Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 64

LECTURE 1

SBEA3723
STRUCTURE AND CONSTRUCTION 2
ASSOC. PROF. DR. MAHMUD BIN MOHD JUSAN

HISTORICAL NOTES
Concrete was used by the ancient Egyptian 4000 years ago,
using calcined impure gypsum.
The Greeks and the Romans used calcined limestone. Later,
sand and crushed stone or brick and broken tiles were added to
lime and water.
For underwater construction the Romans mixed together lime
with a vocanic ash or finely ground burnt clay tiles. The mixture
was known as pozzolanic cement, derived from the name of the
place where it was originated.
The cement was used as mortar for masonry bonding. Now the
name of pozzolanic cement is referring to the natural
cementitious materials ground at normal temperature

In the 18th, John Smeaton developed the first hydraulic cement


by mixing pozzolana with limestone containing high proportion
of clay.
In1824 Joseph Aspdin developed a type of cement by heating a
mixture of clay and limestone in a furnace until CO2 had been
driven off.
The prototype of modern cement was made in 1845 by Isaac
Johnson by burning a mixture of clay and chalk until clinkering.
A strongly cementitious compound was produced.
The name Portland cement, given originally due to the
resemblance of the colour and quality of the set cement to
portland stone a limestone quarried in Dorset.
In 1854, William Wilkinson introduced the use of reinforcement
bar to overcome the low tensile strength of concrete.

WHAT IS CONCRETE
Concrete is any product or mass made by the use of
a cementing medium (Neville & Brooks, 1987)

CONCRETE = Cement (binder) + aggregate + water

BINDER
Binder is a substance which sets and hardens
independently, and can bind other materials together
Cement is a binder
Cements used in construction are characterized as
hydraulic or non-hydraulic.
The most important use of cement is the production
of mortar and concrete.

BINDER
Hydraulic cements are materials that set and harden
after being combined with water.
Most construction cements today are hydraulic, and
most of these are based on Portland cement.
Modern cements are made by burning limestone and
clay together at very high temperatures ranging from
1400 to 1600

BINDER
Non-Portland Hydraulic Cements
Calcium aluminates (CAC) or high alumina
cement (HAC). Calcium aluminate cements
evolved from a drive to develop sulphate resistant
cements.
Pozzolan-lime cements. Mixtures of ground
pozzolan and lime. Used by the ancient Romans.
Develop strength slowly, but their ultimate strength
can be very high.
Slag-lime cements. Ground granulated blast
furnace slag, activated by addition of alkalis,
mostly using lime. They are similar to pozzolan
lime cements in their properties.

BINDER
Supersulfated cements. contain about 80% ground
granulated blast furnace slag (80%) + gypsum (15%)
and a little Portland clinker or lime as an activator
non-hydraulic cements Cements that do not set
under water. They were amongst the most commonly
used cement in the ancient Roman, using lime based
cements and mortars (cement + sand).
Gypsum, lime, also sulphur cement

PORTLAND CEMENT
Portland Cement is made by heating limestone with
small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to
1450C in a kiln. The resulting hard substance, called
clinker, is then ground with a small amount of
gypsum into a powder to make Ordinary Portland
Cement, the most commonly used type of cement
(often referred to as OPC).

CONSTITUENT OF PORTLAND CEMENT


Cement Compound

Weight
Percentage

Chemical Formula

Tricalcium silicate

50 %

Ca3SiO5 or 3CaO.SiO2
(C3S)

Dicalcium silicate

25 %

Ca2SiO4 or 2CaO.SiO2
(C2S)

Tricalcium aluminate

10 %

Ca3Al2O6 or 3CaO .Al2O3


(C3A)

Tetracalcium
aluminoferrite

10 %

Gypsum

5%

Ca4Al2Fe10 or
4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3
(C4AF)
CaSO4.2H2O

TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

Ordinary Portland (Type I) Cement


Modified Portland (Type II) Cement
Rapid-Hardening Portland (Type III) Cement
Low-Heat Portland (Type IV) Cement
Sulphate-Resisting (Type V) Cement

TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENTS


Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
suitable for all uses where the special properties
of other types are not required.
It is used where cement or concrete is not subject
to specific exposures, such as sulfate attack from
soil or water, or to an objectionable temperature
rise due to heat generated by hydration.
Its uses include pavements and sidewalks,
reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, railway
structures, tanks, reservoirs, culverts, sewers,
water pipes and masonry units.

TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENTS

Rapid Hardening Portland Cement (RHPC)


RHPC is a high-early strength Portland cement
that provides high strengths at an early period,
usually a week or less.
It is used when forms are to be removed as soon
as possible, or when the structure must be put into
service quickly.
In cold weather, its use permits a reduction in the
controlled curing period.

TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

Low-Heat Portland Cement (LHPC)


LHPC is a low heat of hydration cement for use
where the rate and amount of heat generated
must be minimized.
It develops strength at a slower rate than OPC.
LHPC is intended for use in massive concrete
structures, such as large gravity dams, where the
temperature rise resulting from heat generated
during curing is a critical factor.

TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC)


SRPC is used only in concrete exposed to severe
sulfate action -- principally where soils or
groundwaters have a high sulfate content. Low
Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) content, generally 5%
or less, is required when high sulfate resistance is
needed.

TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

Modified Portland Cement (MPC)


MPC is used where precaution against moderate
sulfate attack is important, as in drainage structures
where sulfate concentrations in groundwaters are
higher than normal but not unusually
generate less heat at a slower rate than OPC.
can be used in structures of considerable mass, such
as large piers, heavy abutments, and heavy retaining
walls. Its use will reduce temperature rise, an
important quality when the concrete is placed in
warm weather.

TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

White Portland Cement


For decorative purposes
Used because of its low content of soluble
alkalis thus able to avoid staining
Made from china clay, which contains little
iron oxide and manganese oxide, together
with chalk or limestone free from specified
impurities
expensive

PORTLAND CEMENT BLENDS

Portland Cement mixed with cement replacement


materials (PFA, GGBS, Pozzolan, Rice Husk, etc.)
often available as inter-ground mixtures from cement
manufacturers, but similar formulations are often also
mixed from the ground components at the concrete
mixing plant.

PORTLAND CEMENT BLENDS

Portland Blast furnace Cement


contains up to 70% ground granulated blast
furnace slag, with the rest Portland clinker and a
little gypsum.
All compositions produce high ultimate strength,
but as slag content is increased, early strength is
reduced, while sulfate resistance increases and
heat evolution diminishes.

PORTLAND CEMENT BLENDS

Portland Flyash Cement


contains up to 30% fly ash. The flyash is
pozzolanic, so that ultimate strength is maintained.
Because flyash addition allows a lower concrete
water content, early strength can also be
maintained.
Where good quality cheap flyash is available, this
can be an economic alternative to ordinary
Portland cement.

PORTLAND CEMENT BLENDS


Portland Pozzolan Cement
Other than Flyash, volcanic ashes are also used
for portland cement blend (commonly used in
countries where volcanic ashes are easily
available e.g. Italy, Chile, Mexico, the Philippines)
Portland Silica Fume cement.
Addition of silica fume can yield exceptionally high
strengths, and cements containing 5-20% silica
fume are occasionally produced.
However, silica fume is more usually added to
Portland cement at the concrete mixer

AGGREGATE
Aggregates are chemically inert, solid bodies held
together by the cement.
Aggregates come in various shapes, sizes, and
materials ranging from fine particles of sand to large,
coarse rocks.
Cheaper than cement. Aggregates consist of 70 to
80% of the volume of concrete thus keeping the cost
of the concrete low.
Aggregates influence the desired characteristics of
the concrete e.g, the density of concrete is
determined by the density of the aggregate.

CLASSES OF AGGREGATES
class

examples of
aggregates used

uses

ultralightweight

vermiculite
ceramic spheres
perlite

lightweight concrete which can be sawed or nailed, also for its insulating
properties

lightweight

expanded clay
shale or slate
crushed brick

used primarily for making lightweight concrete for structures, also used
for its insulating properties.

normal
weight

heavyweig
ht

crushed limestone
sand
Basalt
Granite river gravel
crushed recycled
concrete
steel or iron shot
steel or iron pellets

used for normal concrete projects / dense concrete

used for making high density concrete for shielding against nuclear
radiation

CLASSES OF AGGREGATES
Commonly used aggregates in Malaysia are granite,
lime stone and conglomerate

SIZES OF AGGREGATE

Concretes are made of 10mm to 50mm aggregates.


Aggregate sizes are divided into 2 classes :
less than 5 mm :
fine aggregate
5 mm and above :
coarse aggregate

ADMIXTURE
Admixtures are substances other than the key
ingredients or reinforcements which are added during
the mixing process to change some of the properties
of the plastic or hardened concretes.
Types of admixture include: Accelerators: speed up the hydration (hardening)
of the concrete.
Retarders: slow the hydration of concrete, and are
used in large or difficult pours where partial setting
before the pour is complete is undesirable.

ADMIXTURE
Air-entrainers: add and distribute tiny air bubbles in
the concrete, which will reduce damage during
freeze-thaw cycles thereby increasing the concrete's
durability.
Plasticizers: (water-reducing admixtures) increase
the workability of plastic or "fresh" concrete, allowing
it be placed more easily, with less consolidating
effort.
Superplasticizers
(high-range
water-reducing
admixtures) are a class of plasticizers which have
fewer deleterious effects when used to significantly
increase workability. Also able to reduce the water
content of a concrete while maintaining workability.

ADMIXTURE
Pigments: can be used to change the color of
concrete, for aesthetics.
Corrosion inhibitors: are used to minimize the
corrosion of steel and steel bars in concrete.
Bonding agents are used to create a bond between
old and new concrete.
Pumping aids improve pumpability, thicken the paste,
and reduce dewatering of the paste.

SOME ADMIXTURES AND FUNCTIONS


TYPE

FUNCTION

AIR ENTRAINING

improves durability, workability, reduces bleeding, reduces freezing/thawing


problems (e.g. special detergents)

SUPERPLASTICI
ZERS

increase strength by decreasing water needed for workable concrete (e.g. special
polymers)

RETARDING

delays setting time, more long term strength, offsets adverse high temp. weather
(e.g. sugar, lignosulphonic acids)

ACCELERATING
MINERAL
ADMIXTURES
PIGMENT

speeds setting time, more early strength, offsets adverse low temp. weather (e.g.
calcium chloride)
improves workability, plasticity, strength (e.g. fly ash)

adds color (e.g. metal oxides)

REINFORCEMENT BAR

Concrete is strong in compression but weak in


tension. Reinforcement bars are used in concrete to
improve tensile strength.

WATER
Water is the key ingredient, which causes the
hardening of concrete through a chemical reaction
called hydration.
The water needs to be pure, to prevent side reactions
from occurring which may adversely affect stength
and durability of the concrete
The role of water is important because the water to
cement ratio is the most critical factor in the
production of "perfect" concrete

CHEMISTRY OF CONCRETE
When water is added to cement, a chemical reaction
begins immediately and continues a long as water is
present.
The chemical reaction is known as hydration. In this
process cement grains (tricalsium silicate and
dicalcium silicate) are transformed into cement gel
(calcium silicate hydrate) which later binds the
aggregates. The reaction also produces calcium and
hydroxide ions which increases the pH to over 12.
There is no (or very little thus negligible) chemical
reaction between aggregate and cement.

CHEMISTRY OF CONCRETE
SETTING AND HARDENING
In the presence of water, concrete mixture will
undergo 3 different stages: Plastic
Setting
Hardening

CHEMISTRY OF CONCRETE
Plastic state is a short moment immediately after
water is added into the mixture.
Setting takes place around 45minutes (60 minutes for
low-heat Portland cement) after water is added. At
this stage, concrete begins to stiffen (depending upon
the hydration heat and the surrounding temperature)
This is the stage where formwork plays its
important functions to shape and to ensure the
quality of the structure.

CHEMISTRY OF CONCRETE
cement requires time to acquire strength and
hardness, concrete must be cured once it has been
placed and achieved initial setting.
Curing is the process of keeping concrete under a
specific environmental condition until hydration is
relatively complete.
Good curing is typically considered to provide a moist
environment and control temperature. A moist
environment promotes hydration thus ensures
strength and durability of concrete .

CHEMISTRY OF CONCRETE
concrete environment is alkali that is safe for
reinforcement bar

TYPES OF CONCRETE
Based on methods of concrete production :
In-situ
Precast / Prefabricated

TYPES OF CONCRETE
Based on concrete density
Dense concrete
Dense concrete are those exceeding 2000 kg/m3.
lightweight concrete
Lightweight concrete are those with density less
than1920 kg/m3
Types of Lightweight concrete
Aerated Concrete (cellular concrete)
Light weight Aggregate Concrete
No Fine Concrete

http://www.casthome.com/about.html
What is LCM lightweight concrete methods and
how is it produced?

It is Mortar + Foam: It can be produced at the project site like


ordinary concrete. The only difference is that it does not use
coarse aggregate, but instead, uses pre-formed foam. This foam
has no chemical action in concrete. It only serves as a temporary
wrapping material for the air bubbles till cement mortar develops
its own final set and strength. Hydrolysated protein base is mix
and mash into a concentrated liquid call LCM Foaming agent is
used to make the foam.

TYPES OF CONCRETE
Fibre-reinforced concrete Short fibers of steel,
glass, synthetic or natural materials are incorporated
into the concrete during mixing.
Polymer concrete is concrete which uses polymers
to bind the aggregate. Polymer (rubber latex or resins
such as epoxy etc.) concrete can gain a lot of
strength in a short amount of time
Mortar cement + sand +water, or cement + water.
Mortar is used as a bonding agent in masonry works
Ferrocement Concretes reinforced with wire mesh
or thin rods. Ferrocement is much thinner than
reinforced concrete and can be formed into various
shapes.

TYPES OF CONCRETE
Shotcrete is a mortar or concrete that is dispensed
from a hose onto a surface at a high velocity using
compressed air Shotcrete is frequently used against
vertical soil or rock surfaces, as it eliminates the need
for formwork. It is sometimes used for rock support,
especially in tunnelling.

TYPES OF CONCRETE
Roller-Compacted Concrete: is a low-cement-content
stiff concrete placed using earthmoving and paving
techniques. The concrete is placed on the surface to
be covered, and is compacted in place using large
heavy rollers typically used in earthwork. The
concrete mix achieves a high density and cures over
time into a strong monolithic block. Roller-compacted
concrete is typically used for concrete pavement, but
has also been used to build concrete dams, as the
low cement content causes less heat to be generated
while curing than typical for conventionally placed
massive concrete pours.

TYPES OF CONCRETE
High-Strength Concrete: concrete with a compressive
strength . In the last two decades concrete has gotten
stronger and better for high-rise construction.
Concrete Masonry : Concrete bricks, blocks
Autoclaved Cellular Concrete, sometimes known as
autoclaved aerated concrete, A lightweight, highstrength building material, made with all fine
materials-nothing coarser than finely ground sand.
Invented in Sweden in the early 1900s.

TYPES OF CONCRETE
Concrete Pavement: used for paving highways and
airports as well as business and residential streets
Concrete Pipe: Used to provide water for people and
farmlands or carries away sewage and drains land..
Precast Concrete: Concrete that is cast outside its
service location

TYPES OF CONCRETE
Ready Mixed Concrete:refers to concrete that is
batched for delivery from a central plant instead of
being mixed on the job site.
Shotcrete: is a mortar or concrete that is dispensed
from a hose onto a surface at a high velocity.

USE OF CONCRETE IN STRUCTURES

Mass concrete structures


These include heavy structures like gravity dams.
Also referring to concrete structures without
reinforcement bars
Reinforced concrete structures
Reinforced concrete contains steel reinforcing that is
designed and placed in structural members at
specific positions to cater for all the stress conditions
that the member is required to accommodate.

USE OF CONCRETE IN STRUCTURES


Prestressed concrete structures
This structure provides a way to overcome the
combined tensile stresses, due to own weight and
design loads in beams and slabs, by introducing a
compressive stress in the structural element prior to
the superimposed design loads coming into play. The
prestressing is achieved by using steel tendons or
bars that are subjected to a tensile force prior to
casting the concrete, in pre-tensioned concrete, or
only later once the concrete has cured, in posttensioned concrete.

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
STORAGE OF MATERIALS
Cement should be stored of the
ground in well aired, clean, dry
place. Paper bags should not be
stacked more than 1.2m or 1.5m
high to avoid warehouse set
caused by compaction.
Wrapping the cement bags in
plastic sheets gives extra
protection. Cement in bags should
be stored not longer than 6 weeks.

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
Silos are used to store cement in large quantities
Aggregates should be kept on clean hard surfaces
and not directly on the ground. The various sizes of
aggregates should be kept separately.

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
BATCHING
a process to quantify the amount of materials
(cement, aggregates, water and admixture) for
preparing concrete
2 methods of batching:
Volumetric
weight

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
Volumetric
using measuring box.
Suitable for small
project
Not accurate bulking
process influence the
amount of cement
sand and aggregate.

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
Weight
weighing scale is used. More accurate, and bulking
doesnt affect the actual content of the mix.

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
Mix proportion
The proportion of each material in the mixture.
It affects the properties of the final hardened
concrete.

Batching plant

Batching plant

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
Mix proportion 1:2:4
means
1 part of cement : 2 parts of fine aggregates : 4 parts
of coarse aggregates.
Mix proportion can also be designed to a specific
strength. In this way the concrete is often recognised
based on its designed compressive strength.

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
Appropriateness of mix proportion to concrete use in
structures
Mix
prop.

Use

1:2:4

For normal reinforced structural used,


(column, floor, beam)

1:1.5:3

For higher strength reinforced


structural used (bridge, retaining wall)

1:3:6

For component without reinforcement


( ground floor slab, apron)

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
Mixing of concrete
Hand mixed
pan mixer
truck mixer (for ready mixed concrete)
Repeating mixing process
Duration time 3-6 hours should be no problem to
the strength and last
May cause water reduction which will reduce its
workability

Pan mixer

Truck mixer

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
Mixing of concrete
Retempering (re-adding water) is possible. However
this will reduce concretes quality due to
changes
in water cement ratio.
After mixing process the concrete should be poured
in formwork as soon as possible (1-2 hours)
depends on the temperature of surrounding
construction site. Hot day may cause concrete to dry
fast)
Set retarder will be used to avoid concrete from
dying very fast - if the concrete cant be poured
due to the above duration of time.

End of lecture