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Second language if quoted by Collins dictionary is a

language other than the mother tongue that a person or
community uses for public communication, especially in
trade, higher education, and administration and also a
non-native language officially recognized and adopted in
a multilingual country as a means of public

Second language acquisition is the act of contracting,

assuming or acquiring possession of a language that is
other than the mother tongue.

However, sources from American Speech Language and

Hearing association (ASHA) suggest that second
language acquisition is the acquisition, or sequential
language acquisition, is learning a second language after
a first language is already established

They explained that many cases have arisen whereby a

child who speaks a language other than English and
goes to school for the very first time.
Children may have a hard time learning a second
language but it comes easier with effective parenting
from their roots.

1.process by which people learn a second language

2.scientific discipline devoted to studying that process.

3.refers to what learners do; it does not refer to

practices in language teaching.

The Acculturation Model(Schumann)

Accommodation Theory
Discourse Theory
The Minitor Model
The Variable Competence Model(Ellis)

The Universal Hypothesis

A neurofunctional theory

Is a Distinguished Research Professor of Psychology at

York University and Associate Scientist at the Rotman
Research Institute of the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric
Much of her research has focused on the effect of
bilingualism on childrens language and cognitive
development, showing accelerated mastery of specific
cognitive processes for bilingual children

This research has recently been extended to

investigations of adult processing and found that lifelong
bilingualism protects older adults from cognitive decline
with aging.
Other research includes studies of literacy acquisition in
young children, models of metalinguistic awareness and
second-language acquisition, and the development of
spatial cognition and its relation to other cognitive

to make automatic [noun derivations: automatization the
process of making automatic; automaticity the state or
condition of being automatic]
For our purposes as teachers, automatization is the
process of making language processing and production

The skill of automatization is the ability of the language

learner to get things right [with both spoken and written
production] under circumstances when there is no
attention available or any other provision for getting those
things right.

Whenever a skill is newly learnt, its performance takes up

a great deal of conscious attention [or channel capacity].
For example, learner drivers who have recently been
taught to change gear with a manual gearbox [floor shift]
will at first probably only be able to do so if they
concentrate on that task and nothing else.

This state of affairs is clearly unsatisfactory, and it may

well be dangerous if the novice is actually driving,
because there are, simultaneously, higher-level driving
skills in operation that require the available channel
capacity [that is the driver's conscious attention]

All drivers need to anticipate the movement of other

vehicles and pedestrians, and they certainly need to be
paying attention to what is going on around them.
Channel capacity can only be made available for these
higher-level skills if lower-level skills [such as changing
gear] have been automatized to the extent that they take
up no room in the drivers conscious mind.

When novice drivers achieve automatized gear changing,

they will be able to perform the action without ever being
aware that they are doing it. So the role of automatization
in motor skill learning is to free important channel
capacity for tasks that require it.

The role of automatization in language learning is similar.

Learners automatize the use of lexical(relating to word)
items and sentence patterns and structures [especially
lexicalised grammar] so that they can then concentrate
their effort where it is needed most, in comprehending
and communicating meaning clearly. This is so for all
areas of language use, but it is probably more important
in some areas than in others [Bialystok, 1982]

The automatization of predictable items of language is

highly likely to precede the acquisition of more generative
In terms of ESL, this automaticity is rooted in the
handling of probable language rather
than possible language, in lexical production and in the
production of lexicalised grammar.

Bialystok suggests that different tasks in fact place

different demands in terms of the degree of automaticity
[or fluency] required.
In fluent and interactive conversation, the user certainly
needs high automaticity with lexis. Thus, In such
conversational interactions, great store is placed on rapid
response and turn taking.

However, in formal written production, where users

normally have sufficient time to think and plan and edit
text, automatized language performance will be less

Bialystok [variously 1982, 1988 and 1990]

distinguishes between different areas of
language use, and particularly between
declarative and procedural knowledge.

Procedural knowledge is, in a nutshell, knowing how to

do something
Declarative knowledge is knowledge about something.
For example, I may read about the importance of perfect
arm strokes and coordination while swimming and yet
drown like a stone when inside the pool. This may sound
obvious, I know, but as far as language learning goes,
theres more to it than meets the eye.

Declarative knowledge enables a student to describe a

rule and perhaps apply it in a drill or a gap-fill.
Procedural knowledge, on the other hand, enables the
student to apply that rule in real language use.

Automatization is seen as the process by which

declarative knowledge is converted into procedural
knowledge, giving the advantages of the procedural
knowledge and eliminating the disadvantages of the
Given this central role of the process of automatization,
we would expect a model of skill learning to account for
how it occurs.

The one theories for today is from Bialystok.

She came out with the automaticity model of language

1.what do you think of these theories?during your junior

and senior high life,have your teacher add these in his or
her class?
2. If you are the teacher in class, would you use the
3. How do you expect your student to learn with the
theories suggested?