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# Introduction

## Steps for Design

Geometry Modeling
Design Parameters
Analysis & Design

## Benefits of Steel Structure

Frame Types
Concentric / Eccentric Braced Frame
Steel Frame Connection Types
Simple Connection
Moment Connection
EM Connection Capacity Design Flow Chart

Forces

from

Gravity

,wind

and

## Forces that act horizontally such as

wind, seismic require a lateral load
resisting

system

to

be

built

in

structure.

## When lateral loads are applied to a

structure,

horizontal

diaphragm

resisting system.

## Structural steel frame elevation

The type of lateral load (Seismic, Wind, Friction, Thermal ) resisting system to

Braced Frame

Rigid Frame

## Common lateral load resisting systems

Rigid frame, utilize the moment connection and this type is preferred where
diagonal or x- bracing is not allowed due to walkway obstruction.

## Draw back of rigid frame is more cost than braced frame.

Braced frame is the economical method of resisting wind load in multi storey

structural frame.

## Bracing creates triangular configuration in the structures.

Some structures like below picture take the advantage of both rigid and

## Member or system that provides stiffness

and strength to limit the out of plan
movement of another member at the braced

## Two types of bracing is defined in AISC

(1997) seismic provision in steel structural
building.
A. Concentric Bracing
B. Eccentric Bracing

Concentrically braced frame are those in which the centerlines of members that
meet at a joint intersect at a point to form a vertical truss system that resist
lateral forces.

## Commonly used bracing system in steel structure is

X- bracing ( above left)

## X- bracing is the most

common system used in steel
buildings.

joint.

## require large gusset plate at

the beam to column joint.

## The members used in chevron bracing

are designed for both compression and
tension

## Chevron bracings allows for doorways or

corridors through the bracing lines in a
structure.

CHEVRON

DIAGONAL

of connections.

## The Floor level connection may use a

gusset plate as like in x-braced frame.

## The bracing members are connected to

the beam/girder at the top and converge to
a common point.

## When gusset plate is used, it in important

to consider their size when laying out any
mechanical equipment pass through
braced bays.

Eccentric brace is commonly used in seismic regions and allow corridors and
walkway through bay frame.

## In an eccentrically braced frames, bracing connect to a separate point on

beam/girder.

The beam/girder segment or link between them absorbs energy from seismic
activity through
plastic deformation.
Stiffeners
Beam or Girder

Gusset Plate

Eccentric Brace

## Eccentric single diagonal brace can also be use to brace a frame.

The specification of structural steel building (AISC 2010) defines two types of

frame connections.
Simple Connection

(below left)

Moment Connection

(below right)

## Simple Connection: Connection that transmit negligible amount of bending

moment between connected members.

## Moment Connection: Connection that transmit bending moment between

connected members.
Fully restrained moment connection FR : transfer moments with a negligible
amount of rotation between connected members.
Partially restrained moment connection PR : transfer moments, but rotation
between connected members is not negligible.

connections.

## Single plate Connection

( Shear Tab)
A plate is welded to the supporting
member and bolted to the web of the
supported beam.

## Double Angle Connection

The in plane pair of legs are attached to
the web of the supported member and out
of plane pair of legs attached to the
supporting beam web or flange.

Shear
end
connection

plate

## A plate is welded perpendicular to the

end of supported web and bolted to
supporting beam.

Seated connection
An angle is mounted with one leg vertical
against the supporting column & the other
leg provides a seat upon which the beam
is mounted ,a stabilizer connection is
provided at top of the web.

connection.

1.

2.

## moments with rotation between

members.

connected members.

## Bolted flange plate connection

Top and bottom flange plates connect the flanges of supported member to the supporting
column.

connection

## Complete joint penetration groove

welds directly top and bottom
flanges of the supported member
to supporting column.
A shear connection at web is used
to transfer the vertical shear force.

## A plate is welded to the end of

supported beam and bolted to the
supporting column flange.

*With column

PR moment connection

## A double angle simple connection

transfers vertical shear forces while top
and bottom flange plates resist moment
forces produced by wind.

## Top and bottom angle with shear

end plate connection

## Angles are bolted or welded to the top

and bottom flanges of the supported
member and to the supporting column.
A shear end plate on the web is used to
transfer vertical shear forces.

End Moment
Connection

Ma =min.(Mm,Mw,Mb,Mp,Mst) (kN-m)
Ta = min.(Tm,Tw,Tb,Tp,Tst) (kN)
Va = min. (Vm,Vw,Vb) (kN)
(5) STIFFENER DESIGN

(1) MEMBER
Mm = 0.6Fy x Sx (kN-m)
Vm = 0.4Fy x Awn (kN)
Tm = 0.6Fy x 2Af (kN)
Af = bfb x tfb (mm2)
Awn = ( d1 - 2tfb ) x twb
(mm2)
(2) HIGH STRENGTH BOLT
Mb = n1 x Qt x ( d1 - tfb ) (kN-m)
Vb = n2 x Qs (kN)
Tb = 2 x n1 x Qt (kN)
n1= Number of tension bolts
n2= Total Number of bolts

## (4) END PLATE

Mp = Ff x ( d1 - tfb ) (kN-m)
Tp = 2 x Ff (kN)
Ff = 4 x Me / ( m x Pe ) (kN)
Me = bp x 0.75Fy x tp2 / 6 (kN-m)
m = Ca x Cb x (Af / Aw)1/3 x (Pe /
db)1/4
Pe = Pf - (db / 4) - 0.707S1 (mm)
Ca = 1.13
Cb = ( bfb / bp )1/2
db = (mm)
Aw = twb x (d1 - 2tfb) (mm2)

(3) WELD

Mw = Ff x ( d1 - tfb ) (kN-m)
Ff = Fw x Awf (kN)
Vw = Fw x Aww(kN)
Tw = Fw x 2Awf
Awf = 0.707 x S1 x (2bfb+2tfb-twb )
(mm2) Aww = 0.707 S2 x ( d1 / 2 - tfb ) x
2 (mm2)

## (5-1) COLUMN FLANGE BENDING

STRENGTH
Fcap = 4 x Me /( m x Pe )
Me = bs x 0.75Fy x tfc2 / 6 (kN)
bs= 2.5 x ( Pf + tfb + Pf ) (kN-m)
Pe = g / 2 - db / 4 - k1 (mm)
m = Ca x Cb x ( Af / Aw )1/3 x ( Pe / db )1/4
(mm)
Af / Aw = 1.0
min Mst = Ff x ( d1 - tfb ) (kN-m)
Ff = Fcap + Fst (kN)
min Tst = 2Ff (kN)
(5-2) TENSION CAPACITY OF STIFFENER
PLATE
Fst = 0.6Fy x Ast (kN)
Ast = ts x ( bfc - twc - 2 x 5 - 2 x 25 ) (mm2)
(5-3) SHEAR CAPACITY OF STIFFENER
PLATE
Fst = 0.4Fy x Ast (kN)
(5-4) STIFFENER WELD CAPACITY OF
COLUMN FLANGE
Fst = fw x Ast (kN)
Ast = 0.707 x lw x Sflg (mm
(5-5) STIFFENER WELD CAPACITY OF
COLUMN WEB
Fst = fw x Ast (kN)
Ast = 0.707 x lw x Sweb (mm2)
lw = 4 x (dc/2 - tfc - 25 - Sweb) : HALF
lw = 4 x (dc - 2tfc - 2x25 - 2xSweb) : FULL

## AISC VOLUME-II CONNECTION

CONNECTION TEACHING TOOLKIT (AISC)
AISC 327-05 SEISMIC DESIGN MANUAL
AISC 2010 SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL
STEEL BLDGS