable
volume of the tank.

4. FILTRATION
In this process more suspended particles
should be removed from water.
It the process that follows sedimentation.
It is necessary to reduce the turbidity not
because turbidity is harmful by itself, but
because it harden the disinfection
process.

4. FILTRATION
Usually sand filters are used in the
filtration process.
Some chemicals called polymer aid may
help to catch the flocs.
Four mechanisms are observed in the
filtration process: straining, adsorption,
biological action and absorption.

4. FILTRATION
Straining: it is passing the water through
a medium where pores are smaller than
the flocs, so they can be captured.
Sand is good for such application.

4. FILTRATION
Adsorption: it is of the most important
mechanisms, composed of gathering
gas, liquid or solid particles on the
surface of another material. And very
small particles in the water can stick to
the sand particles.

4. FILTRATION
Biological action: it involves the
breakdown of particles in water by
biological action. This may involve
decomposition of organic particles by
algae, plankton, diatoms, and bacteria or
it may involve microorganisms eating
each other.

4. FILTRATION
Absorption: it is the process of soaking
up of a substance in another body. And
here liquid is absorbed by sand grain.
This is not an important mechanism in
the filtration.

4. FILTRATION
Main types of filters and some of there
properties are shown in the following
table:
TYPES OF FILTERS

4. FILTRATION
Some filters require backwashing process such
as the sand filters. The process is composed of
reversing the direction of water and increasing
the velocity to cause the suspension of sand
and flocs and remove the infiltrates from the
sand.

4. FILTRATION
Some filters might include many media which
increase its efficiency and its capability to
remove many types of dirts.
Media are arranged successively according to
decreasing pores.

5. DISINFECTOIN
In this process, pathogens must be killed or
removed to ensure that the drinking water
doesnt contain any disease agent.
Sedimentation and filtration removes some
bacteria from water by physical manner.
Disinfection is usually killing or inacativating
bacteria by chemical means.

5. DISINFECTOIN
Chlorination is the most common
disinfection method in water treatment.
But it may holds some disadvantages to
water like making an odor or taste, of
reducing iron and magnesium contained
in water.
Chlorination is also beneficial in
coagulation.

5. DISINFECTOIN
Of the reactions that takes place when
chlorine is added:
Cl2 + H2O HOCl + HCl
HOCl is effective in killing the bacteria.
The pH of water will control the amount of
formation of HCl.