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Invented by Wallace Carothers in
Mostly commonly used polymers
Commercial production of nylon

began in the 28th October 1938

- Nylon stocking being introduced as a fabric at

the 1939 New York World's Fair.
- Nylon was the first commercially successful
synthetic thermoplastic polymer
- Nylon was a synthetic replacement for silk after
silk was hard to find during World War II.

- in military applications such

as parachutes and flak vests, and vehicle tires.

Famous Nylon stocking

Nylon parachute during world war

Introduction of nylon
Nylon is a thermoplastic, silky material.
Family of synthetic polymers known generically as aliphatic polyamides
In the form long polymer chains.
3 types of nylon

Nylons are synthetic polymers that can be molded

into everyday products or fabrics.

Eg. Sheet, carpet, tooth brush, umbrella, clothing,
Nylons can be just about useful as wood, the natural
versatile element present
The discovery of nylons had truly changed the world

Nylon is general name for a family of nylons with

different properties and characteristic.

Nylon 6,6 is the most favor and commonly used in
industry, patented by E.I. du Pont de Nemours &
Company (DuPont)
Other nylon include nylon 6, nylon 6,12, and nylon
Some other material like Kevlar (superstrong,
bulletproof vest) and Nomex ( fireproof, racing car suit
and oven glooves) made by Du Pont, are also
chemically related to nylon

Properties of NYLON

The majorities of the nylons tends to be partial Crystals .

Generally very difficult to heat resistance and good chemistry.

Different types provide different properties .

Nylons can be used in high temperature environment.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Nylon Fabrics
This is the addition of Nylons polyamides with recurring amide Groups. It
contains the elements carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.

Nylon has good tenacity and the strength is not lost with age. . It is one of the
lightest textile fibres is at the same time also one of the strongest.

Elasticity: Nylon have good elasticity which makes it more

suitable for the purpose of clothing.
Resilience: Nylon fabrics have excellent resilience.
Drapability: Fabrics of nylon filament yarn have excellent
draping qualities.
Heat Conductivity: Thermal conductivity of nylon fabric
construction varies depending on the type of fabric, nylon
(trees/filament) is used in construction and others.

Nylon 6 is manufactured by selfcondensation of 6-amino caproic acid
obtained from caprolactam
Nylon 6 is capable of being formed into
a filament in which the polymer
molecules are oriented, at large, in the
direction of the axis

Nylon Filament Yarn can be manufactured with varied degree of orientation

such a s low oriented yarn , partially oriented yarn and full oriented yarn
Nylon Filament Yarn is produced as multi filament yarn or mono filaments in
a wide range of deniers

Nylon 6 is simpler than that for Nylon 6,6 , and is superior resistance for light
degradation .

Nylon-6 has advantage over Nylon-6,6 in respect of dye ability , elastic

recovery , and thermal stability and thus , for end uses like textile and
carpet manufacture it may be preferred over nylon-6,6.

1. polymerization of caprolactam to manufacture nylon chips .

2. extraction and drying of chips.
3. melt spinning of chips to manufacture spun yarn.
4. processing of spun yarn.

5. recycling of Nylon waste .

The process is differs from that for Nylon 6, 6.

The similar process is the step wise condensation of caprolactam with no net

In the thermal equilibrium between the monomer and polymer are at the
melting and spinning temperatures.
10% monomer is retained in this process, so the fibres have to be water washed
the soluble caprolactam monomer
While the molecular weight controlled by the addition of monofuntional acid.
Final product are produced with a molecular weight at range 12,000-16,000 is
extruded as a ribbon onto chilling rolls.
Then it is extruded to a chipper for producing small chips suitable for
storage and rehandling.

The chips are melted when the nylon fibres are produced, metered through
high pressure pumps, filtered and passed through a melt spinneret.
On air cooling, the extruded filaments will harden immediately and can be
wound on bobbins at speed of 750 meters per minute or higher.
The thread will stretch to about 4 times than its original length in cold
drawing to give the fibre desirable textile properties.

Stage condensation of caprolactum

Caprolactam synthesis

1. The process starts with the production of two chemicals; hexamethylene

diamine and adipic acid. Both contain 6 carbon atoms from coal.
2. Then, these chemicals are combined to form the nylon salt.
3. The nylon salt is dissolved in water and sent to the spinning mill.

4. By heating it in large evaporators, the nylon salt solution is made into a

concentrated solution.
5. Next, the concentrated solution is heated in an autoclave under the
pressure and temperature.
6.The polymerization takes place by combining the two chemicals into
polymers which are likes giant chain.
7. Similar to nylon 6, the molten polymer is processed in a manner.

Manufacturing Nylon 6, 6

1. One of the very strong fibers. Extremely resistant to abrasion and flexing.

2. The specific gravity is 1.14 Very light, i.e., 80% of that of silk fibers, and 70%
of that of cotton fibers.
3. Since nylon fibers absorb little water even though they are wetted., they dry
fast and simple in laundering.
4. Excellent in elasticity and resistant to wrinkle.
5. If properly set, nylon textiles little shrink/ extend or little deform their shape
due to thermo plasticity.
6. Resistant to chemicals and oil. Non-attackable by sea water.
7. Non-attackable by molds and insects.
8. Used in many military applications.

1. It has a tendency to fade easily and stain. It is also highly sensitive to light and
2. Good quality nylon fiber is much more expensive than some other types of
3. Nylon is famous of its properties that is easy to dye with bright color is the
major factor of it prone to staining. Permanent stains are result from food stain
that mainly contains oil and grease. Cleaning product that contain bleach or acid
that are created to remove stains from fabrics.
4. Prolonged exposure to direct sunlight also causes the nylon to fade and wear
5. Nylon fibers melt if exposed to extreme temperature.
6. Cheap nylon is also available. However it tends to lose its bounce, brightness
and color very quickly.

Because of it has high
strength fibre. It is
used in making fishing
nets, ropes, parachutes
and type cords.

For making elastic

hosiery, crinkled
nylon fibres are

Used for making

fabrics in textile

Widely used as
plastic for making
machine parts. To
increase the strength,
it is blended with

Fabric (net form)


of nylon

Nylon tubing


Fishing net



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