Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33

Introduction

Steps for Design


Geometry Modeling
Loading
Design Parameters
Analysis & Design

Connections & Bracing

Pipe Rack Design Flow Chart

Benefits of Steel Structure


Load Resisting Systems
Frame Types
Concentric / Eccentric Braced Frame
Steel Frame Connection Types
Simple Connection
Moment Connection
EM Connection Capacity Design Flow Chart

Reduced construction time & no seasonal effect.

Light weight and reduced foundation cost.

Durable , Long Lasting and Recyclable.

Easier to modify and reinforce if required.

Fabrication off-site possible (right).

On site erection is a time saving process (left).

Schedule advantage.

Forces

from

Gravity

,wind

and

seismic is imposed on all structures.

Applied vertical forces are gravity


loads.

Forces that act horizontally such as


wind, seismic require a lateral load
resisting

system

to

be

built

in

structure.

When lateral loads are applied to a


structure,

horizontal

diaphragm

transfer the load to the lateral load


resisting system.

Structural steel frame elevation

The type of lateral load (Seismic, Wind, Friction, Thermal ) resisting system to

be used in a Structure Should be taken care in the Earlier Planning Stage.


Braced Frame

Rigid Frame

Common lateral load resisting systems

Rigid frame, utilize the moment connection and this type is preferred where
diagonal or x- bracing is not allowed due to walkway obstruction.

Draw back of rigid frame is more cost than braced frame.

Braced frame is the economical method of resisting wind load in multi storey

structural frame.

Bracing creates triangular configuration in the structures.

Some structures like below picture take the advantage of both rigid and

braced at the same time.

Member or system that provides stiffness


and strength to limit the out of plan
movement of another member at the braced

point. (AISC Spec2010)

Two types of bracing is defined in AISC


(1997) seismic provision in steel structural
building.
A. Concentric Bracing
B. Eccentric Bracing

Concentrically braced frame are those in which the centerlines of members that
meet at a joint intersect at a point to form a vertical truss system that resist
lateral forces.

Commonly used bracing system in steel structure is


X- bracing ( above left)

Chevron (above right)

X- bracing is the most


common system used in steel
buildings.

Connection for X- bracing are

located at beam to column


joint.

Bracing connection may

require large gusset plate at


the beam to column joint.

The members used in chevron bracing


are designed for both compression and
tension

Chevron bracings allows for doorways or


corridors through the bracing lines in a
structure.

CHEVRON

DIAGONAL

ELEVATION WITH SEVERAL BRACING CONFIGURATION

Chevron bracing members use two types


of connections.

The Floor level connection may use a


gusset plate as like in x-braced frame.

The bracing members are connected to


the beam/girder at the top and converge to
a common point.

When gusset plate is used, it in important


to consider their size when laying out any
mechanical equipment pass through
braced bays.

Eccentric brace is commonly used in seismic regions and allow corridors and
walkway through bay frame.

In an eccentrically braced frames, bracing connect to a separate point on


beam/girder.

The beam/girder segment or link between them absorbs energy from seismic
activity through
plastic deformation.
Stiffeners
Link
Beam or Girder

Gusset Plate

Eccentric Brace

E/B with typical brace to beam connection

Adopted AISC 327-05

Eccentrically braced frame looks very similar to chevron bracing.

Eccentric single diagonal brace can also be use to brace a frame.

The specification of structural steel building (AISC 2010) defines two types of

frame connections.
Simple Connection

(below left)

Moment Connection

(below right)

Moment connection are of two types: FR & PR

Simple Connection: Connection that transmit negligible amount of bending


moment between connected members.

Moment Connection: Connection that transmit bending moment between


connected members.
Fully restrained moment connection FR : transfer moments with a negligible
amount of rotation between connected members.
Partially restrained moment connection PR : transfer moments, but rotation
between connected members is not negligible.

Adopted from Vol -II Connection .

Simple connection (A) have rigidity but is assumed to rotate free.

Connection (B & C) are examples of partially restrained moment


connections.

Connection (D & E) are examples of fully restrained moment.

Connection is assumed to be rotation free.

Vertical forces are primary forces transferred by the connection.

For this Connection a separate resisting system is required to design.

Single plate Connection


( Shear Tab)
A plate is welded to the supporting
member and bolted to the web of the
supported beam.

Double Angle Connection


The in plane pair of legs are attached to
the web of the supported member and out
of plane pair of legs attached to the
supporting beam web or flange.

Shear
end
connection

plate

A plate is welded perpendicular to the


end of supported web and bolted to
supporting beam.

Seated connection
An angle is mounted with one leg vertical
against the supporting column & the other
leg provides a seat upon which the beam
is mounted ,a stabilizer connection is
provided at top of the web.

Designed as rigid connection with little or no rotation.

Moment and vertical shear forces are transferred through the


connection.

Two types of moment connection are allowed:


1.

Partially restrained moment connection.

2.

Fully restrained moment connection.

Fully restrained (FR)Connection

Partially restrained (PR)Connection

Have sufficient strength to transfer moment

Have sufficient strength to transfer

with negligible rotation between connected

moments with rotation between

members.

connected members.

Welded flange plate connection

Bolted flange plate connection

Top and bottom flange plates connect the flanges of supported member to the supporting
column.

A single plate is used to transfer the vertical shear force.

*With column web

Bolted extended end plate


connection

Welded flange connection

Complete joint penetration groove


welds directly top and bottom
flanges of the supported member
to supporting column.
A shear connection at web is used
to transfer the vertical shear force.

A plate is welded to the end of


supported beam and bolted to the
supporting column flange.

*With column

PR moment connection

A double angle simple connection


transfers vertical shear forces while top
and bottom flange plates resist moment
forces produced by wind.

Top and bottom angle with shear


end plate connection

Angles are bolted or welded to the top


and bottom flanges of the supported
member and to the supporting column.
A shear end plate on the web is used to
transfer vertical shear forces.

SAFE LOAD OF CONNECTION

End Moment
Connection

Ma =min.(Mm,Mw,Mb,Mp,Mst) (kN-m)
Ta = min.(Tm,Tw,Tb,Tp,Tst) (kN)
Va = min. (Vm,Vw,Vb) (kN)
(5) STIFFENER DESIGN

(1) MEMBER
Mm = 0.6Fy x Sx (kN-m)
Vm = 0.4Fy x Awn (kN)
Tm = 0.6Fy x 2Af (kN)
Af = bfb x tfb (mm2)
Awn = ( d1 - 2tfb ) x twb
(mm2)
(2) HIGH STRENGTH BOLT
Mb = n1 x Qt x ( d1 - tfb ) (kN-m)
Vb = n2 x Qs (kN)
Tb = 2 x n1 x Qt (kN)
n1= Number of tension bolts
n2= Total Number of bolts

(4) END PLATE

Mp = Ff x ( d1 - tfb ) (kN-m)
Tp = 2 x Ff (kN)
Ff = 4 x Me / ( m x Pe ) (kN)
Me = bp x 0.75Fy x tp2 / 6 (kN-m)
m = Ca x Cb x (Af / Aw)1/3 x (Pe /
db)1/4
Pe = Pf - (db / 4) - 0.707S1 (mm)
Ca = 1.13
Cb = ( bfb / bp )1/2
db = (mm)
Aw = twb x (d1 - 2tfb) (mm2)

(3) WELD

Mw = Ff x ( d1 - tfb ) (kN-m)
Ff = Fw x Awf (kN)
Vw = Fw x Aww(kN)
Tw = Fw x 2Awf
Awf = 0.707 x S1 x (2bfb+2tfb-twb )
(mm2) Aww = 0.707 S2 x ( d1 / 2 - tfb ) x
2 (mm2)

(5-1) COLUMN FLANGE BENDING


STRENGTH
Fcap = 4 x Me /( m x Pe )
Me = bs x 0.75Fy x tfc2 / 6 (kN)
bs= 2.5 x ( Pf + tfb + Pf ) (kN-m)
Pe = g / 2 - db / 4 - k1 (mm)
m = Ca x Cb x ( Af / Aw )1/3 x ( Pe / db )1/4
(mm)
Af / Aw = 1.0
min Mst = Ff x ( d1 - tfb ) (kN-m)
Ff = Fcap + Fst (kN)
min Tst = 2Ff (kN)
(5-2) TENSION CAPACITY OF STIFFENER
PLATE
Fst = 0.6Fy x Ast (kN)
Ast = ts x ( bfc - twc - 2 x 5 - 2 x 25 ) (mm2)
(5-3) SHEAR CAPACITY OF STIFFENER
PLATE
Fst = 0.4Fy x Ast (kN)
(5-4) STIFFENER WELD CAPACITY OF
COLUMN FLANGE
Fst = fw x Ast (kN)
Ast = 0.707 x lw x Sflg (mm
(5-5) STIFFENER WELD CAPACITY OF
COLUMN WEB
Fst = fw x Ast (kN)
Ast = 0.707 x lw x Sweb (mm2)
lw = 4 x (dc/2 - tfc - 25 - Sweb) : HALF
lw = 4 x (dc - 2tfc - 2x25 - 2xSweb) : FULL

AISC VOLUME-II CONNECTION


CONNECTION TEACHING TOOLKIT (AISC)
AISC 327-05 SEISMIC DESIGN MANUAL
AISC 2010 SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL
STEEL BLDGS